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Strategies for Instruction

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Strategies for Instruction

  1. 1. Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement From Classroom Instruction the Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement By Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock (ASCD: 2001 )
  2. 2. Identifying Similarities and Differences (Mean Effect Size 1.32) <ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use explicit guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students independently identify similarities and differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use graphic and symbolic forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For all four practices use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-Directed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student-Directed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Summarizing and Note Taking (Mean Effect Size 0.96) <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students must learn to delete, substitute, and keep some information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students must analyze at a deep level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students need to be aware of the explicit structure of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes are a work in progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Rule-based strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary Frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Teacher-Prepared notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatted Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination Notes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Reinformcing Effort and Providing Recognition (Mean Effect Size 0.94) <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>Not all students realize the importance of effort </li></ul><ul><li>Students can learn to change their belief </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards = positive effect </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract symbolic more effect than tangible </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach about effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalize recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete symbols </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Homework and Practice (Mean Effect Size 0.86) <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount varies by grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent Involvement should be minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose should be clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastering a skills needs about 24 practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students need to adapt and shape learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a homework police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulate the purpose and outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chart accuracy and Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on specific elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan time </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nonlinguistic Representation (Mean Effect Size 0.83) <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should elaborate on knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Graphic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Physical Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic activities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cooperative Learning (Mean Effect Size 0.57 <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to avoid ability grouping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups should be kept small (3-4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be consistent and systematic but not over used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of criteria for groupings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal, formal and base groups have different purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine Cooperative learning with other classroom structures </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback (Mean Effect Size 0.72) <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals should be narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But not too specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students should personalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback should be corrective, specific and timely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self assessment should be encouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set flexible goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback should be criterion references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student led feedback </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Generating and Testing Hypotheses (Mean Effect Size 0.52) <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use inductive and deductive manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students should clearly explain their hypotheses/conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of structured tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure students can explain their hypotheses and conclusions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers (Mean Effect Size 0.57) <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on what is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use “Higher level” questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use wait time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions are an effective tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced organizers are useful for information that is not well organized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Explicit cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions that elicit inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask analytic questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use advance organizers specific to the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expository </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic </li></ul></ul></ul>

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