Principles of teaching


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  • 1993 Nobel Laureate in Literature who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality. Background Born: 1931, Lorain, OH, U.S.A Residence: U.S.A the Pulitzer Prize in 1988. Novels The Bluest Eye . New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston 1970 Sula . New York: Knopf 1973 Song of Solomon . New York: Knopf 1977 Tar Baby . New York: Knopf 1981 Beloved . New York: Knopf 1987 Jazz . New York: Knopf 1992 Plays Dreaming Emmet (performed 1986, but unpublished) Essays Playing in the Dark-Whiteness and the Literary Imagination . Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: Harvard University Press 1992. Racing Justice, Engendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas and the Others on the Constructing of Social Reality . Ed. and introduction Toni Morrison, Chatto and Windus 1992.
  • TIME magazine’s most important person of the century. “…Only recently Canadian researchers, probing those pickled remains, found that he had an unusually large inferior parietal lobe--a center of mathematical thought and spatial imagery--and shorter connections between the frontal and temporal lobes…”
  • Born February 28, 1907 this Hillsboro, the Ohio native graduated from Ohio State University in 1930. Moving to New York City in 1932 he secured a job with the Associated Press Syndicate and created his first strip, "The Gay Thirties", a single panel strip. In 1933 he created his first popular character in "Dickie Dare", an adventure strip featuring a small boy. The following year, when Captain Joseph Patterson was looking for an artist/writer to create a new adventure strip fro the Daily News, he tapped Caniff, who in turn created "Terry & the Pirates", and the rest is history. Terry was an immediate smash hit when it debuted on October 22, 1934 (as a daily strip, the Sunday page first appeared in December), and it's success propelled Caniff forever into the eyes of the American public. v
  • FULL NAME : Denton True Young BORN : March 29, 1867 Gilmore, Ohio DIED : November 4, 1955 Newcomerstown, Ohio SUMMARY Height: 6'2" Weight: 210 Threw: Right Position: Pitcher Got the nickname "Cy" because of his cyclone-like fastball. Made his major league debut at the age of 23 for Cleveland against Chicago. In that debut, he pitched a three-hitter and won the game 8-1. He pitched for 22 years and won 511 games which is still a record today. He also holds the record for most losses in a career with 313. He holds the major league record for complete games with 751. He holds the major league record for innings pitched with 7,356. He is fourth on the all time list for shutouts with 76. He won 20 or more games in sixteen seasons. He won 30 or more games in five seasons. He started 40 or more games eleven times in his career.
  • Born Doris Mary Ann von Kappelhoff in Cincinatti, Ohio on April 3, 1924, she had originally hoped to be a ballet dancer, but that dream died when she was seriously injured in an automobile accident and was hospitalized for a year at the age of 14, just after winning a talent contest as a dancer. But she didn't let that stop her. She took singing lessons, and got jobs singing with bands in the 1940s, including Bob Crosby and Les Brown. She later appeared with Frank Sinatra and Artie Shaw on "Saturday Night Hit Parade." She first appeared on film in 1948, in "Romance on the High Seas," when Betty Hutton was unable to do the part. She lent her talents to a string of Warner Brothers light musical comedies from 1949 to 1955, including "It's a Great Feeling," "My Dream Is Yours," "Tea for Two," "The West Point Story," "Lullaby of Broadway," "On Moonlight Bay," "April in Paris," "I'll See You in My Dreams," "By the Light of the Silvery Moon," "Lucky Me," and "Young at Heart." Her most memorable films during this period were probably "Calamity Jane" (1953), Alfred Hitchcock's remake of "The Man Who Knew Too Much" (1956), in which she appeared with Jimmy Stewart and sang what was to become her trademark song, "Que, Sera, Sera," and 1957's "The Pajama Game," the Broadway hit that featured brilliant choreography by Bob Fosse.
  • He was born in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, in 1831. Fatherless at two, he later drove canal boat teams, somehow earning enough money for an education. He was graduated from Williams College in Massachusetts in 1856, and he returned to the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later Hiram College) in Ohio as a classics professor. Within a year he was made its president. At the 1880 Republican Convention, Garfield failed to win the Presidential nomination for his friend John Sherman. Finally, on the 36th ballot, Garfield himself became the "dark horse" nominee. By a margin of only 10,000 popular votes, Garfield defeated the Democratic nominee, Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock.
  • Meet Helen Keller, a woman from the small farm town of Tuscumbia, Alabama who taught the world to respect people who are blind and deaf. Her mission came from her own life; when she was 1 1/2, she was extremely ill, and she lost both her vision and hearing. It was like entering a different world, with completely new rules, and she got very frustrated. By the time she was 7, her parents knew they needed help, so they hired a tutor named Anne Sullivan.
  • Sacajawea was born about 1790 in what is now the state of Idaho. She was one of the "Snake People," otherwise known as the Shoshone. Her name in Hidatsa was Tsi-ki-ka-wi-as, "Bird Woman. In Shoshone, her name means "Boat Pusher." She was stolen during a raid by a Hidatsa tribe when she was a young girl and taken to their village near what is now Bismark, N. Dakota. Some time afterward the French-Canadian trapper and fur trader, Charbonneau bought Sacajawea and her companion, Otter Woman, as wives. When her husband joined the expedition at Fort Mandan in the Dakotas, Sacajawea was about 16 years old and pregnant. The expedition spent the winter at Fort Mandan and Sacajawea's baby, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, was born on Feb. 11 or 12, 1805. He was also given the Shoshone name, Pomp, meaning First Born. The expedition resumed the westward trek on April 7, 1805. Their route was along the Missouri River, west to the mountains. On May 14, 1805 an incident occurred which was typical of the calmness and self-possession Sacajawea was to display throughout the journey. The incident was recorded in the diaries because of it's significance to the success of the expedition. On that day, the boat Sacajawea was in was hit by a sudden storm squall. It keeled over on it's side and nearly capsized. As the other members of the crew worked desperately to right the boat, Sacajawea, with her baby strapped to her back, busied herself with retrieving the valuable books and instruments that floated out of the boat. They had been wrapped in waterproof packages for protection and, thanks to Sacajawea's courage and quick actions, suffered no damage. Contrary to popular opinion, Sacajawea did not serve as a guide for the party. She only influenced the direction taken by the expedition one time, after reaching the area where her people hunted she indicated they should take a tributary of the Beaverhead River to get to the mountains where her people lived and where Lewis and Clark hoped to buy horses. On August 15, 1805 Sacajawea was re-united with her tribe, only to learn that all her family had died, with the exception of two brothers and the son of her oldest sister, whom she adopted. One of her brothers, Cameahwait, was head chief of the Shoshone. The Shoshone chief agreed to sell the party the horses they needed for the trek through the mountains. He also sketched a map of the country to the west and provided a guide, Old Toby, who took them through the mountains and safely to the Nez Perce country. where they resumed river travel. Throughout the expedition, Sacajawea maintained a helpful, uncomplaining attitude of cheefulness in the face of hardship. This was so remarkable that it was commented on by all the men who kept diaries. There is one record of her complaining, however. While wintering on the Columbia River before starting their journey back to the east, nearby Indians reported that a whale had washed up on the beach about 35 miles from the fort. Sacajawea said that she had traveled a long way to see the great waters and, now that a monstrous fish was also to be seen, she thought it "very hard" that she could not be permitted to see it, and the ocean too. Captain Clark took a party of two canoes, including Sacajawea and her husband, to find the whale and possibly obtain some blubber. By the time they arrived there was nothing left but the skeleton, but they were able to buy about 35 pounds of blubber. After the expedition was over in the summer of 1806, Sacajawea, her husband and son remained at Fort Mandan where Lewis and Clark had found them. In August 1806, Captain Clark wrote to Charbonneau and invited him to come to St. Louis and bring his family, or to send Jean Baptiste to Clark for schooling. Charbonneau and Sacajawea accepted the offer and lived near St. Louis for a time. In March 1811, however, Charbonneau sold his land back to Clark and returned to the Dakotas with Sacajawea. Their son remained in St. Louis in the care of Cpt. Clark, who was the Indian Agent of the Louisiana Purchase at that time. What became of Sacajawea after leaving St. Louis? There are two widely varying stories, with no proof of either. The first is that she died on Dec. 20, 1812. This information came from the records of John C. Luttig, the clerk at Ft. Manuel, SD who wrote: "This evening the wife of Charbonneau, a Snake squaw, died of a putrid fever. She was a good and the best woman in the fort, aged about 25 years. She left a fine infant girl." It is a fact that, in March 1813, John Luttig returned to St. Louis with a baby whom he called "Sacajawea's Lizette." In August 1813, he applied to be her guardian, as well as that of a boy called "Toussaint," but the court record shows his name crossed out and Cpt. William Clark's written in. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was often called Toussaint. John Luttig died in 1815. Shoshone oral tradition says that Sacajawea did not die in 1813, but instead, wandered the west for a few years and eventually returned to her tribe on the Wind River Reservation. Tradition says she died there on April 9, 1884, a venerated and influential member of the tribe, and is buried between her son, Jean Baptiste, and her sister's son, Bazil, whom she adopted. There is a monument over the grave on the Wind River Reservation, of the woman called Sacajawea. Many people who were living at the time wrote and told that it was she who traveled with Lewis and Clark to the great water and that the woman who died at Fort Manuel was another wife of Toussaint Charbonneau. There is no record of what became of Lizette. There is a baptismal record in Westport, MO for Victoire, daughter of Joseph Vertifeuille and Elizabeth Carboneau. It is not known if this was Lizette Charbonneau, Sacajawea's daughter or not. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau lived at least until 1866. His life can be traced through various records of explorers and fur traders up until that time. He was said to be a remarkable man; superior as a guide and trapper, but also well-educated and conversant in French, German and Spanish as well as his native Shoshone. He was with Prince Paul of Wurttemberg on his travels of the American West in 1823, and returned with him to Germany where he stayed for several years, returning in 1829. He was with Jim Bridger in 1832, with Kit Carson in 1839 and in charge of a fur-trading party in 1842 when they met Charles Fremont. He was included in George Frederick Ruxton's book, "Life in the Far West" as one of the important fur traders of that time. He was with Lt. Abert on an exploration down the Canadian River and with Col. Philip Cooke and his troops from New Mexico to California. In 1866 he started for the gold fields in Montana and Idaho, but is said to have died on Cow Creek near the present town of Danner, Oregon in 1866. Shoshone oral traditions, however, say that he returned to his tribe during that time and was re-united with his mother, Sacajawea where he lived until his death in 1885. Related Web Sites Lewis & Clark The PBS companion web site to the film by Ken Burns Lewis & Clark Trail sponsored by Heritage Trail, Inc. Roster of Lewis & Clark Expedition List of the men who accompanied Lewis & Clark. For comments or questions please e-mail Tawodi . Return to Native Americans Page
  • Principles of teaching

    1. 1. A Child’s Plea A little love that slowly grows and grows Not one that comes and goes That’s all I ask of you. A sunny day to look up to the sky, A hand to help me by, That’s all I ask of you Don’t let me down Oh, show me that you care Remember when you give You also get a share. Don’t let me down I have no time to wait Tomorrow might not come By then t’ will be too late
    2. 2. The Elements of Teaching andThe Elements of Teaching and LearningLearning The principal elements that make teachingThe principal elements that make teaching and learning possible and attainable are theand learning possible and attainable are the teachers, the learners, and a conducive learningteachers, the learners, and a conducive learning environment . Without one, there could be noenvironment . Without one, there could be no teaching, nor will there learning of a desiredteaching, nor will there learning of a desired objective.objective. Teacher Learner Conducive learning Environment
    3. 3. The teacher serves as the primeThe teacher serves as the prime mover of the educational wheel, whilemover of the educational wheel, while the learners are the key participants inthe learners are the key participants in the learning process. The favorablethe learning process. The favorable environment provides essentialenvironment provides essential features and ingredients that would befeatures and ingredients that would be of great help in guiding the learningof great help in guiding the learning process.process.
    4. 4. How does each elementHow does each element contribute to learning?contribute to learning? ???? ??
    5. 5. The leaner is an embodiedThe leaner is an embodied spirit. He is not just a body,spirit. He is not just a body, neither just a spirit. He is aneither just a spirit. He is a union of a sentient body and aunion of a sentient body and a rational soul. His bodyrational soul. His body experiences sensations andexperiences sensations and feels pleasure and painfeels pleasure and pain..
    6. 6. His soul is the principle of spiritualHis soul is the principle of spiritual acts, the source of intellectual abstraction,acts, the source of intellectual abstraction, self-reflection, and free rational volition.self-reflection, and free rational volition.
    7. 7. Body and soulBody and soul exist in mutualexist in mutual dependence. Whatdependence. What happens to the bodyhappens to the body happens also to the spirit.happens also to the spirit. Likewise what happens toLikewise what happens to the spirit affects the body.the spirit affects the body.
    8. 8. As teachersAs teachers then, let us take care forthen, let us take care for the embodied spirit-the embodied spirit- learner. Let us feedlearner. Let us feed his/her body as well ashis/her body as well as his/her spirit.his/her spirit. ““Man does not live by breadMan does not live by bread alonealone.”.”
    9. 9. The teachers isThe teachers is equipped with facultiesequipped with faculties or powers-or powers-cognitivecognitive andand affectiveaffective. His/her. His/her cognitive facultiescognitive faculties include his/her fiveinclude his/her five senses, instinct,senses, instinct, imagination, memory,imagination, memory, and intellect. By his/herand intellect. By his/her senses, the learner issenses, the learner is able to see, hear, feel,able to see, hear, feel, taste and smelltaste and smell whatever is to bewhatever is to be learned.learned.
    10. 10. By the power of imagination, theBy the power of imagination, the learner is able to formlearner is able to form representations of material objects orrepresentations of material objects or things which are not actually presentthings which are not actually present to the the senses.
    11. 11. By his/her power of memory, he isBy his/her power of memory, he is able to retain, recall, and recognizeable to retain, recall, and recognize past mental acts. By his/her intellect,past mental acts. By his/her intellect, he/she can form concepts or ideas,he/she can form concepts or ideas, make judgment, and reason out.make judgment, and reason out. What are his/her appetitiveWhat are his/her appetitive faculties? These are his/her feelings,faculties? These are his/her feelings, emotions, andemotions, and rational will.rational will.
    12. 12. Through his/her feelings and emotions,Through his/her feelings and emotions, a person experiences the pleasantness ora person experiences the pleasantness or unpleasantness , the satisfactoriness orunpleasantness , the satisfactoriness or unsatisfactoriness, the pain or the joy of anunsatisfactoriness, the pain or the joy of an object or an activity.object or an activity. His/herHis/her willwill serves as the guiding forceserves as the guiding force and the main integrating force in theand the main integrating force in the person’s character. Through his/herperson’s character. Through his/her willwill,, the learnerthe learner willswills what his/her intellectwhat his/her intellect presents as good and desirable.presents as good and desirable.
    13. 13. For, effective and efficient learning, the fiveFor, effective and efficient learning, the five senses must function normally. The leanersenses must function normally. The leaner becomes aware of his/her objective worldbecomes aware of his/her objective world through his/her senses.through his/her senses. All learners are equipped with the cognitiveAll learners are equipped with the cognitive and appetitive faculties. However, the exerciseand appetitive faculties. However, the exercise of their different abilities, aptitudes, interests,of their different abilities, aptitudes, interests, home background, attitudes and values.home background, attitudes and values.
    14. 14. Let us take a look once moreLet us take a look once more at the learner from the point ofat the learner from the point of view of these five distinguishingview of these five distinguishing elements.elements.
    15. 15. AbilityAbility -- determine thedetermine the capacity of learners tocapacity of learners to understand andunderstand and assimilate information forassimilate information for their own use andtheir own use and application. Learners mayapplication. Learners may be classified generallybe classified generally into fast, average andinto fast, average and slow learners.slow learners. Others are labeledOthers are labeled high, moderate and slowhigh, moderate and slow achievers.achievers. Fast Aver- age Slow
    16. 16. As to their mental ability, students can beAs to their mental ability, students can be categorized into superior, above average, andcategorized into superior, above average, and below average.below average. A wide range in their intelligence is a factor toA wide range in their intelligence is a factor to consider in planning instruction.consider in planning instruction. Below Average Above Average Superior
    17. 17. AptitudeAptitude - This refers to the student’s- This refers to the student’s innate talent or gift. It indicates ainnate talent or gift. It indicates a natural capacity to learn certainnatural capacity to learn certain skills. Some may exhibit specialskills. Some may exhibit special inclination for the arts such asinclination for the arts such as painting and designing crafts,painting and designing crafts, propensity for music and flair forpropensity for music and flair for dramatics. Talent fordramatics. Talent for Mathematics or literature isMathematics or literature is likewise noticed among a few.likewise noticed among a few.
    18. 18. It is important that these aptitudes beIt is important that these aptitudes be recognized early among our students sorecognized early among our students so as not to waste such inborn learning. Asas not to waste such inborn learning. As teachers, it is imperative that we helpteachers, it is imperative that we help develop students’ potentials.develop students’ potentials.
    19. 19. InterestsInterests - Learners vary in activities undertaken due to- Learners vary in activities undertaken due to a strong appeal or attraction, Girls, for example,a strong appeal or attraction, Girls, for example, are strongly attracted to flowering plants andare strongly attracted to flowering plants and greeneries. Boys go for hiking and mountaingreeneries. Boys go for hiking and mountain climbing.climbing. Lessons that give them the chance to expressLessons that give them the chance to express their deep feelings for objects or actions will betheir deep feelings for objects or actions will be more meaningful and easily absorbed.more meaningful and easily absorbed.
    20. 20. A classroom set-up could offer centersA classroom set-up could offer centers of interest so that students would like toof interest so that students would like to enjoy staying in the classroom. Interestenjoy staying in the classroom. Interest clubs could be organized to serve asclubs could be organized to serve as outlet of special interest shared by theoutlet of special interest shared by the members.members.
    21. 21. Family & CulturalFamily & Cultural BackgroundBackground Students coming from differentStudents coming from different socioeconomic background manifest asocioeconomic background manifest a wide range of behavior, due towide range of behavior, due to differences in upbringing practices.differences in upbringing practices. Their participation in classroomTheir participation in classroom activities are influenced by their trainingactivities are influenced by their training at home and experiences, either theyat home and experiences, either they become active and confident in thierbecome active and confident in thier ways or inactive and apathetic.ways or inactive and apathetic.
    22. 22. AttitudesAttitudes Students have a unique way ofStudents have a unique way of thinking and reacting. Facing thethinking and reacting. Facing the same situation in the learningsame situation in the learning environment, they would reactenvironment, they would react differently depending on their personaldifferently depending on their personal characteristics.characteristics. AttitudeAttitude refers to an individual’srefers to an individual’s perspective and disposition.perspective and disposition.
    23. 23. Some positive attitudesSome positive attitudes areare:: • CuriosityCuriosity • ResponsibilityResponsibility • CreativityCreativity • PersistencePersistence
    24. 24. These five elements makeThese five elements make learners different from onelearners different from one another.another. The learners’ multiple intelligences andThe learners’ multiple intelligences and varied earning styles make them evenvaried earning styles make them even more different from one another. Added tomore different from one another. Added to these differences is the integration ofthese differences is the integration of children with special needs as well aschildren with special needs as well as children of the indigenous people groupschildren of the indigenous people groups in the the classroom. (Multiple Intelligences Learning Styles)(Multiple Intelligences Learning Styles)
    25. 25. What is intelligence? According to Gardner, intelligence is “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings” (Gardner & Hatch, 1989) “all societies value different types of intelligences” (Gardner, 1983)
    26. 26. Howard Gardner claims • we all possess all of these intelligences but in varying degrees of strength, skill and limitation • just as we all look different and have unique personalities and temperaments, we also have different profiles of intelligences • no one kind of intelligence is better than another • each intelligence has its own sphere of expertise • intelligences are independent of each another.
    27. 27. Gardner’s 8 Intelligences are: • 1. Logical-mathematical • (associated with scientific thinking) • 2. Verbal-linguistic • (the production of language and communication) • 3. Musical- rhythmic • (recognition and use of sounds) • 4. Naturalist • (ability to work with nature)
    28. 28. • 5. Visual-spatial • (deals with visual arts) • 6. Inter-relational • (inter personal skills) • 7. Intra-relational • (understanding of self) • 8. Bodily-kinesthetic • (associated with body movements)
    29. 29. Who is intelligent?
    30. 30. 8 Intelligences – by Dr. Howard Gardner 1. Linguistic 2. Logical/ Mathematical 3. Spatial 4. Bodily/ Kinesthetic 5. Musical 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalistic
    31. 31. Can you define intelligence? Toni Morrison Linguistic Intelligence • Skilled with words • “The Word Player”
    32. 32. Can you define intelligence? Albert Einstein Logical/ Mathematical Intelligence • Skilled with numbers & reasoning • “The Questioner”
    33. 33. Can you define intelligence? Milton Caniff Spatial Intelligence • Skilled with pictures & images • “The Visualizer”
    34. 34. Can you define intelligence? Cy Young Bodily/ Kinesthetic Intelligence • Physical skill • “The Mover”
    35. 35. Can you define intelligence? Doris Day Musical Intelligence • Skilled with melody & rhythm • “The Music Lover”
    36. 36. Can you define intelligence? James A. Garfield Interpersonal Intelligence • Skills of social understanding • “The Socializer”
    37. 37. Can you define intelligence? Helen Keller Intrapersonal Intelligence • Skills of self-knowledge • “The Individual”
    38. 38. Can you define intelligence? Sacagawea Naturalistic Intelligence • Skills of making connection to elements in nature • “The Outdoorsman”
    39. 39. Multiple Intelligences • “An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings” ~Howard Gardner Frames of Mind (1983)
    40. 40. OHT 3:4:4 E=mc2 Linguistic intelligence Logical mathematical intelligence Visual spatial intelligence Bodily kinaesthetic intelligence Musical intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Interpersonal intelligence Emotional intelligence Multiple intelligence Naturalistic intelligence Sara Shaw and Trevor Hawes Session 4 – Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences
    41. 41. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence
    42. 42. Linguistic If you have strong linguistic intelligence you might learn better by • Reading • Memorizing • Playing word games (Scrabble, Anagrams, Password) • Making up rhymes, puns • Using the internet
    43. 43. Linguistic Intelligence • often called verbal/linguistic intelligence • having mastery of language • ability to manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically • use language as a means to remember information
    44. 44. Verbal/Linguistic intelligence refers to an individual's ability to understand and manipulate words and languages. Everyone is thought to possess this intelligence at some level. This includes reading, writing, speaking, and other forms of verbal and written communication.
    45. 45. • Teachers can enhance their students' verbal/linguistic intelligence by having them keep journals, play word games, and by encouraging discussion. People with strong rhetorical and oratory skills such as poets, authors, and attorneys exhibit strong Linguistic intelligence. Some examples are T.S. Elliot, Maya Angelou, and Martin Luther King Jr. Traditionally, Linguistic intelligence and Logical/Mathematical intelligence have been highly valued in education and learning environments.
    46. 46. Word Smarts
    47. 47. are usually good at: • Reading fiction and non-fiction • Writing letters, reports, scripts etc. • Talking • Debating • Word puzzles
    48. 48. are usually good at: • Making up and telling jokes • Storytelling • Emailing • Listening to tapes and people • Poetry
    49. 49. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence
    50. 50. Logical/Mathematical Learner If you have strong logical-mathematical intelligence you might learn better by • Recording information systematically • Setting up experiments (“What if…?”) • Playing strategy games (Chess, Checkers) • Analyzing data • Asking logical questions • Using the internet
    51. 51. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence • ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically • often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking
    52. 52. Logical/Mathematical intelligence refers to an individual's ability to do things with data: collect, and organize, analyze and interpret, conclude and predict. Individuals strong in this intelligence see patterns and relationships. These individuals are oriented toward thinking: inductive and deductive logic, numeration, and abstract patterns. They would be a contemplative problem solver; one who likes to play strategy games and to solve mathematical problems.
    53. 53. • Being strong in this intelligence often implies great scientific ability. This is the kind of intelligence studied and documented by Piaget. Teachers can strengthen this intelligence by encouraging the use of computer programming languages, critical-thinking activities, linear outlining, Piagetian cognitive stretching exercises, science-fiction scenarios, logic puzzles, and through the use of logical/sequential presentation of subject matter. Some real life examples people who are gifted with this intelligence are Albert Einstein, Niehls Bohr, and John Dewey.
    54. 54. Math/ Logic Smarts
    55. 55. are usually good at: • Mazes and puzzles • Graphing • Mathematics and numbers • Problem solving • Timelines
    56. 56. are usually good at: • Strategic games and codes • Spreadsheets and databases • Computer games • Patterning and sequencing • Fact finding and collecting
    57. 57. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence • Visual/Spatial intelligence
    58. 58. Spatial Learner If you have strong spatial intelligence you might learn better by • Studying pictures • Watching videos • Using visual, tangible aids • Doing mazes, puzzles • Making predictions • Using the internet
    59. 59. Visual / Spatial Intelligence • gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems • this intelligence is not limited to visual domains • Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children.
    60. 60. • Visual/Spatial intelligence refers to the ability to form and manipulate a mental model. Individuals with strength in this area depend on visual thinking and are very imaginative. People with this kind of intelligence tend to learn most readily from visual presentations such as movies, pictures, videos, and demonstrations using models and props. They like to draw, paint, or sculpt their ideas and often express their feelings and moods through art. These individuals often daydream, imagine and pretend
    61. 61. • They are good at reading diagrams and maps and enjoy solving mazes and jigsaw puzzles. Teachers can foster this intelligence by utilizing charts, graphs, diagrams, graphic organizers, videotapes, color, art activities, doodling, microscopes and computer graphics software. It could be characterized as right-brain activity. Pablo Picasso, Bobby Fischer, and Georgia O'Keefe are some examples of people gifted with this intelligence.
    62. 62. Picture Smarts
    63. 63. are usually good at: • Drawing and painting • Cartooning and doodling • Reading and making maps • Sketching and illustrating • Making murals, charts, posters, • collages, statues and mobiles
    64. 64. are usually good at: • Photography • Creating and understanding films • Making constructions and models
    65. 65. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence • Visual/Spatial intelligence • Musical intelligence
    66. 66. Musical Learner If you have strong musical intelligence you might learn better by • Listening to recordings • Talking to yourself • Making up songs • Mentally repeating information • Reading aloud • Changing tempo
    67. 67. Musical Intelligence • encompasses the capability to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms • auditory functions are required for a person to develop this intelligence in relation to pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the knowledge of rhythm
    68. 68. • Musical intelligence refers to the ability to understand, create, and interpret musical pitches, timbre, rhythm, and tones and the capability to compose music. Teachers can integrate activities into their lessons that encourage students' musical intelligence by playing music for the class and assigning tasks that involve students creating lyrics about the material being taught. Composers and instrumentalists are individuals with strength in this area. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Louis Armstrong are examples.
    69. 69. Music Smarts
    70. 70. are usually good at: • Singing • Playing a musical instrument • Remembering songs • Making up song lyrics • Tapping and clapping
    71. 71. are usually good at: • Writing jingles • Composing music • Performing music for a group • Listening to music • Understanding music
    72. 72. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence • Visual/Spatial intelligence • Musical intelligence • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence
    73. 73. Bodily/Kinesthetic Learner If you have strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence you might learn better by • Doing role plays • Constructing physical examples • Exercising while reviewing • Visiting museums, institutions, parks • Asking logical questions • Using the internet
    74. 74. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence • ability of one’s one mental abilities to coordinate one’s own bodily movements • this intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated
    75. 75. • Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence refers to people who process information through the sensations they feel in their bodies. These people like to move around, touch the people they are talking to and act things out. They are good at small and large muscle skills; they enjoy all types of sports and physical activities. They often express themselves through dance.
    76. 76. • Teachers may encourage growth in this area of intelligence through the use of touching, feeling, movement, improvisation, "hands-on" activities, permission to squirm and wiggle, facial expressions and physical relaxation exercises. Some examples of people who are gifted with this intelligence are Michael Jordan, Martina Navratilova, and Jim Carrey.
    77. 77. Body Smarts
    78. 78. are usually good at: • Dancing • Sports and athletics • Throwing, catching, jumping etc. • Building and manipulating
    79. 79. are usually good at: • Performing, role-playing and drama • Shaping and sculpting • Keyboarding • Experimenting • Obstacle Courses
    80. 80. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence • Visual/Spatial intelligence • Musical intelligence • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence • Interpersonal intelligence
    81. 81. Interpersonal Learner If you have strong interpersonal intelligence you might learn better by • Studying in groups • Comparing information with others • Interviewing experts • Relating personal experiences • Being a teamplayer • Doing cooperative projects
    82. 82. Interpersonal Intelligence • ability to recognize feelings, intentions and motivations of others
    83. 83. • Although Gardner classifies interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences separately, there is a lot of interplay between the two and they are often grouped together. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to interpret and respond to the moods, emotions, motivations, and actions of others. Interpersonal intelligence also requires good communication and interaction skills, and the ability show empathy towards the feelings of other individuals.
    84. 84. • Teachers can encourage the growth of Interpersonal Intelligences by designing lessons that include group work and by planning cooperative learning activities. Counselors and social workers are professions that require strength in this area. Some examples of people with this intelligence include Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, and Bill Clinton.
    85. 85. Group Smarts
    86. 86. are usually good at: • Working with others in a group • Communicating with others • Group games and challenges • Leading a group
    87. 87. are usually good at: • Debating • Sharing with others • Caring about other people • Questioning and surveying
    88. 88. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence • Visual/Spatial intelligence • Musical intelligence • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence • Interpersonal intelligence • Intrapersonal intelligence
    89. 89. Intrapersonal Learner If you have strong intrapersonal intelligence you might learn better by • Avoiding distractions • Establishing personal goals • Playing solitary games • Setting own pace • Working alone • Relating personal experiences
    90. 90. Intrapersonal Intelligence • ability to understand one’s own feelings and motivations • ability to use that information to regulate one’s own life
    91. 91. • Intrapersonal Intelligence, simply put, is the ability to know oneself. It is an internalized version of Interpersonal Intelligence. To exhibit strength in Intrapersonal Intelligence, an individual must be able to understand their own emotions, motivations, and be aware of their own strengths and weaknesses. Teachers can assign reflective activities, such as journaling to awaken students' Intrapersonal Intelligence
    92. 92. • . Its important to note that this intelligence involves the use of all others. An individual should tap into their other intelligences to completely express their Intrapersonal Intelligence. Authors of classic autobiographies such as Jean Paul Satre and Frederick Douglas are examples of individuals who exhibited strong Interpersonal Intelligence in their lifetimes.
    93. 93. Self Smarts
    94. 94. are usually good at: • Working independently • Writing diaries and journals • Poetry • Writing autobiographies
    95. 95. are usually good at: • Setting goals • Creative writing • Imagining • Planning and organising • Thinking
    96. 96. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence • Visual/Spatial intelligence • Musical intelligence • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence • Interpersonal intelligence • Intrapersonal intelligence • Naturalist intelligence
    97. 97. Naturalistic Learner If you have strong naturalistic intelligence you might learn better by • Studying outside • Learning in the presence of plants & pets • Relating environmental issues to topics • Smelling, seeing touching, tasting, • Observing natural phenomenon
    98. 98. Naturalist Intelligence • ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature
    99. 99. • Naturalistic intelligence is seen in someone who recognizes and classifies plants, animals, and minerals including a mastery of taxonomies. They are holistic thinkers who recognize specimens and value the unusual. They are aware of species such as the flora and fauna around them. They notice natural and artificial taxonomies such as dinosaurs to algae and cars to clothes.
    100. 100. • Teachers can best foster this intelligence by using relationships among systems of species, and classification activities. Encourage the study of relationships such as patterns and order, and compare- and-contrast sets of groups or look at connections to real life and science issues. Charles Darwin and John Muir are examples of people gifted in this way.
    101. 101. Nature Smarts
    102. 102. are usually good at: • Looking after a pet • Exploring the natural environment • Hiking • Touching • Reusing, reducing and Recycling
    103. 103. are usually good at: • Gardening • Fishing • Star gazing • Photography • Camping
    104. 104. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic intelligence • Logical/Mathematical intelligence • Visual/Spatial intelligence • Musical intelligence • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence • Interpersonal intelligence • Intrapersonal intelligence • Naturalist intelligence • Existential intelligence
    105. 105. Existential Intelligence • sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence (i.e., the meaning of life? why do we die? how did we get here?)
    106. 106. • The ninth intelligence that has yet to experience full acceptance by educators in the classroom. This is Existential intelligence, which encompasses the ability to pose and ponder questions regarding the existence -- including life and death. This would be in the domain of philosophers and religious leaders.
    107. 107. ““Teachers open the door.Teachers open the door. You enter by yourself”You enter by yourself” Chinese proverbChinese proverb
    108. 108. Focus Questions:Focus Questions: 1.1. Who isWho is thethe professio-professio- nalnal teacher?teacher? 2. To facilitate2. To facilitate learning, whatlearning, what attributes areattributes are expected of aexpected of a professionalprofessional teacher?teacher?
    109. 109. The ProfessionalThe Professional TeacherTeacher
    110. 110. The professional teacher is the “The professional teacher is the “ licensed professional who possesseslicensed professional who possesses dignity and reputation with high moraldignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical andvalues as well as technical and professional competence… he/sheprofessional competence… he/she adheres to observe and practice a set ofadheres to observe and practice a set of ethical and moral standards and values.ethical and moral standards and values.
    111. 111. (Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers)(Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers) The professional teacher is one who wentThe professional teacher is one who went through four to five year, period of rigorousthrough four to five year, period of rigorous academic preparation 9in teaching and oneacademic preparation 9in teaching and one who is given a license to teach by the Boardwho is given a license to teach by the Board for Professional Teachers of the Professionalfor Professional Teachers of the Professional Regulation Commission after fulfillingRegulation Commission after fulfilling requirements prescribed by law such asrequirements prescribed by law such as passing the Licensure Examination forpassing the Licensure Examination for Teacher (LET) . He/she is registered in theTeacher (LET) . He/she is registered in the roster of professional teachers at theroster of professional teachers at the Professional Regulation Commission, andProfessional Regulation Commission, and undergoes continuing professional education.undergoes continuing professional education.
    112. 112. Professional AttributesProfessional Attributes
    113. 113. A professional teacherA professional teacher possess the followingpossess the following attributes:attributes:  control of the knowledge base of teachingcontrol of the knowledge base of teaching and learning and use of this knowledge toand learning and use of this knowledge to guide the science and art of his/herguide the science and art of his/her teaching practice.teaching practice.
    114. 114.  repertoire of bestrepertoire of best teaching practices andteaching practices and can use these to instructcan use these to instruct children in classrooms andchildren in classrooms and to work with adults in theto work with adults in the school setting.
    115. 115.  Dispositions and skills to approach allDispositions and skills to approach all aspects of his/her work in a reflective,aspects of his/her work in a reflective, collegial, and problem-solving manner,collegial, and problem-solving manner,  View of teaching as a lifelong process andView of teaching as a lifelong process and dispositions and skills for working towardsdispositions and skills for working towards improving his/her own teaching as well asimproving his/her own teaching as well as improving schools.improving schools.
    116. 116. Personal AttributesPersonal Attributes
    117. 117. Personality is the sum of one’sPersonality is the sum of one’s personal characteristics. It is one’spersonal characteristics. It is one’s identity. The teachers, more than anyidentity. The teachers, more than any other professional, are subjected toother professional, are subjected to scrutiny to the minutest detail andscrutiny to the minutest detail and observation by those they associate with.observation by those they associate with. Teachers are judged more strictly thanTeachers are judged more strictly than other professional.other professional.
    118. 118. Personalities many be describe asPersonalities many be describe as authoritative, weak, dynamic, orauthoritative, weak, dynamic, or “magnetic”. Teachers’ personality must be“magnetic”. Teachers’ personality must be natural and genuine, that is, devoid ofnatural and genuine, that is, devoid of pretenses and artificiality. They must bepretenses and artificiality. They must be consistent, true, and authentic.consistent, true, and authentic.
    119. 119. Some outstanding personalSome outstanding personal qualities that are worthqualities that are worth mentioning are:mentioning are:
    120. 120. PassionPassion Passion in teaching is a compellingPassion in teaching is a compelling force that emerges because of one’sforce that emerges because of one’s inborn love for children. Passion does notinborn love for children. Passion does not die nor diminish. Teachers with passiondie nor diminish. Teachers with passion feel they “ will live and die a teacher”feel they “ will live and die a teacher”
    121. 121. HumorHumor Humor stands for anything funny,Humor stands for anything funny, which elicits a smile, laugher or amusingwhich elicits a smile, laugher or amusing reaction. It is an essential quality ofreaction. It is an essential quality of teachers serves a number of purposes.teachers serves a number of purposes.
    122. 122. Values of AttitudeValues of Attitude Teachers are models of values. WhetherTeachers are models of values. Whether conscious of them or not, values areconscious of them or not, values are exhibited implicitly and explicitly . Valuesexhibited implicitly and explicitly . Values connote standards, code of ethics andconnote standards, code of ethics and strong beliefs . To mention a few of thesestrong beliefs . To mention a few of these values , we have:values , we have:
    123. 123. a)a) Open-Mindedness – is basic inOpen-Mindedness – is basic in promoting respect and trust betweenpromoting respect and trust between teachers and students.teachers and students. b)b) fairness and impartiality –inculcates self-fairness and impartiality –inculcates self- confidence and trust among studentsconfidence and trust among students..
    124. 124. c)c) sincerity and honesty – These values aresincerity and honesty – These values are exhibited in words and actions. Teachers mustexhibited in words and actions. Teachers must show their real self, devoid of their real self, devoid of pretenses.  professionalism – this is highly treasured inprofessionalism – this is highly treasured in the teaching profession. Teachers arethe teaching profession. Teachers are adjudged professional if they areadjudged professional if they are knowledgeable , skilled and value-laden.knowledgeable , skilled and value-laden.
    125. 125. PatiencePatience In teaching patience refers to aIn teaching patience refers to a teacher’s uncomplaining nature, self-teacher’s uncomplaining nature, self- control, and persistence.control, and persistence.
    126. 126. EnthusiasmEnthusiasm - is- is synonymoussynonymous to eagerness andto eagerness and excitement. Enthusiastic teachers are fullexcitement. Enthusiastic teachers are full of energy and dynamism. Their passionof energy and dynamism. Their passion and love for children are easily felt.and love for children are easily felt. Everyone anticipates an interesting andEveryone anticipates an interesting and enjoyable learning activity.enjoyable learning activity.
    127. 127. CommitmentCommitment - is a solemn promise to perform the duties- is a solemn promise to perform the duties and responsibilities mandated by the lawsand responsibilities mandated by the laws and code of ethics of the –profession.and code of ethics of the –profession. Committed teachers are ready to carry onCommitted teachers are ready to carry on no matter the matter the price.
    128. 128. ““ To heredity, the child owes hisTo heredity, the child owes his possibilities. However, topossibilities. However, to environmentenvironment, he owes the realization, he owes the realization of these possibilities.”of these possibilities.”
    129. 129. The LearningThe Learning EnvironmentEnvironment
    130. 130. The learning environment is a product of theThe learning environment is a product of the physical psychological as well as socialphysical psychological as well as social atmosphere created by the interaction betweenatmosphere created by the interaction between the teacher and the learners and among thethe teacher and the learners and among the learners themselves.learners themselves. The physical features of the classroom whichThe physical features of the classroom which include space, location, lighting, ventilation,include space, location, lighting, ventilation, order, tidiness , and noise level exert influenceorder, tidiness , and noise level exert influence on the teaching –learning process.on the teaching –learning process.
    131. 131. Pine and Horn (1990)Pine and Horn (1990) described the learningdescribed the learning environment thatenvironment that facilitates learning.facilitates learning.
    132. 132. it is an environment :it is an environment :  which encourages people to be active.which encourages people to be active.  which promotes and facilitates the individual’swhich promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning of ideas.discovery of the personal meaning of ideas.  in which difference is good and desirablein which difference is good and desirable  which consistently recognizes people’s right towhich consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes.make mistakes.
    133. 133.  which tolerates ambiguitywhich tolerates ambiguity  in which evaluation is a cooperativein which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self-evaluation.process with emphasis on self-evaluation.  which encourages openness of self ratherwhich encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self.than concealment of self.  in which people are encouraged to trust inin which people are encouraged to trust in themselves as well as in external sources.themselves as well as in external sources.
    134. 134.  in which people feel they are respectedin which people feel they are respected  in which people feel they are acceptedin which people feel they are accepted  which permits confrontation.which permits confrontation.
    135. 135. How much learning will take placeHow much learning will take place depends ultimately on the learner.depends ultimately on the learner. Whether he/she develops his potentials asWhether he/she develops his potentials as a genius to the fullest is ultimately up toa genius to the fullest is ultimately up to him/her. It is his/her free choicehim/her. It is his/her free choice..
    136. 136. Principles of TeachingPrinciples of Teaching and Learningand Learning A.A. Principles DefinedPrinciples Defined The term principle has been adopted from theThe term principle has been adopted from the Latin wordLatin word princepsprinceps which means the beginningwhich means the beginning or the end of all things. The early Greeks usedor the end of all things. The early Greeks used the termthe term principlesprinciples not only to express the originnot only to express the origin of things but also to express their fundamentalof things but also to express their fundamental laws and to brig out the ultimate objectives.laws and to brig out the ultimate objectives.
    137. 137. According to Webster , a guide to makeAccording to Webster , a guide to make teaching and learning productive. They areteaching and learning productive. They are the fundamentals through which we proceedthe fundamentals through which we proceed form one situation to another.form one situation to another. Principles are important for the governingPrinciples are important for the governing of actions and the operation of techniques inof actions and the operation of techniques in any field of education.any field of education. For the individual, a principle, whenFor the individual, a principle, when understood and accepted, serves inunderstood and accepted, serves in important ways to guide his reflectiveimportant ways to guide his reflective thinking and his choice of activities orthinking and his choice of activities or actions.actions.
    138. 138. In the filed of education, an acceptedIn the filed of education, an accepted principle becomes part of one’s philosophyprinciple becomes part of one’s philosophy which serves to determine and evaluate hiswhich serves to determine and evaluate his educational aims, activities, practices, andeducational aims, activities, practices, and outcomes,outcomes,
    139. 139. a. through the pooling of opinions of experts;a. through the pooling of opinions of experts; b. through comparative studies of the teachingb. through comparative studies of the teaching performance of capable and incapable teachers;performance of capable and incapable teachers; c. through experimental studies of teaching andc. through experimental studies of teaching and learning in the classroomlearning in the classroom d. from the results of experimentsd. from the results of experiments e. from critically analyzed experience or frome. from critically analyzed experience or from systematic investigations.systematic investigations. B. How Principles o Teaching Derived
    140. 140. C. Types of Teaching PrinciplesC. Types of Teaching Principles 1.1. Starting PrinciplesStarting Principles -These involve the nature-These involve the nature of the learner and his psychological andof the learner and his psychological and physiological endowments which makephysiological endowments which make education possible. 2.2. Guiding PrinciplesGuiding Principles -These refer to the-These refer to the procedure methods of instruction orprocedure methods of instruction or agglomeration of techniques by which theagglomeration of techniques by which the learner and the teacher may work togetherlearner and the teacher may work together towards the accomplishment of the goals ortowards the accomplishment of the goals or objectives of education.objectives of education.
    141. 141. 3.3. Ending PrincipleEnding Principle -These refers to the-These refers to the educational aims, objectives, outcomes,educational aims, objectives, outcomes, purposes, or results of the wholepurposes, or results of the whole educational scheme to which teaching andeducational scheme to which teaching and learning are directed.learning are directed.
    143. 143. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGPRINCIPLES OF LEARNING 1. The Learner must clearly perceive the goal. Learners readily understand and internalize concepts and ideas which are relevant to their own needs and problems.
    144. 144. 2. The learner must be psychologically and physiologically ready. This principle is in consonance with Thorndike’s law of readiness and law of effect. The law of readiness states that when a person is prepared to respond or act, giving the response is satisfying and being prevented from doing so is annoying. The law of effect states that learning is strengthened when it results in satisfaction but is weakened if it leads to annoyance
    145. 145. 3. The learner must be motivated to learn. That the learner must be motivated to learn is a basic principle in the teaching-learning process. Every learner in the classroom however, is a unique individual. The learner’s experiential background varies from learner to learner.
    146. 146. Types of Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation It comes in the form of reward and punishment. Means creating a desire to learn a subject because it is worth knowing.
    147. 147. Some principles on motivating learnersSome principles on motivating learners which are significant for teachers arewhich are significant for teachers are enumerated below.enumerated below. a. Intrinsic motivation is better than extrinsic motivation. b. Goal setting is an important motivational aspect of learning. c. Successful experiences are important motivators. d. Feedback about one’s progress can be an effective motivation.
    148. 148. e. Considering learner’s interest is important in classroom learning. f. Reward rather than punishment is a better motivation for learning. g. Meaningful materials and tasks serve as good motivators. h. Success generally increases the level of aspiration and achievement of the learner. i. Teacher’s expectations of the learner’s performance influence the latter’s achievement.
    149. 149. 4.4. The learner must be active notThe learner must be active not passive for maximum learning.passive for maximum learning. This principle is adroitlyThis principle is adroitly expressed in the Chinese adage:expressed in the Chinese adage: I hear and I f orget , I see and I remember, I do and I underst and.
    150. 150. 5. The learner must repeat or practice what he has learned in order to remember. Thorndike law of exercise states that constant repetition of a response strengthens its connection with the stimulus and disuse of a response weakens it. Educational practices such as drill, review and examination exemplify this principle
    151. 151. 6. The learner must put together the parts of a task and perceive it as a meaningful whole. This is an extension of the principle formulated by the Gestalt school of psychology. The principle places emphasis upon the concept that learning is a process of discovering and understanding relationships, and of organizing and finding significance in the sensory experiences aroused by the external situation.
    152. 152. 7. The learner must see the significance, meanings, implications, and applications that will make a given experience understandable. (Apperception) 8. The learner must be prepared to respond. A teacher sometimes may encounter situations where learners learn automatically and spontaneously, or learners who are able to perform skills and activities without much apparent effort. These situations can be credited to readiness on the part of the learner. Readiness varies with the different learning tasks and among individuals. Without readiness, much effort, is exerted by the teacher and the learner and this effort may result in little or no learning at all on the part of the learner.
    153. 153. 9. The process of problem solving and learning are highly unique and specific. Each individual has his own unique style of learning and solving problems. As individuals become more aware of how they learn and solve problems and become exposed to alternative models used by other individuals, they can modify their personal learning style so that this can be employed more effectively.
    154. 154. CONDITIONS WHICH FACILITATECONDITIONS WHICH FACILITATE LEARNINGLEARNING 1. Learning is facilitated in an atmosphere which encourages learners to be active. 2. Learning is facilitated in an atmosphere which promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning of ideas. 3. Learning is facilitated in an atmosphere in which different ideas can be discussed but not necessarily accepted.
    155. 155. 4. Learning is facilitated in an atmosphere in which consistently recognizes the individual’s right to make mistakes. 5. Learning is facilitated in an atmosphere in which evaluation is a cooperative process. 6. Learning is facilitated in an atmosphere were individuals feel they are respected and accepted.
    156. 156. Principles of Learning Pine and Horn (1990)
    157. 157. 1.1. What areWhat are thethe principlesprinciples ofof learning?learning? 2. What are the2. What are the implications ofimplications of these principlesthese principles of learning toof learning to teaching?teaching? Focus Questions:Focus Questions:
    158. 158. 1.Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner. 2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas.
    159. 159. 3. 3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience 4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process.
    160. 160. 5. Learning is an evolutionary process. 6. Learning is sometimes a painful process 7. One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself.
    161. 161. 8. The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual. 9. The process of problem solving and learning are highly unique and individual.
    162. 162. Learning Styles
    163. 163. The Sensing-Thinking (ST) or Mastery Learner
    164. 164. PREFERS TO LEARN BY:  seeing tangible results  practicing what he has learned  following directions one step at a time  being active rather than passive  knowing exactly what is expected of her, how well the task must be done and why LEARN BEST FROM:  drill  demonstration  practice  hands-on experience
    165. 165. The Intuitive-thinking (NT) or understanding Learner
    166. 166. PREFERS TO LEARN BY: LEARN BEST FROM:  studying about ideas and how things are related  planning and carrying out a project of his own making and interest  arguing or debating a point based on logical analysis  problem solving that requires collecting, organizing, and evaluating data  lectures  reading  logical discussions and debates
    167. 167. The Sensing-feeling (SF) or interpersonal Learner
    168. 168. PREFERS TO LEARN BY: LEARN BEST FROM:  studying about things that directly affect people’s lives rather than impersonal facts or theories  receiving personal attention and encouragement from his teachers  being part of a team – collaborating with other students  activities that help her learn and about herself and how she feels about things  group experiences and projects  loving attention Personal expression and personal encounters  role playing
    169. 169. The intuitive-feeling (NF) or Self- Expressive Learner
    170. 170. PREFERS TO LEARN BY: LEARN BEST FROM:  being creative and using his imagination  planning and organizing her work in her own creative ways  working on a number of things at one time  searching for alternative solutions to problems beyond those normally considered  discussing real problems and looking for real solutions  creative and artistic activities  open-ended discussions of personal and social values  activities than enlighten and enhance – myths, human achievement, dramas, etc.
    171. 171. I. Goal and Objective Related to Teaching
    172. 172. 1. Begin with the end in mind. In the context of teaching, this means that we must begin our lesson with a clearly defined lesson objective, with a clear and specific lesson objective, we will have a sense of direction.
    173. 173. 2. Share lesson objective with student. Make known to our students our instructional objective and encourage them to make the lesson objective their own. This lesson objective when share and possessed by our students will become their personal target.
    174. 174. 3. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domains knowledge (cognitive) skills (psychomotor) , and values (affective) A cognitive or skill lesson must always include the affective dimension for wholistic learning. What is most important in this principle is that our lesson is wholistic and complete because it dwells on knowledge and values or on skills and values.
    175. 175. 4. Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives. The level of students’ self- motivation all the more increases when our lesson objective is relevant to their daily life.
    176. 176. 5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as embodied in the Philippine Constitution and other laws and on the vision-mission statements of the educational institution of which you are a part. This means that the aims and goals of education as provided for in our laws filter down to our lesson objectives. We have something to do with the attainment of our broad aims of education. We can also contribute to the realization of our school’s vision-mission statements because our lesson objectives are based on our school’s vision-mission statements.
    177. 177. 6. For accountability of learning, lesson objectives must be SMART, i,e., Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result-oriented and Relevant, Time bound and Terminal When our lesson objective is SMART, it is quite easy to find out at the end of our lesson if we attained our objective or not.
    178. 178. 7. Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking. If we want to contribute to the development of critical and creative thinkers, the type of citizens needed to make democracy, then we should include in our scope of questions, high- level, divergent, or open-ended questions.
    179. 179. II. Teaching Strategy-Related Principles of Teaching and Learning
    180. 180. 1. Learning is an active process This means that we have to actively engage the learners in learning activities if we want them to learn to teach. We have to give our students opportunities to participate in classroom activities. (Learning by doing) What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember What I do, I understand
    181. 181. 2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and the better the learning. The Contribution of the Senses to Learning This implies that visual aids are more effective than audio aids. But a combination of audio and visual aids is far more effective. Most effective of course is the use of a combination of three or more senses, thus the term “multi-sensory aids. Sight --75% Hearing --13% Touch --6% Taste --3% Smell --3%
    182. 182. 3. A non-threatening atmosphere enhances learning. This conducive atmosphere refers not only to the physical condition of the classroom but more so to the psychological climate that prevails in the classroom.
    183. 183. 4. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning We tend to remember and learn more those that strike our hearts.
    184. 184. 5. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to students’ everyday life. For meaning, connect your teaching to your students’ everyday life.
    185. 185. 6. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information. Most teachings are confined to recall of information and comprehension. Ideally, our teaching should reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
    186. 186. 7. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective then teaching isolated bits of information. For effective teaching, it is imperative on our part as teachers to possess a repertoire of teaching and testing strategies and techniques to reach a full range of students with varied learning styles and multiple intelligences.
    187. 187. 8. There is no such thing as best teaching method. The best method is the one that works, the one that yields results.
    188. 188. Selection and Organization of Content
    189. 189. ““There are dull teachers, dullThere are dull teachers, dull textbooks, dull films, but no dulltextbooks, dull films, but no dull subjects.”subjects.”
    190. 190. Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content
    191. 191. 1. One guiding principle related to subject matter content is to observe the following qualities in the selection and organization of content: a)Validity – the content is aligned with the goals and objectives of the BEC b) Significance – what we teach should respond to the needs and interests of the learners, hence meaningful and significant.
    192. 192. c) Balance – Content includes not only facts but also concepts and values. This includes cognitive, psychomotor and effective elements. d) Self-sufficiency – content fully covers the essentials. Learning is not “mile- wide- and-inch-deep”. The essentials are sufficiently covered and are treated in depth. e) Interests – the teacher considers the interest of the learners, their developmental stages and cultural and ethnic background.
    193. 193. f) Utility – will this content be of use to the learners? It is meant not only to be memorized for test and grade purposes. What is learned has a function even after examination are over. g) Feasibility – The content is feasible in the sense that it can be covered within the school year. That is why teachers tend to rush towards the end of the school year, do superficial teaching and contribute to non-mastery of content.
    194. 194. 2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is facts We can’t do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts by constructing an increasingly richer and more sophisticated knowledge base and by working out a process of conceptual understanding
    195. 195. 3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skill and affective elements. When we teach facts, concepts principles theories and laws, it necessitates the skill of seeing the relationships among these in order to see meaning. Likewise when our subject matter is focused on the thinking and manipulative skills, out lesson content also has cognitive content. More so with the teaching of values, for values have definitely a cognitive basis. The cognitive lesson may be used as a vehicle in the teaching of skills and values.