Expanding networks


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Expanding networks

  1. 1. ExpandingNetworks Adapted from:
  2. 2. That’s easy! A network of exchange is a web of connections through which Hmmm... people, goods, and ideas What is a circulate. Telephones, thenetwork of Internet, and highways are allexchange? networks of exchange. 2
  3. 3. Expanding NetworksRoutes Around 300 BCE to 300 CE, merchants, shippers, sea captains, and empire-builders extended and strengthened trade routes across Afroeurasia and the Americas.Empires Empires required networks of military and political communication. These networks encouraged interaction of many kinds over long distances.Writing With the appearance of alphabetic writing systems in Afroeurasia, people could communicate faster and easier than ever before.Religions The appearance of world religions— Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, and Christianity—stimulated cultural interchange across political and cultural boundaries. 3
  4. 4. Expanding Networks: RoutesIn the Americas...The Olmec of Mexico developed extensive tradenetworks that extended hundreds of miles fromOlmec territory. They imported jade and other rawmaterials for their crafts. Their exports includedpottery and sculpture. The Tiwanakans in what is today Bolivia also began to build trade routes during Big Era Four. Llama caravans brought produce, wood, metals, and fish from outlying villages to the city of Tiwanaku. 4
  5. 5. Expanding Networks: RoutesThe silk road,Persian royal road,Roman roads, andshipping routescombined to formextensiveinterregionalnetworks ofexchange inAfroeurasia. A wide variety of goods flowed along these networks… 5
  6. 6. Expanding Networks: On the map are some of theRoutes goods traded along the Afroeurasian networks. 6
  7. 7. Expanding Networks: Routes A number of large states, or empires, appeared in Big Era Four. Empire-builders had to move troops and supplies, dispatch messages, gather intelligence, and collect taxes. These tasks required good systems of communication and transport by land and sea. These systems were created mainly to serve the empire’s government and army. But they also served as highways of commerce, cultural exchange, and migration. An empire is a state that unites many territories and diverse peoples under one ruler or government. 7
  8. 8. Expanding Networks: RoutesRoman RoadsThe Romans built anextensive network ofroads. Over 50,000miles of paved roads,tracks, and trailsradiated from the Forumin the center of Rome toall parts of the empire. 8
  9. 9. Expanding Networks: RoutesThough built primarily to speedtroops and supplies, Roman roadswere used for commercialpurposes, too. Goods wereshipped to distant provinces andbeyond. Constructed by skilled engineers, the roads were strong enough to support half-ton wagons and wide enough to allow two-way traffic. 9
  10. 10. Expanding Networks:Routes The Silk Roads was a network of roads, tracks, and trails ran across Inner Eurasia. Most of this region is part of the Great Arid Zone, the belt of dry country that extends across Afroeurasia. Inner Eurasia 10
  11. 11. Expanding Networks: RoutesInner Eurasia is a region of grassy steppes, ruggedmountains, and forbidding deserts. This terrain ishard to cross. Despite these harsh conditions,humans have been carrying goods, ideas, andtechnologies along the Silk Roads of Inner Eurasiafor millennia. Inner Eurasia 1997, Encyclopedia Britannica Inc 11
  12. 12. Expanding Networks: RoutesDomestication of the horse, ox, and camel madehumans more mobile.About 3000 BCE, people in the steppes of InnerEurasia began to take up pastoralism. Because theymoved with their herds, they typically did not growcrops. Instead, they traded with farmers and city-dwellers for food and other goods. By 1000 BCE, pastoralists controlled networks of exchange throughout Inner Eurasia . 12
  13. 13. Expanding Networks: RoutesBetween 300 BCE and 300 CE,long periods of stability andprosperity in states throughoutAfroeurasia stimulated interest inlong distance trade.Intercontinental communicationand the exchange of goods,became regular, organized, andprotected by large empires.The Silk Roads carried shipmentsof Chinese silk but also manyother goods. 13
  14. 14. Expanding Networks: RoutesOn the Silk Roads, goods changedhands many times. Parthians,Indians, Kushans, Uigurs, andothers acted as middlemen, sellingand bartering goods, and takingprofits.Caravans passing west carried silk,porcelain, jade, bronze, and spices.Those traveling east shipped goldand silver coins, ivory, gemstones,glassware, and carpets. 14
  15. 15. Expanding Networks: Routes Roman ShipSea routes ran down theRed Sea and Persian Gulf,across the Arabian Sea andBay of Bengal, and through Indianthe Straits of Malacca to the ShipSouth China Sea.These sea lanes often linkedup with overland routes,facilitating travel, trade, and Chinesethe exchange of ideas Shipacross Afroeurasia. 15
  16. 16. Expanding Networks: EmpiresEmpires had formed in Afroeurasia asearly as Big Era Three. Although manyclaimed vast territories, most did notsurvive for long.In the 4th century BCE, Alexander theGreat amassed an empire that stretchedfrom Greece to India. Upon his death,however, the empire fragmented.The later centuries of Big Era Four sawthe rise of new empires that bothdominated huge expanses of land andremained unified for a long time. TheLargest of these were the Han andRoman empires. 16
  17. 17. Large Empires of Afroeurasia 500 BCE - 500 CERome Byzantium Kushana Xiongnu Parthian/ Sassanid Han Maurya/ Gupta Kush Axum 17
  18. 18. Expanding Networks: Writing Cool!• Alphabetic writing systems appeared in the later second millennium BCE. These systems used a small number of symbols, or letters, to represent sounds.• Letters could be arranged in countless ways to form words.• The Phoenicians were among the first to devise an alphabet.• Because they were sailors and merchants, the idea of alphabetic writing spread wherever the Phoenicians traveled.• During the first millennium BCE alphabetic writing spread from the Mediterranean region to India. 18
  19. 19. Expanding Networks: What is a world religion? It’s a belief system that Religions embraces people of differing languages and cultural traditions. Religions that spread during Big Era Four were:Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Christianity 19
  20. 20. Growth of World Religions In Big Era FourHinduismFrom lstmillennium BCEBuddhismFrom 5th centuryBCEChristianityFrom 1st centuryCEJudaismCommunitiesscattered widely inSouthwest Asia,Northern Africa, andEurope, especiallyfrom the first centuryCE. Outline Map: Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002 20
  21. 21. Expanding Networks: ReligionsWhen people carried a newreligion from place to place,they also often took alongA writing system (This was useful inteaching holy scripture.)Trade goods (Religion was a basis oftrust among merchants.)Art styles (Religious ideas were oftenexpressed in painting, sculpture, andarchitecture.) 21
  22. 22. So, what have welearned about two key developments of this era? Population growth and networks 22
  23. 23. Population growth in Big Era Four was linked to the expansion of agriculture. Increases in population density and job specialization in farming communities led to the creation of more and larger cities. Population GrowthExpanded networks of exchangeallowed people, goods, and ideasto move thousands of miles. Thedevelopment of alphabetic writingsystems speeded up the transferof information. Also, people whomet, shared ideas, and conductedbusiness with one another helpedspread new world religions across Expanding Networks of ExchangeAfroeurasia. 23
  24. 24. So many developments in Big Era Four! Hmmm… I wonder what will happennext. Stay tuned for Big Era Five! 24