Crisis or Opportunity


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Workshop slides for Connecticut Library Association, November 20, 2009, Farmington Public Library.

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  • Print version will probably not include the whole thing.
  • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) provides definitions and a formal structure for describing the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in cultural heritage documentation.
  • Crisis or Opportunity

    1. 1. Crisis or Opportunity?<br />Cataloging, Catalogers, RDA, and Change<br />Diane I. Hilllmann<br />Connecticut Library Association<br />November 20, 2009<br />
    2. 2. It’s About Perspective … <br />“Our traditions! Nothing must change. Everything is perfect as it is! We like our ways.” –Tevye<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />2<br />
    3. 3. I Much Prefer …<br />“You never want a serious crisis to go to waste. And what I mean by that is an opportunity to do things you think you could not do before.” – Rahm Emmanuel<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Part 1: What’s the Crisis?<br />Libraries are no longer the first place people come for information<br />The Internet has changed the way people (including us) behave when seeking information<br />Our former “granularity consensus” is coming apart<br />To compete effectively for user attention, we must:<br />Join the larger world of information, where our users are<br />Learn how the competition attracts users, draws them in, and takes good advantage of their interest in participating<br />Find a better balance between protecting privacy and capturing usage behavior<br />11/20/09<br />4<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    5. 5. And What’s Our Role?<br /><ul><li>The comfortable certainties we know are coming undone, whether we’re ready or not</li></ul>We have much experience and insight to offer the larger information world (but not everything we’ve learned is relevant)<br />We are collectively about the size of the Queen Mary, unable to turn on a dime—this change will take time, and each of us has a role to play<br />Resistance is futile—we are not in charge of this new world, and our options are two: adapt or retire<br />11/20/09<br />5<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    6. 6. The Map of Change<br />Charting Our Course<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />6<br />
    7. 7. What We Must Leave Behind<br />A view of metadata based on catalog cards<br />Library software that can’t sort search results better than “random” or “alphabetic”<br />Search interfaces even Librarians hate (and we know the data!)<br />Clunky static HTML pages that don’t attract our user’s interest, or guide them well<br />One silo for books, others for journal articles, images, digitized books, etc. (explain that to a user!)<br />11/20/09<br />7<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    8. 8. Starting to Move Forward<br />A Starting Point: The Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control (Library of Congress)<br />“On the Record”—final report, January 2008<br />A good, comprehensive overview of our new world and what we need to do<br />Recommendations for LC, OCLC, ALA, library educators and all of us<br />Extensively discussed at the Library of Congress and within the profession at large<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />8<br />
    9. 9. “The Web is our platform”<br /> All: Explore tools and techniques for sharing bibliographic data at the network level using both centralized and non-centralized techniques (e.g., OAI-PMH). <br /> All: Express library standards in machine-readable and machine-actionable formats, in particular those developed for use on the Web. <br /> All: Provide access to standards through registries or Web sites so that the standards can be used by any and all Web applications. <br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />9<br />
    10. 10. A New Look at Library Systems<br /> All: Encourage and support development of systems capable of relating evaluative data, such as reviews and ratings, to bibliographic records. <br /> All: Encourage the enhancement of library systems to provide the capability to link to appropriate user-added data available via the Internet (e.g.,, LibraryThing, Wikipedia). At the same time, explore opportunities for developing mutually beneficial partnerships with commercial entities that would stand to benefit from these arrangements. <br />11/20/09<br />10<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    11. 11. Enriching Library Data<br /> All: Develop library systems that can accept user input and other non-library data without interfering with the integrity of library-created data. <br /> All: Investigate methods of categorizing creators of added data in order to enable informed use of user-contributed data without violating the privacy obligations of libraries. <br /> All: Develop methods to guide user tagging through techniques that suggest entry vocabulary (e.g., term completion, tag clouds). <br />11/20/09<br />11<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    12. 12. Exploring Our New World<br />Avoiding the Traps of Wrongovia<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />12<br />
    13. 13. Taking a Look Around<br />What’s all this about new catalogs?<br />Is RDA really going to happen?<br />Is it that different from AACR2?<br />Why can’t we use RDA with MARC?<br />What’s this Semantic Web thingy all about, and why do we care?<br />How will RDA implementation affect cataloging?<br />How can we best prepare for all this?<br />11/20/09<br />13<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    14. 14. First, Let’s Nix the Silos!<br />Why not expand resource availability in the current catalog?<br />Demo: Dartmouth College Library Summon Beta<br />What you’ll see: combined newspaper, journal and traditional book data<br />Only those resources, including licensed resources, available to Dartmouth community (no dead ends)<br />Ranking by relevance, date, etc.<br />Filtering by resource type (filtering of search result set immediately)<br />How do they do this? What are the limitation?<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />14<br />
    15. 15. What Does FRBR Buy Us?<br />An interesting start:<br />OCLC Fiction Finder<br />What is it doing?<br />Using standard MARC relationships (expressed in uniform titles, primarily) to build a more browsable view<br />Filtering by language and format, various sort options<br />What can’t it do?<br />Provide explicit links between related editions<br />Provide a more useful web of relationships that machines can interpret and use<br />Note that this “experiment” is no longer an active project<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />15<br />
    16. 16. A Quick Look at Standards<br />11/20/09<br />16<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    17. 17. The RDA You’ve Heard About …<br />4th quarter calendar 2008 – Full draft of RDA available for constituency review (ending in early February 2009)<br /><br />3rdquarter calendar 2009 – RDA content is finalized<br />4th quarter calendar 2009 – RDA is released<br />1st quarter calendar 2010 – Testing by national libraries<br />2nd – 3rd quarters calendar 2010 – Analysis and evaluation of testing by national libraries<br />4th quarters calendar 2010 and beyond – RDA implementation ?<br />11/20/09<br />17<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />We are here<br />
    18. 18. Under the RDA Hood<br />A FRBR-based approach to structuring bibliographic data<br />Contains more explicitly machine-friendly linkages (preferably with URIs)<br />MUCH more emphasis on relationships and roles …<br />… and less emphasis on cataloger-created notes and text strings (particularly for identification)<br />Less reliance on transcription (important in an increasingly digital world) <br />11/20/09<br />18<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    19. 19. RDA: The Text<br />1300+ pages and counting<br />Looks a lot like it was designed by a committee<br />Available only electronically, although many have called for a printed version (obviously can’t include 1300 pages!)<br />Costs not yet finalized for the online product<br />Text designed explicitly for online access, with user-configurable aspects<br />Still very oriented towards textual resources<br />11/20/09<br />19<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    20. 20. What You Might Not Have Heard<br />JSC has gradually backed away from their original stance that RDA could be expressed easily in MARC<br />Full integration of FRBR entities into RDA has made that problematic<br />RDA has been developed explicitly to take advantage of the Semantic Web (although there are still residues of past practice)<br />Changes made in MARC to support RDA are insufficient to allow full RDA expression (particularly relationships) in MARC<br />11/20/09<br />20<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    21. 21. JSC Scenarios<br />Scenario 1: separate records for all FRBR entities with linked identifiers<br />Scenario 2: composite bibliographic records (with authority records representing each entity)<br />Scenario 3: one flat record, with all Group 1 entities on a single record<br />This is the only scenario that MARC can handle<br />11/20/09<br />21<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    22. 22. The Rest of the Story<br />RDA elements, roles and vocabularies have been provisionally registered <br />The vocabularies and the text will be tied together in freely available RDA XML schemas<br />Some efforts have begun to consider how MARC21 data can be parsed into FRBR entities and RDA<br />eXtensible Catalog Project moving strongly in this direction<br />Unfortunately, we don’t know much about what OCLC is planning<br />Discussions about long term maintenance of both RDA and the vocabularies will begin after RDA release<br />The push is already on for a multi-language RDA Vocabulary<br />11/20/09<br />22<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    23. 23. RDF Vocabularies<br />Hosted at the Metadata Registry<br />7 Upper ontologies (+ FRBR in RDA)<br />69 Value vocabularies<br />Extracted from Entity Relationship Diagrams (built by RDA Online contractor, based on JSC decisions)<br />11/20/09<br />23<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    24. 24. RDA & FRBR: Registered!<br />RDA Group 1 Elements: <br /><br />RDA Roles:<br /><br />RDA Vocabulary example: Base Material<br /><br />FRBR Entities for RDA<br /><br />11/20/09<br />24<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    25. 25. Who’s Doing This?<br />DCMI/RDA Task Group<br />See:<br />Set up during the April 2007 London meeting between JSC and DCMI<br />Gordon Dunsire and Diane Hillmann, co-chairs<br />Karen Coyle & Alistair Miles, consultants<br />IFLA Classification and Indexing Section<br />Gordon Dunsire, Centre for Digital Library Research, University of Strathclyde, will be registering FRBR entities and relationships<br />Possible inclusion of ISBDs, FRAD, etc., in future<br />11/20/09<br />25<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    26. 26. How Soon Will All This Happen?<br />The bad news: This isn’t like 1981, when there was a “start date” and we knew exactly when to change gears<br />More bad news: This transition is likely to be a pretty messy one, and last longer than we would like<br />One unknown is OCLC’s role—at present they seem to be focused on consolidating control over library data and promoting WorldCat Local<br />What little they have said indicates that they’ll be cramming data into MARC for the foreseeable future …<br />Some vendors are starting to announce plans …<br />11/20/09<br />26<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    27. 27. What Are the Challenges?<br />Coordination with JSC (or it’s successor, given the need to move beyond “Anglo-American”) on long-term maintenance planning<br />Need for lightweight process for expansion and extension, where change is not a multi-year marathon<br />Continuing development towards a more Semantic web-friendly RDA (less reliance on transcription, for instance)<br />Tool development (at all levels, including ILS vendors)<br />We need lots of innovation in this realm!<br />11/20/09<br />27<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    28. 28. Yet More Challenges<br />Description Set Profiles that express more than one notion of “Work” and more than one communitypoint of view <br />JSC still seeing the process through the lens of a text cataloger <br />Their “core elements” make most sense for traditional books, serials, and other text-based objects<br />Moving the MARC legacy data into RDA<br />Including authority files<br />Multi-lingual and specialized extensions<br />Non-Anglo-American communities eager to participate<br />11/20/09<br />28<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    29. 29. Multi-lingual RDA<br />The NSDL Registry approach:<br />Translations of labels, definitions and comments reside within the save vocabulary, with separate language attributes<br />URIs stay the same, as do relationships<br />Responsibility for updating translations rests with translation “owner”—who is enabled as a maintainer in the main vocabulary<br />Disadvantages<br />Unsure how extensively this strategy will “scale”<br />Requires a “web of trust” and organizational commitment<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />29<br />
    30. 30. RDA With German<br />The Registry team has been working with the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek to build German language labels, definitions, etc. into the RDA elements and vocabularies<br />The group developing these extensions consists of librarians from an array of German and Austrian libraries<br />See Veronika Leibrecht’s blog post:<br />A sample: RDA Content Type, still image:<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />30<br />
    31. 31. Part 2: Whither Catalogers?<br />What Happens When The Revolution Comes?<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />31<br />
    32. 32. Focus on Catalogers<br />What do we anticipate will be different about our changed working environment?<br />How will workflow change?<br />How will the data look?<br />What will the library vendor systems do with it?<br />How will we integrate user data? What kinds of user data?<br />What do we need to know to operate in this new environment?<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />32<br />
    33. 33. Approaching Change<br />Catalogers will need to separate what they know about information based on their current systems from what is more general in nature<br />Much of the knowledge is portable, but needs updating<br />The new environment is not as well organized (yet), so much learning will need to be self-directed<br />Catalogers’ role may become closer to that of Metadata Librarian<br />Managing data at a more abstract level (not as creators)<br />Understanding the goals of changes anticipated and new requirements will be essential<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />33<br />
    34. 34. Walking through a concrete example …<br />From the DCMI/RDA Cataloger Scenarios<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />34<br />
    35. 35. Jane Cataloger is assigned to work on a gift collection. Her first selection is a Latvian translation of Kurt Vonnegut&apos;s &quot;Bluebeard: a novel.&quot; She searches the library database for the original work, and finds:<br />*Author: Kurt Vonnegut<br /> *Title of the work: Bluebeard: a novel<br /> *Form of work: Novel<br /> *Identifier for the work: W224578<br />35<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />A Cataloger Scenario<br />
    36. 36. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />36<br />Translated to RDA/XML:<br />&lt;frbrWork<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/01”&gt;<br /> &lt;rdarole:author&gt;Kurt Vonnegut&lt;/rdarole:author&gt;<br /> &lt;titleOfTheWork&gt;Bluebeard: a novel&lt;/titleOfTheWork&gt;<br /> &lt;formOfWork&gt;Novel&lt;/formOfWork&gt; &lt;identifierForTheWork&gt;W224578&lt;identifierForTheWork&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrWork&gt;<br />Upgraded to RDA/XML with Links:<br />&lt;frbrWork<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/01”&gt;<br /> &lt;rdarole:author&gt;;/rdarole:author&gt;<br /> &lt;titleOfTheWork&gt;Bluebeard: a novel&lt;/titleOfTheWork&gt;<br /> &lt;formOfWork&gt;;/formOfWork&gt; &lt;identifierForTheWork&gt;;/&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrWork&gt;<br />
    37. 37. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />37<br />with links to the following expression information:<br />*Language of expression: English<br /> *Content type: Text<br />and one manifestation:<br />*Edition statement: 1st trade edition<br /> *Place of publication: New York<br /> *Publisher’s name: Delacorte Press<br /> *Date of publication: 1987<br /> *Extent of text: 300 pages<br /> *Identifier for the manifestation: [ISBN]0385295901<br />
    38. 38. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />38<br />Translated to RDA/XML:<br />&lt;frbrExpression<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/07”&gt;<br /> &lt;contentType&gt;Text&lt;/contentType&gt; &lt;languageOfExpression&gt;English&lt;languageOfExpression&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrExpression&gt;<br />Upgraded to RDA/XML with Links:<br />&lt;frbrExpression<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/07”&gt;<br />&lt;formOfWork&gt;;/&gt; &lt;languageOfExpression&gt; &lt;/&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrExpression&gt;<br />
    39. 39. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />39<br />Translated to RDA/XML (with links below):<br />&lt;frbrManifestation<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/09”&gt;<br /> &lt;editionStatement&gt;1st Trade Edition&lt;/&gt;<br /> &lt;placeOfPublication&gt;New York&lt;placeOfPublication&gt;<br /> &lt;publishersName&gt;Delacorte Press&lt;/publishersName&gt;<br /> &lt;dateOfPublication&gt;1987&lt;/dateOfPublication&gt;<br /> &lt;extentOfText&gt;300 pages&lt;/extentOfText&gt;<br /> &lt;identifierForTheManifestation&gt;[ISBN]0385295901&lt;/&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrManifestation&gt;<br />&lt;frbrManifestatiion<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/09”&gt;<br />&lt;editionStatement&gt;1st Trade Edition&lt;/&gt;<br />&lt;placeOfPublication&gt;;/&gt;<br /> &lt;publishersName&gt;;/&gt;<br /> &lt;dateOfPublication&gt;1987&lt;/dateOfPublication&gt;<br /> &lt;extentOfText&gt;300 pages&lt;/extentOfText&gt;<br /> &lt;identifierForTheManifestation&gt;urn:ISBN:0385295901&lt;/&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrManifestation&gt;<br />
    40. 40. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />40<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Exp: eng<br />Man: eng<br />
    41. 41. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />41<br />Jane begins her description by linking to the existing Work entity. She then creates an expression description:<br />*Content type: text<br />*Language of expression: Latvian<br />*Translator:Grigulis, Arvīds<br />She creates an authority record for the translator since none yet existed. She continues by creating a fuller description for the new manifestation, linking to the authority record for the Latvian publisher (what luck, it already existed!).<br />*Title: [in Latvian]<br />*Place of publication: Riga<br />*Publisher’s name: Liesma<br />*Date of publication: 1997<br />*Extent of Text: 315 pages<br />
    42. 42. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />42<br />Translated to RDA/XML:<br />&lt;frbrExpression<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/11”&gt;<br /> &lt;contentType&gt;text&lt;/contentType&gt; &lt;languageOfExpression&gt;Latvian&lt;languageOfExpression&gt;<br /> &lt;rdarole:translator&gt;Grigulis, Arvīds&lt;/rdarole:translator&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrExpression&gt;<br />Upgraded to RDA/XML with Links:<br />&lt;frbrExpression<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/11”&gt;<br />&lt;formOfWork&gt;;/&gt; &lt;languageOfExpression&gt;;/&gt;<br /> &lt;rdarole:translator&gt; <br />&lt;/frbrExpression&gt;<br />
    43. 43. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />43<br />Translated to RDA/XML (with links below):<br />&lt;frbrManifestation<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/09”&gt;<br /> &lt;title&gt;[in Latvian]&lt;/&gt;<br /> &lt;placeOfPublication&gt;Riga&lt;placeOfPublication&gt;<br /> &lt;publishersName&gt;Liesma&lt;/publishersName&gt;<br /> &lt;dateOfPublication&gt;1997&lt;/dateOfPublication&gt;<br /> &lt;extentOfText&gt;315 pages&lt;/extentOfText&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrManifestation&gt;<br />&lt;frbrManifestatiion<br /> ID=&quot;rda.basic/09”&gt;<br />&lt;placeOfPublication&gt;;/&gt;<br /> &lt;publishersName&gt;;/&gt;<br /> &lt;dateOfPublication&gt;1997&lt;/dateOfPublication&gt;<br /> &lt;extentOfText&gt;315 pages&lt;/extentOfText&gt;<br />&lt;/frbrManifestation&gt;<br />
    44. 44. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />44<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />
    45. 45. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />45<br />FRBR Group 2<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Author<br />Translator<br />Publisher<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />
    46. 46. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />46<br />FRBR Group 2<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Author<br />Translator<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Publisher<br />FRBR Group 3<br />Concepts<br />Objects<br />Events<br />Places<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />Subjects<br />
    47. 47. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />47<br />FRBR Group 2<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Author<br />Translator<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Publisher<br />FRBR Group 3<br />Concepts<br />Objects<br />Events<br />Places<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />Subjects<br />Relationship<br />Vocabularies<br />Content Vocabularies<br />Other Information<br />In the “Cloud”<br />Media Vocabularies<br />
    48. 48. Examining the Genetics<br />RDA’s model is primarily FRBR and FRAD, but also takes some of its DNA from Dublin Core<br />DC’s Abstract Model de-composes traditional metadata “records” and re-composes them with additional levels above and below what we’ve traditionally thought of as our “atomic level”<br />The DCAM also talks about “statements” in ways that help connect RDA to the Semantic Web<br />The Semantic Web leads us into a different world of data<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />48<br />
    49. 49. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />49<br />A Dublin Core View of the World<br />DCMI Abstract Model:<br />
    50. 50. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />50<br />A Dublin Core View of the World<br />DCMI Abstract Model:<br />
    51. 51. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />51<br />Anatomy of a Statement: Strings<br />Property<br />Value<br />Place of Production: New York<br />Value<br />String<br />
    52. 52. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />52<br />Anatomy of a Statement: URIs<br />Property<br />Value<br />Place of Production:<br />For Related Description<br />
    53. 53. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />53<br />A Related Description<br />
    54. 54. “The Semantic Web is a web of data, in some ways like a global database”1<br />“first step is putting data on the Web in a form that machines can naturally understand...  This creates what I call a Semantic Web - a web of data that can be processed directly or indirectly by machines”2<br />1.<br />2. Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web. Harper, San Francisco. 1999.<br />Slide from presentation to UKOLN by Adrian Stevenson, 11/09<br />11/20/09<br />54<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    55. 55. Sets<br />Cats, Descriptions, Whatever<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />55<br />
    56. 56. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />56<br />Description Sets a Key Concept!<br />
    57. 57. Description Set=“A set of one or more descriptions, each of which describes a single resource.”*<br />57<br />*DCAM Definition<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    58. 58. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />58<br />FRBR Group 2<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Author<br />Translator<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Publisher<br />FRBR Group 3<br />Concepts<br />Objects<br />Events<br />Places<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />Subjects<br />Relationship<br />Vocabularies<br />Content Vocabularies<br />Other Information<br />In the “Cloud”<br />Media Vocabularies<br />
    59. 59. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />59<br />FRBR Group 2<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Author<br />Translator<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Publisher<br />FRBR Group 3<br />Concepts<br />Objects<br />Events<br />Places<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />Subjects<br />Relationship<br />Vocabularies<br />Content Vocabularies<br />Other Information<br />In the “Cloud”<br />Media Vocabularies<br />
    60. 60. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />60<br />FRBR Group 2<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Author<br />Translator<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Publisher<br />FRBR Group 3<br />Concepts<br />Objects<br />Events<br />Places<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />Subjects<br />Relationship<br />Vocabularies<br />Content Vocabularies<br />Other Information<br />In the “Cloud”<br />Media Vocabularies<br />
    61. 61. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />61<br />FRBR Group 2<br />FRBR Group 1<br />Work<br />Author<br />Translator<br />Exp: eng<br />Exp: lav<br />Publisher<br />FRBR Group 3<br />Concepts<br />Objects<br />Events<br />Places<br />Man: eng<br />Man: lav<br />Subjects<br />Relationship<br />Vocabularies<br />Content Vocabularies<br />Other Information<br />In the “Cloud”<br />Media Vocabularies<br />
    62. 62. So, How Different Is This?<br />A “Description Set” is an aggregation of statements …<br />A MARC Record is an aggregation of fields<br />Each has rules and specifications<br />Each has ways of relating to other kinds of related information<br />How hard can it be?<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />62<br />
    63. 63. New Tools, New Knowledge<br />Getting There From Here<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />63<br />
    64. 64. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />64<br />
    65. 65. Semantic Web Standards<br />RDF: Resource Description Framework<br />Statements about Web resources in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions, called triples<br />E.g. “This presentation” –“has creator” –“Diane Hillmann”<br />RDF Schema<br />Vocabulary description language of RDF<br />SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation System<br />Expresses the basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri and other types of controlled vocabularies<br />An RDF application<br />OWL (Web Ontology Language)<br />Explicitly represents the meaning of terms in vocabularies and the relationships between them<br />11/20/09<br />65<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    66. 66. Semantic Web Building Blocks<br />Each component of an RDF statement (triple) is a “resource”<br />RDF is about making machine-processable statements, requiring<br />A machine-processable language for representing RDF statements<br />A system of machine-processable identifiers for resources (subjects, predicates, objects)<br />Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) <br />For full machine-processing potential, an RDF statement is a set of three URIs<br />11/20/09<br />66<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    67. 67. Things Requiring Identification<br />Object “This presentation”<br />e.g. its electronic location (URL)<br />Predicate “has creator”<br />e.g.<br />Object “Diane Hillmann”<br />e.g. URI of entry in Library of Congress Name Authority File (real soon now?)<br />NAF: nr2001015786<br />Declaring vocabularies/values in SKOS and OWL provides URIs—essential for the Semantic Web<br />11/20/09<br />67<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    68. 68. What Happened to XML?<br />Nothing: XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is most likely how library systems will evolve after MARC<br />It makes sense to use XML to exchange data between libraries, and some external services<br />But RDF is gaining ground, and libraries will need to be able to accommodate it, and understand it<br />An XML record is essentially an aggregation of property = value statements about the same resource<br />RDF triples can also be aggregated using XML, but this isn’t necessarily the best way to realize the potential of RDF<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />68<br />
    69. 69. New Sources of Data<br />Governments <br />The UK government is looking for ways to distribute it’s data widely:<br />The US government is joining the party:<br />Geographic names:<br />New York Times:<br />Other information (being used by the NYTimes)<br />Dbpedia:<br />Freebase:<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />69<br />
    70. 70. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />70<br /><br />
    71. 71. Can Libraries Participate?<br />11/20/09<br />71<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    72. 72. Users <br />Bringing Users (and Usage) Into the Conversation<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />72<br />
    73. 73. User Data “R” Us<br />Sources of ‘active’ user data<br />Tagging, etc. <br />Review and rating systems<br />Courseware systems<br />Sources of ‘passive’ user data<br />Logs of user activity<br />Circulation or download data<br />“Making data work harder …” –Lorcan Dempsey<br />Collaborative filtering<br />Data mining <br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />73<br />
    74. 74. Active User Data<br />User tagging and description<br />Ex.: The LC Flickr Project<br />Ex.: LibraryThing<br />Review and rating systems<br />Ex.: Penn Tags<br />Ex.: Amazon<br />Courseware Systems<br />Making connections so that courseware can reuse catalog information; catalogs can know what has been used in courses, when, and who assigned it<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />74<br />
    75. 75. LC-Flickr Project<br />Library of Congress and Flickr--“In a very elegant way, Flickr solves the authority conundrum of exposing collections content to social process. No need to worry if some comments or tags are misleading, arbitrary or incorrect - it’s not happening on your site, but in a space where people know and expect a wide variety of contributions. On the other hand, LC selectively reaps the benefit of these contributions.” <br />(<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />75<br />An Example:<br />
    76. 76. Librarything<br />What is it? From the homepage:<br />Join the world’s largest book club<br />Catalog your books from Amazon, the Library of Congress and 690 other world libraries. Import from anywhere<br />Find people with eerily similar tastes. <br />Find new books to read<br />Free Early Reviewer books from publishers and authors<br />An example:<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />76<br />
    77. 77. 11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />77<br />What is PennTags?<br />“PennTags is a social bookmarking tool for locating, organizing, and sharing your favorite online resources. Members of the Penn Community can collect and maintain URLs, links to journal articles, and records in Franklin, our online catalog and VCat, our online video catalog. Once these resources are compiled, you can organize them by assigning tags (free-text keywords) and/or by grouping them into projects, according to your specific preferences. PennTags can also be used collaboratively, because it acts as a repository of the varied interests and academic pursuits of the Penn community, and can help you find topics and users related to your own favorite online resources.nPennTags was developed by librarians at the University of Pennsylvania. “<br />An example:<br />
    78. 78. Passive User Data<br />Logs of user activity<br />Usually locally maintained and analyzed<br />Third party services like Google Analytics can provide important aggregate information<br />Circulation or download data<br />Tricky in library settings, where user privacy an important value, but can be successfully agregated<br />Anonymized data can be stored and used for relevance ranking<br />Take a cue from successful commercial sites like Amazon!<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />78<br />
    79. 79. Hard Working Data<br />Collaborative filtering<br />Wikipedia: “ … the process of filtering for information or patterns using techniques involving collaboration among multiple agents, viewpoints, data sources, etc.”<br />Ex.: Amazon (people who bought “X” also bought “Y”)<br />Data mining<br />Wikipedia: “ … statistical and logical analysis of large sets of transaction data, looking for patterns that can aid decision making.”<br />Ex.: LibraryThing Zeitgeist<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />79<br />
    80. 80. User Data Issues<br />Privacy<br />Being able to use information about a contributing user without violating personal privacy<br />Complicated by differences in generational ideas about what privacy is<br />Authority (who said?)<br />Librarians have traditionally valued “objectivity,” but there’s no evidence that users see this as a value<br />Management<br />Keeping spammers out<br />Filtering language and malicious intent<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />80<br />
    81. 81. Sharing User Contributions<br />Note how LibraryThing pulls Amazon descriptions<br />Amazon has an API that allows other services to use its data<br />Positioning Amazon data in other sites drives users back to Amazon—Libraries need to do this!<br />As libraries move more of their unique data to the Web, they need to be aware of the marketing value of sharing data and allowing other services to combine it in new ways<br />To do this, libraries will need to be able to package the data in ways hat others can capture it<br />Ex.: XC Project is planning to share Courseware information<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />81<br />
    82. 82. Preparing Ourselves<br />Figuring Out What We Need To Know<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />82<br />
    83. 83. Learning Strategies<br />Group Learning<br />Seminars (like this one!)<br />Conference presentations<br />Local study groups<br />Self-directed learning<br />Tutorials<br />Blogs<br />Keeping up with the discussion--You need a plan!<br />11/20/09<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />83<br />
    84. 84. Self-directed Learning<br />Web tutorials:<br /><br />Blogs<br />Get a Bloglines account (free)<br />Start with a few, and expand:<br />Lorcan Dempsey ( <br />Karen Coyle ( <br />The FRBR Blog ( <br />Catalogablog ( <br />Cataloging Futures ( <br />Metadata Matters ( <br />11/20/09<br />84<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    85. 85. Mailing lists<br />Evaluate your current reading habits<br />Are you spending too much time on lists that focus on MARC and AACR2 problem solving?<br />Do you hear too much whining about change?<br />Migrate to some of the lists discussing newer ideas<br /><br /><br />RDA-L@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA<br />DC-RDA@JISCMAIL.AC.UK<br />Ask questions! Network!<br />11/20/09<br />85<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    86. 86. Acronymia, We Are Here<br />RDA: Resource Description and Access<br />RDF: Resource Description Framework (a W3C standard)<br />FRBR: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records<br />FRBRoo: Object Oriented FRBR (harmonized with CIDOC CRM)<br />FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data<br />FRASAR: Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records<br />SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation System (a W3C standard)<br />11/20/09<br />86<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />
    87. 87. Thanks & Acknowledgements<br />Thanks for your attention!<br />Slides and ideas from Karen Coyle, Gordon Dunsire, and too many others to count!<br />Contact for Diane:<br />Email:<br />Website:<br />11/20/09<br />87<br />CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington<br />