Eight mega trends in e-government for the next eight years


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Trends in e-government reflect trends in society but also help shape public services and governance. What really is happening now and how will this continue up to 2020? Why we should be both excited yet cautious.

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Eight mega trends in e-government for the next eight years

  1. 1. SMARTERCITIESSMARTERSERVICES<br />2020 VISIONEightmega trends in e-governmentfor the next eightyears<br />Jeremy Millard<br />Senior Consultant<br />DanishTechnologicalInstitute<br />
  2. 2. The three ages of government<br />3) Open & participative<br />1) Kafka’esque<br />2) Bureaucratic<br /><ul><li>Arbitrary
  3. 3. Random
  4. 4. Coercive
  5. 5. Rules-based
  6. 6. Administrative
  7. 7. Top-down
  8. 8. Gov-centric
  9. 9. One-size-fits-all
  10. 10. Transparent
  11. 11. Responsive
  12. 12. Innovative
  13. 13. Both bottom-up & top-down
  14. 14. User-centric
  15. 15. User-driven
  16. 16. Participatory
  17. 17. Open
  18. 18. Personalised
  19. 19. Relationship- & behaviour-based
  20. 20. From ”e” to ”smart” government</li></li></ul><li>Eight mega trends<br />The web becomes social and semantic<br />Smash the silos and share (everything?)<br />Get lost in the cloud<br />The future is mobile<br />Users change how they access and use services<br />New ‘business’ models<br />eParticipation and social media<br />Open and relationship-based government<br />3<br />
  21. 21. 1) The web becomes social and semantic<br />It’s not the technology, stupid <br />4<br />
  22. 22. Web 2.0 – the web has already become social<br />Facebook accounts for 25% of all US pageviews, and 10% of all Internet visits*<br />Users are sharing more and more<br />Stronger integration and instant data sharing between devices and networks<br />The social signal becomes the most important<br /><ul><li>Privacy issues
  23. 23. The incentive to share data becoming stronger, that users are changing the way they think about privacy</li></ul>* Source: http://weblogs.hitwise.com/heather-dougherty/2010/11/facebookcom_generates_nearly_1_1.html<br />
  24. 24. Web 3.0 – semantic web and internet of data<br /><ul><li>Wide-scale seamless ubiquitous networks
  25. 25. From html to RDF (resource description framework)
  26. 26. Machines as well as people can “understand”, find, evaluate and sort data thereby creating knowledge and services
  27. 27. Huge unexploited data reservoirs
  28. 28. Distributed data, seamless ‘cloud computing’
  29. 29. Data mining, pattern recognition, visualisation, gaming
  30. 30. Information, consultation, polling, voting, etc.
  31. 31. Greater precision on policy choices & trade-offs</li></ul>What about Web 4.0??<br />Contextualises data about people, places and things – e.g. data about who people are, who they know, where they have been, are now and plan to go, what they are doing, etc. Can be used automatically to assist and support people in their everyday lives…..can also be used subversively<br />
  32. 32. The web becomes social and semantic<br />For example www.trueknowledge.com & www.wolframalpha.com<br />
  33. 33. 2) Smash the silos and share<br />(everything?)<br />What’s mine is yours, and what’s yours is mine<br />8<br />
  34. 34. Sharing (everything?) through networking<br /><ul><li>Sharing things which all parts of public sector need to do in the same way: infrastructures, resources, data, content, services, widgets, apps, etc., etc.
  35. 35. For example, PAs make their data available to each other enabling them to compare and identify e.g. similar locations, user groups and/or services through analysing socio-demographics, service use, etc.
  36. 36. Enables each PA or group of PAs to take an evolutionary approach to learning and building good practices, what works, what doesn’t, policy modelling, etc., so only compare, rank and simulate between similar contexts and/or similar strategies</li></li></ul><li>
  37. 37. 3) Get lost in the cloud<br />…don’t say: ”get off of my cloud”<br />11<br />
  38. 38. The cloud – massive cost savings ?<br /><ul><li>In January 2010, the United Kingdom government announced the creation of its own internal cloud computing system as part of a radical plan that it claims could save up to £3.2bn a year from an annual bill of at least £16bn.
  39. 39. The key part of the new strategy will be the concentration of government computing power into a series of about a dozen highly secure data centres, each costing up to £250m to build.
  40. 40. These will replace more than 500 presently used by central government, police forces and local authorities which are frequently run at far below their capacity because they are dedicated to one department.</li></ul>12<br />
  41. 41. A cloud of public services ?<br /><ul><li>Highly specialised and personalised services somewhere in the cloud using advanced search engines
  42. 42. Standardised building blocks
  43. 43. From scratch
  44. 44. Combining apps, widgets, service components normally requires programming skills – but if users could simply drag and drop them to create unique service combinations, the sky’s the limit
  45. 45. The necessary semantic-based SOAs are in place or under development</li></ul>13<br />
  46. 46. A cloud of public services<br />The silos approach<br />Breakingdownintofundamentals<br />Opening up<br />Cloud of public services (who’s in charge?)<br />European Commission, 2010<br />
  47. 47. Widgets on Danish citizen portal<br />The service utilises data from the personalised user profile authorised by the user. The system clarifies whether the actual user has permission to view the requested data<br />Single sign on widget<br />15<br />
  48. 48. Don’t trust your public health service with your data? Outsource your health data to Microsoft<br />
  49. 49. 4) The future is mobile<br />Mobile adds<br />where, when and who I am<br />to government services<br />Google: 27 April 2011 ”39 percent of people use their smart phones while going to the bathroom.”<br />17<br />
  50. 50. The power3 of mobile<br />More convenient accessibility and availability – power of pull<br />always on<br />carried around everywhere, thus can provide instant information and response<br />Better precision and personalisation in targeting users and delivering content – power of push<br />mobile devices are used mainly by single individuals (although can also be shared for example in a family or local community)<br />this increases the acceptance, adoption and usage of online government<br />Larger and wider user base compared to wired services – power of reach<br />Nearest Tube by acrossair. iPhone app<br />
  51. 51. Augmented reality and place-related services<br /><ul><li>Smart mobile phones + GPS (digital TV)
  52. 52. Location-based / place-related
  53. 53. Real time, augmentedreality
  54. 54. Offered appropriateeveryday services as walk down the street
  55. 55. Location or event creates real time opportunities for content, participation, action
  56. 56. BUT only very small % of 350,000 iPhone apps are for public services</li></li></ul><li>
  57. 57. 5) Users changehowtheyaccess & use services<br />The portal or the fast cloud search…..<br />21<br />
  58. 58. The big battle… HOT NEWS FROM THE FRONT LINE<br />UK’s world class citizens portal<br />http://www.direct.gov.uk<br />
  59. 59. <ul><li>The UK is (probably) leading Europe in eGovernment:
  60. 60. Number 4 in world, highest in Europe (UN 2010)
  61. 61. Number 4 in world, 2nd highest in Europe (Waseda 2009)
  62. 62. Joint number 1 in online availability in Europe (EU 2009)
  63. 63. Over last 4 years, UK spent $60 million on main government portal: direct.gov.uk – acclaimed as worldclass
  64. 64. BUT this is used LESS than an unofficial site which cost nothing apart from half a day’s work by concerned volunteers
  65. 65. WHAT ON EARTH IS GOING ON ??!!</li></li></ul><li>“Citizens” usurp government<br />http://www.directionlessgov.com<br />
  66. 66. The government accepts the challenge….<br />“Only a small minority of Directgov users come in through the home page (12%) as the majority of visitors arrive from search (52%) or via an external link (43%) straight to one of the big transactions such as car tax, student loans or job search” (2010)<br />Source: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/news/digital-default-proposed-government-services<br />
  67. 67. ….and so government starts the fight back….<br />Launched 10 May 2011: http://www.alpha.gov.uk<br />
  68. 68. ….but the “citizens” are sceptical… <br />….the battle continues <br />http://www.directionlessgov.com<br />
  69. 69. The dominance of portal eGovernment will soon be over…?<br /><ul><li>Portals are important, especially for large scale, top down ‘administrative’ services (one stop shop concept)
  70. 70. BUT citizen usage is low – DTI research:
  71. 71. “Why go to a portal first when I am already somewhere else on the web? I want to go direct to the service I need.”
  72. 72. “Everything (services, applications, platforms, infrastructure) is – or will be – in the cloud anyway, so just use Google or other search engines to find what you need.”
  73. 73. “Do we hang on to grandiose portals because they are a showcase – just like an imposing town hall – but what do they really do for all that money?“
  74. 74. Some even predict no more web-sites in 5 years ? !</li></ul>Organisations/firms/individuals make content available (in the cloud) and users create their own content, services on their own platforms.<br />
  75. 75. 6) New ‘business’ models<br />Time for change…?<br />29<br />
  76. 76. Usurping the role of government (1)<br />
  77. 77. Usurping the role of government (2)<br />
  78. 78. Southwark Circle, UK: the neighbourly way to sort the everyday - 1<br /><ul><li>Networks of users, helpers/carers, volunteers, entrepreneurs and the LA, to solve any problem
  79. 79. Focus on elderly people (but little distinction in practice)
  80. 80. Critical: LA funding enabled a team to spend time with 250 elderly in their homes and networks (ethnographic research) to involve in own service design
  81. 81. Elderly no longer seen as a burden or group to do something to – but rather as a resource for their own self and mutual help </li></li></ul><li>Southwark Circle, UK: the neighbourly way to sort the everyday - 2<br /><ul><li>£2.4m LA savings expected over 5 years: a threefold return on investment
  82. 82. People are core, but enabled by ICT, e.g.:
  83. 83. website for information and matching needs with solutions/volunteers
  84. 84. club and other events
  85. 85. earning/buying and spending tokens
  86. 86. access to other services
  87. 87. mobile/SMS alerts, ICT training, etc.
  88. 88. coordination and data exchange between LA, NGO and volunteers</li></li></ul><li>New bottom-up business models<br /><ul><li>Mainly a bottom-up ad-hoc process which exploits existing resources
  89. 89. Contextual implementation of ICT – start from the needs of the citizen (perhaps mediated by people or organisations closest to them) rather than government
  90. 90. Leadership, ownership & accountability at the grassroots
  91. 91. New (power) relationships between professionals and citizens
  92. 92. Builds widespread skills and competencies
  93. 93. Re-use existing public sector information (open government / open data)
  94. 94. Involves much less finance, has much shorter development cycles, and includes a whole range of stakeholders
  95. 95. More experimental and may ‘fail’ as often as large scale top-down government initiatives, but being cheap and small can be quickly corrected, and then scaled up if successful (Clay Shirky: “publish then filter, rather than filter then publish”)
  96. 96. Because they start from the bottom, many address not just the physical needs of disadvantaged citizens but also helps give them self-fulfilment and esteem, etc.
  97. 97. Lesson: just do it, get it wrong, then learn, do it better and scale up.</li></li></ul><li>7) eParticipation & social media<br />The Almighty: ”What have you done in your life?”<br />Supplicant knocking on heaven’s door: ”Didn’t you read my tweets?”<br />35<br />
  98. 98. New paradigm<br /><ul><li>No longer just the state (visible hand) and the market (invisible hand): now also all and any groups (many hands), self-organising and ‘organic’ (out of control ?)
  99. 99. Groups easily and freely forming, cooperating, acting, dissolving (the platforms are free and the costs are zero)
  100. 100. Complex societal problems cannot be solved by the state alone (or by the market alone) …. tried that…
  101. 101. Challenges: oftenleads to single issues, veryparochial / local / blind to tradeoffs; prone to coarsening the debate; digital elite / mob; loss of voice & acountability; trivialisation </li></li></ul><li>Why?<br /><ul><li>To improve public services
  102. 102. To improve the functioning of the public sector
  103. 103. To improve decision- and policy making in the public sector
  104. 104. To improve social and economic outcomes for everybody
  105. 105. BUT does it work? – the jury is still out </li></li></ul><li>How people use social media<br />Source:http://forrester.typepad.com/groundswell/2010/01/conversationalists-get-onto-the-ladder.htmlAnalyze your own audience’s participation: http://www.forrester.com/empowered/tool_consumer.html<br />
  106. 106. 8) Open & relationship-basedgovernment<br />Trust goes both ways<br />39<br />
  107. 107. What is ‘open’ government ?<br /><ul><li>Open for business – outward looking
  108. 108. Open for collaboration (PPPs, PCPs)
  109. 109. alwaysmore relevant talent and knowledgeoutsideany organisation (includinggovernment) thaninside. The challenge is to understand this, find the talent or knowledge and use it wisely – crowdsourcing
  110. 110. Transparent, participatory and personalised
  111. 111. Open data, services, resources, infrastructures, etc., for sharing and innovation</li></li></ul><li>Relationship-based government<br />Citizenshipisn’t a transaction in whichyoupayyourtaxes in and getyour services out. It’s a relationship. <br />In times of austerity, arewe in danger of movingaway from a vision in whichthereare ties binding us all, and towardsonethat is purelytransactional.<br /><ul><li>Norway: surveysaskingcitizenswhether knowing the civil servantpersonallyimproves the service experience: YES
  112. 112. UK and Netherlands: personal budgets: hugeimprovementsreported in costsavings, quality of service and citizensatisfaction
  113. 113. UK, London: personaldialogue with citizensrefused public housingincreasedacceptance from 10% to 70%</li></li></ul><li>Netherlands: alternative dispute resolution - 1<br />Conflictbetweencitizens, communities and government: miscommunication, poorbehaviour, unclearrules, leading to disputes<br />Normal judicial resolution costs at least €400m pa<br />NEW POLICY (2007-2008)<br /><ul><li>First intervention by telephone
  114. 114. Informal dialogue, including in person: what is the best way to handle the conflict
  115. 115. Use of mediationtechniques
  116. 116. Governmenttaking an arbitrationrole</li></li></ul><li>Citizen <br />satisfaction<br />Trust in government<br />Job satisfaction civil servants<br />Transparancy<br />Admitting mistakes<br />Integrity<br />Equality<br />Administrative burdens<br />Workplace<br />Education and development<br />Management<br />Timely services<br />Treatment<br />Professionality<br />Results<br />drivers<br />Netherlands: alternative dispute resolution - 2<br />Reduction of government costs > 20%<br />Increase in civil servant job satisfaction 20%<br />Strong preference for informal approach, leading to a solution in 50%-60% of objection cases and 70-80% of complaint cases<br />40% increase in citizen satisfaction<br />
  117. 117. Open government is porous:<br /><ul><li>turning government inside-out:
  118. 118. exposure of inside of government (transparency, openness, accountability)
  119. 119. civil servants and politicians out on the streets but still connected
  120. 120. turning government outside-in:
  121. 121. letting in private & civil sectors (PPPs, PCPs)
  122. 122. letting in users (e.g. to design policy, make decisions, as ‘co-creators’ of services)
  123. 123. Future mandate of public sector – loss of competence?
  124. 124. loss of knowledge, competence and control through commoditisation and outsourcing
  125. 125. government shrinks to a rump -- arms length government?
  126. 126. danger in going this far as government is the sole promoter of the public interest based on democratic accountability</li></li></ul><li>jeremy.millard@dti.dk<br />Thankyou<br />Who dares, wins….<br />45<br />