What Proteins do for Living Things <ul><ul><li>Proteins are major structural molecules in living things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Hair, skin, and nails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies in the immune system are made of protein. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes are made of protein. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non steroid hormones are made of protein. </li></ul></ul>Continue
Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this.
Cell Membrane The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn ’ t leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon. The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.
Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isn ’ t supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesn ’ t belong there and kills it. Antibodies
Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didn ’ t have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long! Later in class, your teacher will show you a demonstration of an enzyme. Enzymes
Hormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another. These are where the hormone producing glands are located in your body.
The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy. If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight. If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it. Don ’ t be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are it ’ s actually your eating and exercise habits! (The yellow stuff is thyroid hormone)
Elements found in Proteins Like carbohydrates and lipids, proteins have Carbon , Hydrogen , and Oxygen in them. BUT they also have… Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur . An easy way to remember it is to make the elements into the word “ CHONS ” .
The monomers found in proteins are called AMINO ACIDS
The shapes of proteins are much like a knotted piece of string.
The amount of energy gained by consuming protein… PROTEINS
Energy Gained from Protein Eating 1 gram of protein provides your body with 4 Calories.
Final Review Questions Please do not look back at the information in your handout. 1. Proteins are major structural molecules in living things. List 5 places or things in your body that contain a lot of protein. 2. What are enzymes? What are they made of? 3.What does the enzyme Rennin do? 4. What are hormones? 5. What does your thyroid hormone do? 6. Name three food high in proteins. 7. What elements are found in proteins? 8. How many Calories are found in 1 gram of protein?