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Educating for Cooperative Organizing
OR
Is a Library Still a Library if No One is
Organizing Stuff?
Steven L. MacCall, PhD...
At no time in history have people seen
themselves as technologically primitive. On
the contrary, they always saw themselve...
Solon’s Three Library Technologies
• Bibliography (for selecting articles & books)
• Index (for article search)
• Classifi...
Organization now resides in a black box. The
algorithms used by Google, Westlaw, and
LexisNexis to connect the researcher ...
By making ownership of books so much more
common, print diminished the luster of the
Renaissance library….
The university ...
Solon’s Library Technologies Recast
• Selection (legal bibliography)
• Database search of surrogates:
– Legal periodical i...
My General Research Question
How to cooperatively organize published
online resource collections for autonomous use
outsid...
Approach: Designed Environments
Libraries as networks!
Libraries as designed environments.
Published resources as designed...
Specific RQs: Cooperative Organizing
• SRQ 1: Past influences: How did we achieve
today’s designed physical library enviro...
Influences from the Past
• SRQ 1: How did we achieve today’s designed
physical library environment?
• Library science and ...
Library Science Before Williamson Rep.
• In 1876, Melvil Dewey referred to “library science”
in the context of the body of...
The Information Science Century
• With the early 20th century failure of cooperative
library organizing methods to scale, ...
Present Day Challenge
• SRQ 2: What will be the designed environment
for the online library environment?
• History of the ...
Textual Formats Over Time
• Let us review the history of textual formats:
Textual Format Inscribing Method Ontological Sta...
Wiki Example: Negligence
• Lawbrain:
1 Overview
2 History
3 The Reasonable Person
3.1 Knowledge, Experience, and Perceptio...
Wiki Example: Negligence - Duty
• Lawbrain:
5 Duty
• Jurispedia (UK):
3 Duty of Care
3.1 The Neighbour Principle
3.2 The A...
Digital Inversion Theory and Its Priorities
• Locational inversion: Online infrastructure provides for on
location rather ...
Conclusion
• Berring’s dismissal of non-algorithmic search may
very well be correct, but libraries always organize
selecte...
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Educating for Cooperative Organizing; or, Is a Library Still a Library if No One is Organizing Stuff?

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Keynote presentation of the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Alabama Association of Law Librarians, Tuscaloosa, AL, May 25, 2012.

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Educating for Cooperative Organizing; or, Is a Library Still a Library if No One is Organizing Stuff?

  1. 1. Educating for Cooperative Organizing OR Is a Library Still a Library if No One is Organizing Stuff? Steven L. MacCall, PhD Associate Professor School of Library and Information Studies University of Alabama
  2. 2. At no time in history have people seen themselves as technologically primitive. On the contrary, they always saw themselves as they were – at the leading edge of technology in what they thought of as a time of unprecedented change [emphasis mine]. Michael Gorman, 2003
  3. 3. Solon’s Three Library Technologies • Bibliography (for selecting articles & books) • Index (for article search) • Classification (for book browse)
  4. 4. Organization now resides in a black box. The algorithms used by Google, Westlaw, and LexisNexis to connect the researcher with desired information are proprietary…. There is no point in lamenting this development. The battle is over and mediation of information by librarians lost. Robert C. Berring, 2012
  5. 5. By making ownership of books so much more common, print diminished the luster of the Renaissance library…. The university libraries in Oxford and Cambridge fell into disuse. In Oxford the process of destruction was complete by January 1556, when the university made arrangements to sell off the library furniture. The library as a cultural institution struggled to adapt to the new age of print. Andrew Pettergree, 2010
  6. 6. Solon’s Library Technologies Recast • Selection (legal bibliography) • Database search of surrogates: – Legal periodical indexing – Book cataloging • Browse in the book stacks (Library of Congress Classification)
  7. 7. My General Research Question How to cooperatively organize published online resource collections for autonomous use outside of physical library environments?
  8. 8. Approach: Designed Environments Libraries as networks! Libraries as designed environments. Published resources as designed environments.
  9. 9. Specific RQs: Cooperative Organizing • SRQ 1: Past influences: How did we achieve today’s designed physical library environment? • SRQ 2: Present day challenge: What will be our designed environment for a more fully evolved online publishing environment?
  10. 10. Influences from the Past • SRQ 1: How did we achieve today’s designed physical library environment? • Library science and information science: – What is library science? – Why did information science emerge? • Those investigating cooperative organizing are interested in 1876 developments: – Cooperative cataloging (led by Cutter) – Cooperative classified shelf arrangement (led by Dewey)
  11. 11. Library Science Before Williamson Rep. • In 1876, Melvil Dewey referred to “library science” in the context of the body of knowledge required to optimize shared library management under library economy: – Existing library network (over 3,000 libraries in 1876) – All libraries are branches in a single system (Cutter) • By the turn of the century, it was apparent that cooperative organizing methods worked for books, but they failed to scale to all published materials: – Currently over 120K cooperatively organized libraries – BUT, bibliographical methods (i.e., analytical cataloging) failed to scale up to all published materials, esp. articles – Classification methods required user visits to libraries
  12. 12. The Information Science Century • With the early 20th century failure of cooperative library organizing methods to scale, there was an opening for LLA and for a new “information science” (IS) to develop: – In 20th century, IS became heavily concerned with improving search through algorithmic indexing – During this period, IS research came to dominate LIS schools as measured by doctoral student research output and the recent rise of the iSchool movement • Where is the library science research occurring for the future designed online library environment?
  13. 13. Present Day Challenge • SRQ 2: What will be the designed environment for the online library environment? • History of the book as text carrying format: – Book as organizing device – Book as aggregator of evidence (analytical bibliography) • Designing the designed online library environment: – A role for wiki-like publishing for online resources? – Digital Inversion Theory (if time permits)
  14. 14. Textual Formats Over Time • Let us review the history of textual formats: Textual Format Inscribing Method Ontological Status Label Tablet Imprinting Static “Tablet” Scroll Script Static “Book” Codex Script Static “Book” Codex Print Static “Book” Online Digital Static “eBook” Online Digital Dynamic “Online book”* * Wiki-like resource publishing?
  15. 15. Wiki Example: Negligence • Lawbrain: 1 Overview 2 History 3 The Reasonable Person 3.1 Knowledge, Experience, and Perception 3.2 Special Skills 3.3 Physical Characteristics 3.4 Mental Capacity 3.5 Children 3.6 Emergencies 3.7 Conduct of Others 4 Proof of Negligence 4.1 Statutes 4.2 Experts 4.3 Custom 4.4 Circumstantial Evidence 5 Duty 6 Proximate Cause 7 Intervening Cause 8 Defenses to Negligence Liability 8.1 Contributory Negligence 8.2 Comparative Negligence 8.3 Assumption of Risk 9 References 10 Related Resources on FindLaw 11 Related Blogs on FindLaw 12 See Also • Jurispedia (UK): 1 Introduction 2 General Negligence 3 Duty of Care 3.1 The Neighbour Principle 3.2 The Anns Two-Stage Test 3.3 The Caparo Test 3.4 Conclusion 4 Notes and references 5 See also • Wikipedia: 1 Elements of negligence claims 1.1 Duty of care 1.2 Breach of duty 1.3 Factual causation (Direct Cause) 1.4 Legal causation or remoteness 1.5 Harm 2 Damages 3 Procedure in the United States 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 External links
  16. 16. Wiki Example: Negligence - Duty • Lawbrain: 5 Duty • Jurispedia (UK): 3 Duty of Care 3.1 The Neighbour Principle 3.2 The Anns Two-Stage Test 3.3 The Caparo Test 3.4 Conclusion • Wikipedia: 1 Elements of negligence claims 1.1 Duty of care 1.2 Breach of duty
  17. 17. Digital Inversion Theory and Its Priorities • Locational inversion: Online infrastructure provides for on location rather than in physical library services. • Ontological inversion: Publishers’ online books provide for textual updates as needed rather than having to wait for the publishing of new physical editions. • Temporal inversion: First develop cooperative methods for organizing online books then design for textual transmission from codex to online. • Bibliographical inversion: – Cooperative organizing based on classification methods (i.e., browse) first rather than bibliographical (i.e., search) – Documentation of textual reception and use within network of branch digital libraries rather than within individual books
  18. 18. Conclusion • Berring’s dismissal of non-algorithmic search may very well be correct, but libraries always organize selected resources using multiple methods. • Ultimately, librarians may have to wait for publishers to evolve their online publishing model before librarians can cooperatively organize. • However, there is no reason why librarians cannot impact that evolution, which is one purpose of Digital Inversion Theory. • Without organizing, are libraries still libraries?

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