American romanticism


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

American romanticism

  2. 2. Table of Contents 21. Historical Highlights2. Movements3. Notable Authors4. Terms
  4. 4. Westward Expansion 4 “Manifest Destiny” was idea that America was preordained to stretch from coast to coast Expansion was rapid and often forced out Indians from their homes Desire for land led to war with Mexico that was thought to be Pre-war immoral by Thoreau Mexican-American War and subsequent land cessions along with Indian Removal Act of 1830 caused Manifest Destiny to prevail as a philosophy Post-war
  5. 5. Industrial Revolution 5 Embargo during War of 1812 forced America to start manufacturing goods, changing the country from agrarian to industrial Factory system involved many people working long hours in filthy conditions for low wages Writers reacted negatively by portraying the commercialism, hectic pace, and lack of conscience involved with industry Artists and authors turned to nature for solace and beauty forming the basis for romanticism
  6. 6. Slavery 6 Cotton production increased in the South requiring more slaves Life was brutal for slaves as they were often whipped, separated from family, and worked from dawn to dusk Slavery was one of the issues that separated North and South Greatest achievement of romantic poets such as James Lowell and John Whittier was to raise awareness about slavery through abolitionist poetry and journalism James Russell Lowell (left) and John Greenleaf Whittier (right)
  7. 7. Social Reform 7 Two main areas were abolition of slavery and women’s rights Authors like William Bryant and James Lowell worked for both of the above causes Women gathered in Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 to fight for their rights Abolitionists united to work for emancipation of slaves up until Civil War in 1864
  8. 8. Timeline1800 1810 1820Louisiana Purchase is made War of 1812 breaks out and Missouri Compromise creates(1803) industry booms (1812) tension over slavery (1820)Noah Webster publishes first Jane Austen writes Pride and Irving’s The Devil and TomAmerican dictionary (1806) Prejudice (1813) Walker is published (1824)Irving publishes A History of “Thanatopsis is published by Cooper writes The Last of theNew York satirizing American William Cullen Bryant (1817) Mohicans (1826)(1809) First African-American newspaper, Freedom’s Journal is founded (1827)1830 1840 1850Indian Removal Act relocates Melville’s first novel, Typee is Hawthorne publishes Themany Indian tribes west (1830) published (1846) Scarlet Letter (1850)The Transcendental Club is Gold is discovered in California Congress passes harsh Fugitivefounded by Thoreau, Emerson, sparking gold rush (1848) Slave Act further increasingand others (1835) Emily Bronte publishes sectional tensions (1850)Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Wuthering Heights (1847) Harriet Beecher StoweUsher” is published (1839) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publishes anti-slavery novel publish The Communist Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) Manifesto (1848) 8
  10. 10. Nationalism vs. Sectionalism 10Nationalism Sectionalism Belief that national interests  Placing the interests of one’s should be placed ahead of own region ahead of the regional ones nation’s as a whole Writers created a unique  Ignited by slavery issue which American style different from Northerners saw as immoral European literature of writing and Southerners saw as reflecting national pride essential Noah Webster wrote first truly  Balance of free and slave states “American” dictionary in was also a concern 1806, including 5000 uniquely  South was mainly agrarian American words not found in while North was industrial European writing increasing sectional tension
  11. 11. Romanticism 11 Romanticism emerged as a response to neoclassicism in Europe Neoclassicism emphasized classical forms, while romantics looked at emotions and imagination Romanticism revolted against Enlightenment rationalization and reason by celebrating the supernatural aspects of nature William Cullen Bryant established romanticism with his 1817 poem “Thanatopsis” which celebrates nature Washington Irving pioneered the romantic short story while James Fenimore Cooper wrote novels Kindred Spirits – a classic romantic painting by artist Asher B. Durand showing the beauty of nature and Durand’s fellow romanticist William Cullen Bryant
  12. 12. Transcendentalism 12 Emerged from romanticism as a Henry David celebration of the simple life, the Thoreau’s individual, and the traditional cabin in Walden American values of Pond, MA displaying his optimism, freedom, and self-reliance ideas about living simply Encouraged spiritual well-being over and wealth and believed people were connecting with nature good at heart Name “transcendentalist” came from German philosopher Immanuel Kant Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were notable transcendentalist authors The essays “Civil Disobedience” and “Self-Reliance” by Thoreau and Emerson respectively, emphasized individual integrity
  13. 13. American Gothic 13 Subset of romanticism that emphasizes a dark side of humans and their natural capacity for evil Made use of “gothic” elements such as grotesque characters and bizarre or violent events Still connect to romantics by continuing to stress emotion, nature, and the individual as themes Poe, Melville, and Hawthorne were the biggest gothic writers of the time Mary Shelley also popularized the macabre with her novel Frankenstein
  14. 14. Fireside Poets 14 Morally uplifting poetry movement that brought American poetry on par with British poetry Longfellow was the most notable Fireside Poet with poems celebrating America’s heritage and culture such as “Evangeline” and the “Song of Hiawatha” Lowell, Holmes, and Whittier were also Fireside Poets but they concentrated on social issues like slavery and advancing the common man in society
  16. 16. 16Emerson was a NewEngland author who leda practicing group ofTranscendentalists. Hewas actually a Unitarianminister until his wifedied. In 1836 hepublished Nature, whichbecame his group’s (TheTranscendental Club)unofficial creed, and hisessay “Self-Reliance”addressedindividualism. He isconsidered one of themost important authorsin American literaryhistory. Fun Fact: Hewas known as the Sage Ralph Waldo Emersonof Concord because ofhis formal demeanor. (1803-1882) Transcendentalist
  17. 17. 17Thoreau was aman that rejectedmaterialism andthe conformity ofAmericanculture, but valuedsimple life andnature. He wrote“CivilDisobedience”which emphasizedthe principles ofTranscendenta-lism. Fun Fact:He was one of the Henry David Thoreaufirst (1817-1862)environmentalists. Transcendentalist
  18. 18. 18Longfellow grew up inPortland, Maine and was aprodigy. He became apublished author at age 13and went to BowdoinCollege in Maine at 15 yearsold. He is the best-knownmember of the FiresidePoets, which were a group ofNew England poets thatwrote “morally uplifting andromantically engaging"pieces. He emphasizednature and individualism inhis work and also helpedwith the abolitionistmovement by writingantislavery poems. Hisliterary works include“Evangeline” and “The Songof Hiawatha”. Fun Fact: Heis the only American poet to Henry Wadsworth Longfellowreceive a plaque in Poets’ 1807-1882Corner of WestminsterAbbey in London. Fireside Poet
  19. 19. 19Poe is called one ofliterature’s “most brilliant,but erratic” authors. At age3, he lost his mother andwent to live with a wealthyVirginia businessman JohnAllan. At age 18, he wasthrown out of college forgambling debts. His wifeVirginia Clemm, died 11years into their marriage.Poe’s life has not been a cakewalk, which aided in hisdistinctive literature. Heused many gothic elements(i.e. grotesque characters,violence, and abnormalevents) and touched onhuman psychology in hiswork. “The Raven” isconsidered the best-knownAmerican poem. Fun Fact: Edgar Allen PoeHis wife, Virginia, wasaround 13 years old at the (1809-1849)time of their wedding. Gothic
  20. 20. 20Hawthorne was a veryprivate person, born inSalem. He believed inthe Puritan ideology, butwas very pessimistic andwas skeptical of thesalvation of society. Hewas very skilled in hisuse of symbols in hisliterature. One of hismost famous works isThe Scarlet Letter, inwhich he explored the The Scarlet Letter – one ofeffects of sin and guilt on Hawthorne’s greatestthe human soul. Fun works published in 1850Fact: His great-greatgrandfather was a judgeat the Salem witch trialsand the only one who Nathaniel Hawthornerefused to apologize forhis wrongdoings. (1804-1864) Gothic
  21. 21. 21Melville lived a secludedlife with thecannibalistic Typeepeople in the MarquesasIslands for a while. Hisexperiences hereprovided material for hislater works. One of hismost famousworks, Moby Dick, wasdifferent from his Artist’s rendering of Moby Dickadventure stories in the the great white whaleSouth Pacific. In thisnovel, Melville exploresthe subjects of madnessand the conflict of goodvs. evil. Fun Fact: Afterthe publication of MobyDick, his popularity Herman Melvilleplummeted and he neverfully regained it back. (1819-1891) Gothic
  22. 22. 22Bryant was born in 1794 inCunningham, Massachusetts. At a young age, he wasinspired to write poetryabout nature, but heattended law school due tohis father’s request. He leftthe lawpractice, however, to focuson literature. He became aprominent abolitionist. Hispoem “Thanatopsis” waswritten in 1817 and helpedestablish romanticism as amajor literary movement inmid-19th century America.He also is acknowledgedfor his skills in portrayingAmerican landscape. FunFact: He walked up to 40miles a day, in which he William Cullen Bryantgained knowledge ofAmerica’s landscapes. (1794-1878) Romantic
  23. 23. 23Irving is well-known forhis story on the HeadlessHorseman in “TheLegend of SleepyHollow”. He also studiedlaw at a young age, butfelt no passion for it. Hisshort stories helpedestablish the short storyas a literary form andhelped put America onthe “literary map”. Hewas also the fistAmerican writer thatwas praised for his workin Europe. Fun Fact:He is buried near NewYork’s Sleepy HollowCemetery, which is the Washington Irvingsetting of his short story“The Legend of Sleepy (1783-1859)Hollow”. Romantic
  24. 24. Terms 241. “SYMBOL”2. “ALLEGORY”3. “SATIRE”4. “BLANK VERSE”
  25. 25. Symbol 25 Words, places, objects, or characters in a literary work that mean something beyond what they are on a literal level Can be cultural, contextual, or personal Used in romanticism to hint at the usual themes of the power of nature and the integrity of the individual
  26. 26. Allegory 26 Loosely describes writing in prose that has a double meaning Contains the use of multiple symbolic events and characters to illustrate a broader concept or an extended metaphor where characters and settings have a meaning beyond the literal level Interpreting and analyzing an allegory is called “allogoresis”
  27. 27. Satire 27 An attack on any stupidity or vice using scathing humor Also could critique political, religious, or social edicts that the author sees as dangerous Satirists believed that if they magnified people’s faults humorously, the people would be more likely to correct themselves The most popular category of satire in the romantic era was indirect satire where the humor and message is buried in a fictional narrative
  28. 28. Blank Verse 28 Refers to unrhymed iambic pentameter or unrhymed lines of ten syllables with the even-numbered syllables bearing the accents Commonly used both in Shakespearean and classic literature as well as romantic and post-romantic era Lauded as the meter that most closely resembles natural human speech
  29. 29. THE END 29