J Soukup


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Efficacy and flexibility of Roundup Ready®
maize production systems – an European example

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J Soukup

  1. 1. Brussels 22-24 March 2010 Efficacy and flexibility of Roundup Ready® maize production systems – an European example Josef Soukup M. Jursík, V. Venclová, J. Holec, M. Laksarová Jursík, Holec, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague soukup@af.czu.cz soukup@af.czu.cz
  2. 2. Main points of the talk: talk: Main issues of the weed ecology and weed control in maize Characteristics and limitation of current usage of herbicides in maize Experience with RR maize NK 603 with tolerance to glyphosate Conclusions
  3. 3. „Big four“ - crops ensuring four“ 80 % of world´s caloric consumption world´ Crop Acrage Production (x1000 ha) (x1000 t) wheat 217.433 607.045 maize 157.874 784.786 rice 156.952 651.743 soybean 94.899 216.144 2007 In Europe, maize is grown on 13 Mio hectares under diverse natural environments and farming practices
  4. 4. Climatic zones in Europe EPPO guideline PP 1/241 (1) Various situations in weed occurrence exist which require efficient and flexible weed control systems ... http://printable-maps.blogspot.com/2008/09/map-of- climate-zones-in-europe.html
  5. 5. New zonal system proposed for regulation of Plant Protection Products Proposed zones do not reflect situation in: - temperatures, evaporation, winter hardiness - different farming practices - weed occurrence and diversity - specific life cycles in various environments Registration process will be simplified but.... - use of herbicides should allow local flexibility - solutions for local conditions have to be developed
  6. 6. Differences in registered use of herbicides in maize in various European regions Dossage of herbicides: Herbicide West / Central Europe South Europe, Pannon Terbuthylazine 750 (max. 1000) g/ha >1200 g/ha Isoxaflutole 75 – 100 g/ha pre >100 g/ha; pre, post Mesotrione 100 g/ha >130 g/ha Solution of specific situations is necessary: - Ambrosia spp., Sorghum halapense, Panicum spp., ... Conventional control systems have some gaps so that the introduction of Roundup Ready system ® could improve current situation
  7. 7. Most frequent weeds in maize: the group of „late summer annuals“ Echinochloa crus-galli Polygonum lapathifolium Chenopodium album Amaranthus retroflexus
  8. 8. Most frequent „European“ weeds European“ in maize Annuals Occurring accross Europe Chenopodium album, Polygonum spp., spp., Amaranthus retroflexus, Matricaria spp., retroflexus, spp., Echinochloa crus-galli, .... crus-galli, In southern countries Ambrosia artemisifolia, Datura artemisifolia, stramonium, stramonium, Conyza canadensis, canadensis, Setaria spp., Digitaria sanquinalis, .... spp., sanquinalis,
  9. 9. Annual thermophillic weeds of local importance Solanum nigrum Abutilon Theophrasti Datura stramonium Ambrosia artemisifolia
  10. 10. Invasive annual species in Europe Panicum spp. Abutilon Theophrasti Helianthus annuus
  11. 11. Perennial weeds in Central Europe Agropyron repens Convolvulus arvensis Cirsium arvense
  12. 12. Most important „European“ weeds in maize European“ Perennial weeds Occurring across Europe Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis arvense, In moderate / colder climate Agropyron (Elymus) repens, Elymus) repens, Bolboschoenus (Scirpus) spp., .... Scirpus) spp., In southern countries Sorghum halapense, Cyperus spp., halapense, spp., Cynodon dactylon, .... dactylon,
  13. 13. Emergence of summer annual weeds (CZ) 450,0 Driving factors: 400,0 - temperatures A. retroflexus - soil moisture 350,0 p o č e No. of emerged tlin (m 2 ) - seed dormancy t v ze š lý c h ro s plants 300,0 - photoperiodism - soil tillage 250,0 E. crus-galli - ... 200,0 Ch. album 150,0 S. nigrum M. annua 100,0 50,0 D. stramonium 0,0 3 4 5 6 7 .7 .8 .9 0 1 3. 2. 2. 1. 1. .1 .1 31 30 29 29 28 3-4 months weed emergence Jursík et al. 2007, adapted
  14. 14. Critical period in maize: „proper time for exclusion of weed competition“ relative yield [%] 100 weeds occurr until ... 80 weeds occurr from ... 60 4 . – 8. maize leaves 40 20 critical period 0 time (maize growth stage)
  15. 15. Timing of herbicide application in maize according to crop and weed emergence Weed emergence (plants/m2) 6 maize leaves ( HT varieties post- em Maize sowing pre-em herbicides (6-8 weeks of activity) Data on ECHCG emergence from Jursík 2004
  16. 16. General requirements on herbicides: herbicides: High efficacy (> 95%) and wide spectrum of weed species controlled Crop safety (< 5 % injury, disapearing) injury, disapearing) Safety for subsequent crops in rotation Low hectare costs Flexible timing of application
  17. 17. What herbicides are available (...and which of them will be registered in the (...and future after revision proces of PPP?) http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/protection/evaluation/rev_ prog_exist_pest_en.htm
  18. 18. Main pre-emergence herbicides (main used modes of action) PS II inhibitors (C) atrazine terbuthylazine linuron VLCFA, mitose, and cell division inhibitors (K) acetochlor S-metolachlor pendimethalin Inhibitors of plant pigments syntheses (F) isoxaflutole sulcotrione, sulcotrione, mesotrione
  19. 19. Main post-emergence herbicides post- PS II inhibitors (C) terbuthylazine bromoxynil ALS nhibitors (B) sulfonylureas (nicosulfuron, thifensulfuron, nicosulfuron, thifensulfuron, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron,, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron,, ...) triazolopyrimidines (florasulam) florasulam) Synthetic auxins (O) dicamba, dicamba, 2,4 D, fluroxypyr, clopyralid, ... fluroxypyr, clopyralid, Inhibitors of plant pigments syntheses (F) mesotrione, sulcotrione, mesotrione, sulcotrione, tembotrione
  20. 20. Trends of herbicide resistance for individual mode of actions
  21. 21. Crop injury caused by herbicides bromoxynil Slight crop injury (phytotoxicity) 5-15% is very common for many post-emergence herbicides 2,4 D rimsulfuron
  22. 22. Risk of residual effect of soil active herbicides on subsequent crops Damage in subsequent barley in crop rotation after small plot trial with maize herbicides
  23. 23. Possible use of Roundup Ready® System in various weediness situations Application of Roundup stand alone (split) standard conditions, perennial weeds conditions, Split application: pre-emergence herbicide application: pre- followed by Roundup dry conditions, high weed densities conditions, Post- Post-emergence „tank-mix“ application of „tank- residual herbicide with Roundup Ready® control of late emerging species Split application with various POST herbicides against weeds hardly controlled by glyphosate
  24. 24. Suitable combination products Recommended by Monsanto in USA: Harness (acetochlor) acetochlor) Harness Xtra, Keystone (acetochlor + Xtra, atrazine) atrazine) Bicep II Magnum (S-metolachlor + atrazine) (S- atrazine) Suitable combination products meeting the European registration rules: rules: S-metolachlor, acetochlor metolachlor, terbuthylazine (+acetochlor) (+acetochlor) isoxaflutole – only for pre-em application pre- mesotrione – expensive, low residual effect expensive,
  25. 25. 3 years experience from field trials in CZ Comparison of 4 selected variants: variants: 1) Conventional pre-emergence control pre- (isoxaflutole + acetochlor) acetochlor) 2) Conventional post-emergence herbicide post- (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron + isoxadifen ethyl) ethyl) 3) Split application of Roundup Ready® (1080 g/ha glyphosate twice) twice) 4) Tank-mix Roundup Ready® + soil residual Tank- (1080 g/ha glyphosate + acetochlor) acetochlor)
  26. 26. Weed occurrence and density Plot before application Untreated plot 16.6.2009 13.7.2009
  27. 27. Conventional pre-emergence control pre- (isoxaflutole + acetochlor) acetochlor) 6 WAT 10 WAT Weed-free plot already from the beginning of vegetation Weed escapes of hard-to-control species (MERAN, ECHCG) Efficacy varied between years in dependence on soil moisture
  28. 28. Conventional post-emergence herbicide post- (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron) iodosulfuron) 2 WAT 5 WAT Slower but strong herbicide effect Slight crop injury – yellowing of leaves for 2 weeks Excellent control effect, sometimes few surviving plants (MERAN)
  29. 29. Split application of Roundup Ready® (1080 g/ha glyphosate twice) twice) 2 WAT 5 WAT Fast herbicide effect Repeated application of glyphosate ensure control of survivals Best effect from viewpoint of efficacy and species equitability
  30. 30. Tank-mix Roundup Ready® + soil residual Tank- (1080 g/ha glyphosate + acetochlor) acetochlor) 3 WAT 6 WAT Best herbicide effect in some years but not in all Effect depends on right timing and soil moisture conditions Sometimes escaped plants of ECHCG and MERAN
  31. 31. Different species sensitivity (WAT4) Weed Picture Curv ED50 ED90 ED90 / ED50 ratio AMARE 197.1 411.9 2.1 AMARE SOLPS 265.4 475.0 1.8 CHEAL 363.6 677.1 1.9 MERAN 249.1 685.4 2.8 ECHCG ECHCG 361.7 1334.6 3.7
  32. 32. Efficacy (%) on selected weed species (varying among 3-years of experiements) experiements) CHEAL AMARE ECHCG MERAN Conventional 90-100 100 85-98 65-85 pre-em Conventional 96-100 99-100 96-100 90-95 post-em Roundup 99-100 100 98-100 95-98 split appl. Roundup + 97-100 100 90-98 80-90 acetochlor Control best very good weed reliability escapes
  33. 33. Summary – efficacy, selectivity efficacy, Both RR treatments (split; with acetochlor) acetochlor) show very good/excellent efficacy good/ Very good selectivity also in combination with acetochlor applied post-emergence post- Different results for RR split vs. RR+acetochlor RR+acetochlor were found in individual years Under dry weather conditions (2007) - strong competition for water already in BBCH 14!14! Second weed flush was not an important issue in any of experimental years
  34. 34. Summary – weed diversity Reasons for weed shift were not noticed when glyphosate was applied at recommended doses Weed escapes occurred mostly when soil active herbicides were used Best parameters of species richness and eveness were noticed when glyphosate was applied stand alone Post-em. application of glyphosate allowed weeds to realise their beneficial functions
  35. 35. Conclusions: RR System seems to be an effective tool for weed control in maize also in Europe similar or better efficacy than conventional herbicides better reliability, selectivity and timing flexibility negative effects on weed community were not noticed Glyphosate has specific features (like other herbicides) which must be taken into account no residual activity (right timing, split appl. combinations, …) differences in species sensitivity (dossage according to most tolerant species or with combination partners)