5.1 b groups oxidation states

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5.1 b groups oxidation states

  1. 1. Transition Metals & Ionic Charge Group B elements Courtesy of: Mr. Boroski
  2. 2. Representatives • We have talked about the Representative elements… • Groups 1A through 8A • And ion formation IonIon chargecharge GroupGroup numbernumber valencevalence numbernumber # of e-# of e- lost orlost or gainedgained
  3. 3. Transition elements • Found in the middle of the table • Known as the B group elements • Are called transition because they can change their charges! • How do they become charged? • By losing electrons.
  4. 4. Examples • Iron • Fe2+ • Fe3+ • Tungsten • W2+ • W3+ • W4+ • W5+ • W6+ • W7+
  5. 5. How do we predict??? • Cannot use group number! • Must see how it reacts with other elements. • Need to see its OxidationOxidation state (+ or -).state (+ or -).
  6. 6. Oxidation state • Represents the charge of an atom in a compound at a given time. – It is similar to the charge on the atom. • To figure, need to know the oxidation state rules…
  7. 7. OXIDATION RULES 1. Oxidation state of an element (in its pure form) is 0. 2. Oxidation state for representatives is their ionic charge most of the time. 3. Oxygen is always –2 unless in a peroxide, then it is –1. 4. H with nonmetals(covalent compounds) is given +1 oxidation state. Usually in the front of the formula. 5. The sum of oxidation numbers must be 0 for compounds and whatever the charge of the ionic species is.
  8. 8. To use rules: • You need to be able to do two things: An atom inventory Add and multiply whole numbers that are positive and negative.
  9. 9. Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present. • CO2 C O 1 2 x x = = 0 -2 -4 +4+4 Total charge of compound #ofatoms times Oxidationstate Totalchargeperelement Elementsymbol equals
  10. 10. Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present. • CuCl2 Cu Cl 1 2 x x = = 0 -1 -2 +2+2
  11. 11. Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present. • H2SO4 H S 2 1 x x = = 0 +6 +6 +2+1 O 4 x =-2 -8
  12. 12. Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present. • NO3 1- N O 1 3 x x = = -1 -2 -6 +5+5
  13. 13. Homework: Oxidation numbers problems. • DIRECTIONS: find the oxidation numbers of ALL elements in the compounds. 1. CuCl 6. ZnBr2 2. CuI2 7. PbNO3 3. Fe2 O3 8. Mg3 N2 4. Ag3 N 9. KCl 5. KMnO4 10. CrO4 -2

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