Cultural exchange pp


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Cultural exchange pp

  1. 1. Patterns of Interregional Unity 1
  2. 2. Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.As we have learned, many connectionswere established among regions. Theseformed interregional patterns of unity. 2
  3. 3. Numerous inventions,trade goods, ideas, and religions were starting to spread from their regions of origin. 3
  4. 4. …That spread ofAs time progresses, many ideas and things is of these important ideas part of cultural and useful things had exchange. spread all across Afroeurasia… 4
  5. 5. Cultural exchange had many aspects. Population increased Trade networks expanded and people migrated. and cities grew. Huge empires brought many different groups of people People shared ideas together. across regions. 5
  6. 6. Let’s take a closer look at each of these causes ofcultural exchange. Population Trade Ideas Empires 6
  7. 7. PopulationWorldpopulationgrew fromabout250 million to460 millionbetween200 CEand 1500 CE. 7
  8. 8. Were there billions of people living on the earth then as therePopulation are now? No, then people were counted only in the millions. A world population of 460 million in 1500 CE is about the same as the population of North America today! 8
  9. 9. 500 450 Population 400 350 300 World Population 250 200The 150population 100of the 50 American PopulationAmericas 0was much 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16thsmaller than c. c. c.thepopulationofAfroeurasia. 9
  10. 10. As a result, cultural exchange 40 millionPopulation in the Americas equals the was less population of extensive than in Spain or Afroeurasia. Colombia today! Less than 40 million people were spread over two huge continents. 10
  11. 11. So, we’ll look atPopulation cultural exchange in Afroeurasia, and then return to the Americas later. Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Population growth in Afroeurasia affected the environment.Population Deforestation happened when cities and farming expanded. 12
  13. 13. Human impact on thePopulation environment had serious effects!• Wood was insufficient for heat, construction, and metal-working.• Soil eroded and degraded.• River flooding devastated villages, farmlands, and cities.• Famines meant people didn’t get enough to eat. 13
  14. 14. Population increases affectedPopulation the environment. Sometimes, people got up and moved on to new lands. Large groups of people moved around, or migrated. 14
  15. 15. VikingsPopulation Germanic Mongols Tribes Turkic Groups Chinese Arabs Bantu-Speaking People of People of Africa OceaniaPeople migrated to newplaces in (and out) ofAfroeurasia. 15
  16. 16. Population• Migrating groups moved Migrations into other groups’ encouraged more territories, forcing them cultural exchanges to go elsewhere. across Afroeurasia.• Migrating groups introduced new plants and animals into their new homes.• Migrations diffused technologies for farming, warfare, and crafts.• Migrations diffused languages, styles of living, and arts. 16
  17. 17. During Big Era Five,Empires many, many states and empires came… Building states and and went. empires involved cultural exchanges in Afroeurasia. 17
  18. 18. EmpiresNew ruling groupsbuilt on thefoundations ofearlier states andempires. 18
  19. 19. FrankishKingdoms Avar Kingdom Parhae Byzantine Empire Sassanid Yamoto Empire Sui China Japan Silla Harsha’ Empire Chalukya Ghana Axum States and Empires in 600 CE 19
  20. 20. CarolingianCordoba Byzantine ParhaeCaliphate Gurjara- Tang China Silla Abbasid Pratihara Heian Caliphate Japan Ghana Axum Srivijaya States and Empires in 800 CE 20
  21. 21. Scandanavian Kingdoms RussiaEngland Poland H.R.E. Mongol Empire France Spain Hungary Rum Koryo Portugal Almohad Caliphate Ayyubid Sung Kamakura China Japan Caliphate Delhi Sultanate Mali Angkor Oyo Ethiopia Benin Zimbabwe States and Empires in 1237 CE 21
  22. 22. Union of Kalmar Russian States Scotland England Poland- Khanate of the Jagatai Holy Lithuania Golden Horde Khanate Roman France Empire HungaryPortugal Castile Ottoman Emp. Korea Timurid Empire Ashikaga Granada Ming Japan China Marinids Hafsids Mamluk Sultanate Mali Ethiopia Siam Oyo Benin Vijayanagara Zanj City-States Majapahit Zimbabwe States and Empires in 1400 CE 22
  23. 23. • Wars led to destruction butEmpires produced new How did states inventions. and empires stimulate cultural • Strong governments exchanges in protected trade routes and stabilized Afroeurasia? currencies. • Royal courts were patrons of science, religious institutions, and arts. • Large states brought together many ethnic, language, and religious groups. 23
  24. 24. Trade Trade was also closely linked to cultural exchange. Empires supported trade in Afroeurasia. Merchants traveled great distances in search of wealth. 24
  25. 25. The number of cities grew, as well as trade networks betweenTrade them. 25
  26. 26. Trade Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. FROM 300-1500 CE, TRADE ROUTES EXTENDED FARTHER AND WERE USED BY MORE TRAVELERS. 26
  27. 27. • Trade helped spread religions, languages,Trade ideas, and arts. How did expanding trade • Trade stimulated networks bring about use of natural cultural exchanges in resources. Afroeurasia? • Cities and manufacturing centers grew bigger. • Banks, credit, and money systems encouraged regional and long distance trade. 27
  28. 28. Ideas During Big Era Five, universal religions spread across Afroeurasia. Universal religions are belief systems that anyone can join – they’re not limited to any one group. 28
  29. 29. Ideas Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam THE SPREAD OF UNIVERSAL RELIGIONS FROM 300-1500 CE 29
  30. 30. Who spread these universal religions across Afroeurasia?IdeasMonks spread Traders and Sufi Missionaries Buddhism. orders spread spread Islam. Christianity. 30
  31. 31. • Universal faiths gave members a sense of How did theIdeas community beyond spread of religion political, class, or encourage ethnic identities. cultural exchange in Afroeurasia? • Religious scholars gathered and recorded knowledge and founded institutions of learning. • The spread of religions stimulated production and exchange of arts, literature, philosophy, and the sciences. 31
  32. 32. Ideas What inventions, technologies, products, and ideas were exchanged across Afroeurasia? 32
  33. 33. SCHOLARS STUDIED AND SPREAD KNOWLEDGE IN MANY INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING.Ideas Sung scholar Korean library European Muslim astronomer astronomer s 33
  34. 34. Natural sciences developed in many places.IdeasChinese Muslim Indian European 34
  35. 35. Transport and communication technologies improved.Ideas Books & paper Mapmakin Stern- g rudder Lateen sail North Arabian Stirrup Astrolabe camel saddle 35
  36. 36. Water & energy technologies were transferred across Afroeurasia. Ideas• Hydraulic systems carried water where expanding cities needed it.• Wheels lifted water to irrigate crops and drain swamps.• Waterwheels, windmills, and trip- hammers provided energy for pumping, grinding, milling, and pounding. 36
  37. 37. Crops also diffused acrossIdeas Afroeurasia. Travelers and migrants introduced plants into new regions. People began to grow, eat, and sell these crops. 37
  38. 38. • Sorghum fattened up folks when this cereal crop spread from easternIdeas Africa to China. • Citrus fruits rolled from Southwest Asia to Spain, celebrated in garden and song. • Cane sugar sweetened a path from India to the Mediterranean. • Cotton wove its way from India to North Africa, Central Asia, and China. • Veggies like spinach, asparagus, and broccoli stirred vitamins into meals across the hemisphere. 38
  39. 39. Ideas How did transfers of• The pace of innovationtechnology and products increased. change people’s lives in Afroeurasia?• Knowledge accumulated more quickly.• Manufacturing and farming productivity increased.• People’s diets and health improved.• Sea travel and transport webs became thicker. 39
  40. 40. If you had to put You might say the changes in that by 1500 CEBig Era Five into the world was one sentence, connected, right?what would it be? But wait! You still haven’t said much about the Americas! 40
  41. 41. Well…the Americas and Afroeurasia were not yet permanently linked together. …not until 1492 . . . When Columbus set sail across the Atlantic . . . Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002.©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 41
  42. 42. The Americas had fewer people than Afroeurasia, and the two land masses were geographically isolated from each other. Developments in the two regions were similar in some ways and different in others. In any case, the Americas were also a region of active human interchange. Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002.©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 42
  43. 43. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXCHANGE IN THE AMERICAS: THE MAYA, INCA, AND AZTEC EMPIRES Sciences like astronomy, mathematics and engineering were developed. Mississippian Mica Trade routes connected regions. Moche Ceramic Mining, irrigation, and agricultural technologies developed. Mayan Calendar Crops like potatoes, maize, tomatoes, cotton, and chocolate were grown. Inca Gold Corn & Potatoes 43
  44. 44. States andEmpires in the Aztec Empire Mayan States Americas in 1500 CE Inca Empire Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 44
  45. 45. At the very end of Big Era Five,European mariners Those voyages linked set out on trans- the Americas withoceanic voyages to Afroeurasia for the first the Americas. time since the migrations of people over 13,000 years earlier! It had to happen sooner or later! 45
  46. 46. Culturalexchange inAfroeurasia Mapmakingbefore 1500 CEmade possible Stern-the technologies rudder Lateen Sailthat in turnpermitted Compasstransoceanicvoyages. Is that why people from Afroeurasia discovered the Americas, and not the opposite? 46
  47. 47. In Big Era Six, we’ll see learn about the explosive things that happened when migration, empires, trade, and ideasstarted moving around the entire globe. End of Big Era Five 47