Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 14 - Patrizia Lombardi - Triple Helix of Smart City visions

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My presentation illustrates an on-going study in the field of Smart cities’ evaluation. The analysis starts from a revised notion of triple helix considering that Civil society plays a prominent role toward the realization of sustainable development in cities (Etzkowitz and Zhou, 2006).
In order to assess the connections between Smart city development and this institutionalization of the Triple Helix, an Analytic Network Process model has been developed. This interrelated model is used for investigating the relations between smart cities components (smart governance; smart economy; smart people; smart living; smart environment), actors (Universities, Government, Industry and Civil Society ) and policy visions derived from the “Urban Europe” Joint Programme Initiatives, i.e. strategies to which the smart cities are moving to (Connected City, Entrepreneurial City, Liveable City and Pioneer City).

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Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 14 - Patrizia Lombardi - Triple Helix of Smart City visions

  1. 1. The Triple Helix ofthe Smart Cities visions Patrizia Lombardi Politecnico di Torino
  2. 2. What is this about?… problems, challenges and visions …
  3. 3. In the last fifty years the world population has grownexponentially, at an average rate of 1.2% per year, accompaniedby an urban population explosion
  4. 4. In 2007, for the first time in the history of mankind, more peoplelived in cities than in rural areas. In 2050, the rate will be 65%.
  5. 5. According to United Nations, by 2020 about 60 millions ofpeople will migrate from sub-Sahary regions to North Africa andEurope: this flow will increase the current high migration trend.
  6. 6. In many regions of the world the natural increase in populationhas a greater effect on internal urban growth than the ruralexodus. Integration The urban issue is perhaps the most complex and crucial Built Culture of the sustainable human development problem aspect Environment Services Harmony
  7. 7. The role of the City Largely Policy Largely EnablingIf cities do provide this useful interfare it is worh considering howcities might address a long-term policy and actions agenda.
  8. 8. Rethink and manage the increasing urban orientationand concentration of people in Europe, with the aim: To sustain and enhance urban quality in cities as a place of vitality, liveability and spatial interactivity for European citizens To create and exploit synergy from an urbanized Europe from an economic, social, cultural, logistic and technological perspective, leading to a strengthened global position of Europe 8
  9. 9. 4 POLICY VISIONS OF CITIES DERIVED FROM THE JPI “URBAN EUROPE ” [P. Nijkamp, K. Kourtik, 2011] SMART LOGISTIC &CONNECTED CITY SUSTAINABLE MOBILITYENTREPRENEURIAL ECONOMIC VITALITY CITY ECOLOGICAL LIVEABLE CITY SUSTAINABILITY SOCIAL PIONEER CITY PARTICIPATION & SOCIAL CAPITAL
  10. 10. What does “smart city” mean? … a shared definition is required…
  11. 11. IF YOU WANT TO ASSESS KNOW THE OBJECT RIGHTLYOR MEASURE SOMETHING AND PERFECTLY YOU HAVE TO: KNOW THE LIMITS AND THE BOUNDARIES OF THE OBJECT KNOW THE ELEMENTS USEFUL TO MEASURE/ASSESS IT
  12. 12. The European Commission refers to systemicapproaches and organisational innovation,encompassing energy efficiency, low carbontechnologies and the smart management of supply anddemand, but how can a city or a region develop andmeasure these actions and how can they be transferredacross the EU? (Deakin, 2009)
  13. 13. CREATIVEDIGITAL CITY SMART CITY CITYFOCUSING ON A SPECIFIC ASPECT IS IT ENOUGH? THE TERM SMART CITY UNDERSTOOD AS A SYSTEMIC APPROACH CANNOT FOCUS ON A SINGLE ASPECT
  14. 14. USE OF THE TERM LITERATURE REVIEW“SMART CITY” IS OFTEN USED IN URBAN THE TERM IS NOT USED IN A HOLISTIC WAYSTUDIES & POLICIES WITH DIFFERENT BUT CONSIDERING SPECIFIC ATTRIBUTES OFMEANINGS THE CITY SMART ECONOMY INDUSTRY 6 CHARACTERISTICS SMART PEOPLE EDUCATION = SMARTSMART GOVERNANCE E-DEMOCRACY COMBINATION LOGISTICS & SMART MOBILITY INFRASTRUCTURES SMART EFFICIENCY & ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABILITY SMART LIVING SECURITY & QUALITY Patrizia Lombardi, Silvia Giordano, Hend Farouh, Wael Yousef
  15. 15. Smart City “A Smart City is a city well performing in a forward-looking way in six “smart” characteristics, built on the”smart” combination of endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent and aware citizens” [Smart cities – Ranking of European medium-sized cities] [www. .smart-cities.eu]
  16. 16. Smart City “A city is smart: when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance” [Caragliu et al., 2009, p.6]
  17. 17. Operationalise the concept… through triple helix & indicators …
  18. 18. Etzkowitz & and Zhou, 2006 SMART CITY INNOVATION MAIN CHARACTERISTIC INDUSTRY CREATOR OF ADOPTION OF WEALTH THE SOLUTION CIVIL SOCIETYREGULATOR OF GENERATOR OF STANDARDS GOVERNMENT UNIVERSITY INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL COMPLEX URBAN ENVIRONMENT SMART DEVELOPMENT
  19. 19. 1 STEP SELECTING EXISTING INDICATORS: EU projects’ reports, Urban Audit, European green city index, TISSUE, Statistics of European Commissions, etc. PARTICIPATIVE ACTIVITY2 STEP ORGANIZING 5 CLUSTERS (smart city’ components): SMART Governance, SMART Economy, SMART Human Capital, SMART Living, SMART Environment 4 HELICES (smart city’ stakeholders): Government, Industry, University & Civil Society,
  20. 20. SMART SMART SMART SMART SMART SMART Governence Economy Human INDICATORS Living Environment CapitalUNIVERSITYGOVERNEMENTINDUSTRYCIVIL SOCIETY 20
  21. 21. S - specific, significant, stretchingM - measurable, meaningful, motivationalA - agreed upon, attainable, achievable, acceptable, action-orientedR - realistic, relevant, reasonable, rewarding, result-orientedT - time-based, timely, tangible 21
  22. 22. Clusters SMART SMART Governence SMART Economy SMART Human Capital SMART LivingRevised EnvironmentTriple Helix INDICATORS No of universities, Public expenditure on % of population aged 15-64 % of professors & An assessment of research centres in R&D - % of GDP per with secondary level education researchers the ambitiousness UNIVERSITY the city head of city living in Urban Audit involved in of CO2 emissions international reduction strategy projects and exchange No. courses entirely Public expenditure on % of population aged 15-64 Number of grants An assessment the downloadable from education - % of GDP with high education living in for international extensiveness of the internet / Total per head of city Urban Audit mobility per year city energy No. Courses Number of research % of inhabitants working in % of accessable efficiency grants funded by education and in research & courses for PWD standards for international projects development sector buildings THE INDICATORS’ SELECTION CRITERION PUBLIC PUBLIC EXPENDITURE VS EXPENDITURE ON R&D A CITY A SMART CITY
  23. 23. Clusters SMART Governence SMART Economy SMART Human Capital SMART Living SMART EnvironmentRevisedTriple Helix INDICATORS E-government on-line Gross Domestic Voter turnout in national Proportion of Total annual energy availability (% of the Product per head of and EU parliamentary the area in consumption, in gigajoules 20 basic services city elections recreational per head which are fully sports and available online) leisure use Debt of municipal Share of female city Green space Efficient use of electricity authority per representatives (m2) to which (use per GDP) resident the public has access, per capita GOVERNEMENT Percentage of Median or average City representatives per Number of Total annual water households with disposable annual resident public libraries consumption, in cubic computers household income metres per head Unemployment rate Number of Efficient use of water (use theaters & per GDP) cinemas Percentage of Energy intensity of Health care Area in green space (m2) households with the economy - Gross expenditure - % Geenhouse gas emissions Internet access at inland consumption of GDP per intensity of energy home of energy divided by head of city consumption GDP Tourist An assessment of the overnight stays comprehensiveness of in registered policies to contain the accommodatio urban sprawl and to n in per year improve and monitor per resident environmental performance Urban population exposure to air pollution by particulate matter - micrograms per cubic metre
  24. 24. Clusters SMART SMART Governence SMART Economy SMART Human Capital SMART LivingRevised EnvironmentTriple Helix INDICATORS E-government usage % of projects funded Foreign language skills Total book loans The total by individuals (% by civil society and other media percentage of the individuals aged 16 to per resident working 74 who have used the population Internet, in the last 3 travelling months, for to work on public interaction with transport, by public authorities) bicycle and by foot CIVIL SOCIETY Participation in Life-long Museums visits per An assessment of learning (%) inhabitant the extent to which citizens may participate in environmental decision-making Individuals level of computer Theatre & cinema An assessment of skills attendance per the extensiveness inhabitant of efforts to increase the use of cleaner transport Individuals level of internet % of citzens skills engaged in environmental and sustainability oriented activity
  25. 25. Clusters SMART Governence SMART Economy SMART Human Capital SMART Living SMART EnvironmentRevisedTriple Helix INDICATORS Number of research Employment rate in: Patent applications per Number of The percentage of total - High Tech & creative inhabitant grants funded by enterprises energy derived from companies, adopting ISO renewable industries foundations, 14000 sources, as a share of the institutes / No annual - Renewable energy & standards citys total energy scholarships energy efficieny consumption, systems - Financial in terajoules intermediation and Combined heat and power business activities generation - % of gross - culture & electricity generation INDUSTRY entertainment industry - commercial services - transport and communication - hotels and restaurants All companies (total Employment rate in Rate of people Rate of rycycled waste per number) knowledge-intensive undertaking total kg of waste produced Number of local units sectors industry based manufacturing High training Tech & ICT products Companies with HQ Total CO2 emissions, in in the city quoted on tonnes per head (2) national stock market Components of % of new buildings and domestic material renevoation which were consumption assesed in terms of sustainablity
  26. 26. Let’s model… simplify the complexity…
  27. 27. Analytic Network Process – ANP, an advanced version of the AnalyticHierarchy Process – AHP seems able to better tackle and reflectcomplexity without reducing the problem to a hierarchy structure butinvolving interaction and dependence among elements complexproblems Goal Cluster Criteri Alternative Sotto-criteri Alternative
  28. 28. ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESSANP is the only decision supportmethod which makes possible todeal systematically with all kinds ofdependencies and feedback.The ANP model consists of clusters,elements, interrelationshipbetween clusters, andinterrelationship between elements.It allows interactions and feedbackwithin and between clusters andprovides a process to derive ratioscales priorities from the elements. AHP ANP
  29. 29. SIMPLE COMPLEXNETWORK NETWORK THE WINNER THE STRATEGY CONTROL CRITERIA
  30. 30. 1 ACTION MODELLING ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NETWORK SYSTEM: define the decision making model involving the identification of both the elements constituting the decision problem. THE MAIN NETWORK CONTROL CRITERIA
  31. 31. 2 ACTION CONNECTING ESTABLISHMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CLUSTERS AND NODES: each element can have influence and inter- dependence relations THE “CIVIL SOCIETY” SUBNETWORK
  32. 32. Assessment phase… deriving final priorities …
  33. 33. 3 ACTION Assessment EXPERTS’ FOCUS GROUP: ANP EXERCISE Filling pair-comparisons elements’ matrix with the support of the Superdecisions software : •Clusters comparisons •Nodes/Indicators comparisonsTHE SAATY’S SCALE
  34. 34. ASSESSMENT OF THE NETWORK’S ELEMENTS:4 ACTION WEIGHTING USING THE SPECIFIC SOFTWARE Superdecisions (based on the ANP methodology) Un-weighted Super-Matrix: Totality of the vectors of priority extracted by the matrix of in couple –comparison. Weighted Super-Matrix: It considers the priorities attributed to the level of comparison between the different clusters (obtained multiplying the values of the un- weighted matrix for the weight of each cluster). Limit Super-Matrix: Obtained by multiplying the Limit Supermatrix weighted super-matrix for itself an lim Wk PRIORITIES’ VECTOR infinity number of times. Here is k  possible to find the ranking of preference of the considered alternative.
  35. 35. THE SUB-NETWORKS’ PRIORITIESALTERNATIVES’ OBTAINED BY SYNTESIZING THE PRIORITIES OFCLUSTER LEVEL THE ALTERNATIVES FOR EACH SUBNETWORK NODES LEVEL OBTAINED BY SYNTESIZING THE PRIORITIES OF EACH INDICATOR FOR EACH SUBNETWORK FINAL PRIORITIESNETWORK LEVEL COMBINING FORMULAS
  36. 36. THE SUBNETWORK NORMALIZED BY CLUSTER THE WEIGHTS OF THE ELEMENT IN THE CLUSTER ADD UP TO 100% LIMITINGALTERNATIVES INDICATORS THE SUM OF THE PRIORITIES OF ALL NODES IN THE NETWORK ADDS UP TO 100%
  37. 37. INDUSTRY ALTERNATIVES NODES/INDICATORS 25% 12% 20% 16% 52% 15% 10% 20% 5% 0% Patent Employment Employment Number of application per rate in rate in High local unitsENTREPRENEURIAL CITY PIONEER CITY inhabitants knowledge Tech and manufacturing intensive creative High Tech sector industry sector productLIVEABLE CITY CONNECTED CITY
  38. 38. GOVERNMENT ALTERNATIVES NODES/INDICATORS 30% 12% 25% 14% 20% 15% 17% 57% 10% 5% 0% % of % of Proportion E-gov on line households households of the area availability with internet with inENTREPRENEURIAL CITY PIONEER CITY access at computer at recreational home home sports andLIVEABLE CITY CONNECTED CITY leisure
  39. 39. UNIVERSITY ALTERNATIVES NODES/INDICATORS 18% 9% 16% 14% 15% 12% 57% 10% 8% 19% 6% 4% 2% 0% % of % of Number of Public inhabitants population universities expenditure onENTREPRENEURIAL CITY PIONEER CITY working in aged 15-64 and research education education and with secondary centres in the R&D level education cityLIVEABLE CITY CONNECTED CITY
  40. 40. CIVIL SOCIETY ALTERNATIVES NODES/INDICATORS 12% 14% 35% 10% 20% 8% 6% 4% 31% 2% 0% Participation individuals total book E-gov usageENTREPRENEURIAL CITY PIONEER CITY in life long level of loans and by learning internet other media individualsLIVEABLE CITY CONNECTED CITY skills per resident
  41. 41. OBTAINED BY SYNTESIZING THE PRIORITIES OF THE OVERALL THE ALTERNATIVES FROM ALL THE PRIORITIES SUBNETWORKS [with combining formulas] 13% 17% 49% 21%ENTREPRENEURIAL CITY PIONEER CITYLIVEABLE CITY CONNECTED CITY
  42. 42. AcknowledgementsThe policy visions have been taken from the Joint Programme Initiatives“Urban Europe” leaded by Peter NijkampThe application has been conducted with the support of superdecisionsoftware developed by Rozanna SaatyThe selection of the indicators has been developed in collaboration withSilvia Giordano, Hend Farouh &Wael YousefThe priorities has been developed by a focus group composed bystakeholders from Governments, Industry, University & Civil Societysectors 42
  43. 43. QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS?

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