Verbatim comments from a very experienced, valued examiner:Ways to Shoot Yourself in the Foot:19. waste precious time writing out the question34. write a laborious, opening scene-setter paragraph41. write such a beautiful PLAN that it ends up longer than the actualanswer!43. write long-winded elaborate descriptive sentences of the resource.45. regurgitate what is on the resource and not even manipulate it orthe data on it.48. ignore the key words “suggest reasons”, “and the environment”,two “contrasting”, “within and between”, “using examples”49. poor time management
3. Section A of the exam Section A resources will be a mixture of graphs, maps, diagrams and other illustrative material such as cartoons Some text may be present and this should always be carefully read Figures are provided as data stimulus, and candidates will not be asked to ‘describe’ Answers should focus on explanation and reasoning Candidates should be very strict Interpretation of Figures with timings, and keep an eye on is a skills candidates the exam room clock should practice.
Section A data response Using the resources Photos Graphs effectively is one of the keys to exam success. Diagram Maps Cartoons Tables Slide 3
Carefully read Figure titles, as well as Resources scales, axes and keys if presentLook for patterns, trends and relationships and seek Read any text, or notes, carefully to explain these
a) Suggest how water resources and Assess, Evaluate, human well being might be affected by the data in figure 2 (10) Discuss – A2 Level e.g. Section A part b) Using named examples, ASSESS ‘b’ questions and the role of different players and decision makers in trying to secure Section B a sustainable water future (15) Explain, suggest reasons – AS Level and Command words A2 level e.g. Unit 3 Command words at A2 level will be Section A part ‘a’ different to those at AS level; some questions and Section B examples are shown below In Section A in Unit 3 the ‘a’ parts will often use ‘explain’ or ‘suggest reasons’Describe, Contrast – AS Level whereas the ‘b’ parts will often focus on the higher level skills of ‘assess’ and ‘evaluate’
CONSERVATIONISTS – INDIVIDUALS– an Players an area of biodiversity to be area to be enjoyed and Players focuses on the protected from explored; organisations, groups and human activity expectation that individuals who have a facilities and TOURISM amenities will be role to play within an INDUSTRY – an available issue area for Players might be thought making of as ‘decision makers’ or profits, but ‘stakeholders’ also requiring conservation Players may hold very to maintain different views on an visitor issue, because they have numbers different opinions and values WATER INDUSTRY LOGGERS – an – an important It is important students area of timber source of understand these resources that freshwater to different positions and could be supply homes perspectives exploited and industry
Global Actions focuses on both the scale and standpoint of agreements and Actions international actions action There is a hierarchy of actions at different scales National policy and management There is often debate over which scale of management is best for a particular issue Local governance and individual Often an issue is managed at actions several scales Chosen actions are Neo-liberal Socialist Grassroots influenced by players’ standpoints, especially Focus on Focus on national Focus on political and economic commercial planning and bottom-up and beliefs solutions and less targets, often sustainable, government top-down small scale influence initiatives International, National, Local, market-led government led community led
Futures focuses on the direction the Futures contested planet should take Three future scenarios are recognised:Business as usualSustainableRadical The first implies humans continue to behave in similar ways to the past i.e. high consumption and pollution Sustainable futures suggests stabilising consumption and human environmental impacts Radical implies concerted action to reverse environmental degradation Each of the three futures have very different consequences and are supported by different players Each approach has very different costs and benefits
Activity 3: Smart case studies• Ideal is to use a mix of case studies (paragraph max.) and examples (1 -2 lines).• These need to be selected on the basis of the question, not just used ‘whatever’.• After selecting the case study / example, further selection of relevant information is needed.• This can then be applied to the question.• Candidates need to realise that examples / case studies can have many uses in different question contexts.
Section A:Selectively use significant / key information sifted from the resource and re- produced selectively (rather than copying all of the information out).Supporting ideas are needed too - candidates need to add their own knowledge about places, people or processes (clearly adding extra dimensions to what the resource has shown).Sharply focused answers will do well e.g. those that only contain “need to know” information (rather than “nice to know” information such as lengthy definitions of text book terms). 1. Make the correct choice – 5 minutes to read + assess all Qs. 2. Selectively use significant / key information sifted from the resource and re-produced selectively (rather than copying all of the information out). Remember ‘stimulus’ 3. Supporting ideas are needed too - candidates need to add their own knowledge about places, people or processes (clearly adding extra dimensions to what the Slide 12 resource has shown).
Careful unpicking of the Question.... Slide 13
Examples and case studies Students must use examples to illustrate their argument RANGE – more than one and discussion when ever example they can –even when not directly asked to do so in the question. BALANCE – avoid being one-sided This is especially important DETAIL – example specific when questions use phrases facts and figures such as ‘costs and benefits’ or ‘advantages and STRUCTURE – logical and disadvantages’. organised writing Avoid relying on one major case study as this often EVALUATIVE – moving produces descriptive and towards an overview / brief unbalanced responses – a conclusion range of smaller examples illustrating several different aspects of the question is preferable
Activity 5: Evaluative style in the ‘b’s• Command words usually either ‘assess’ or ‘evaluate’ – sometimes However ‘assess the extent’ or On the other hand ‘evaluate the relative But importance of’ Nevertheless• Addressing these crucial In conclusion to L3 / L4 marks An alternative view• Candidates need to be On balance weighing up views, In contrast deciding on importance, moving towards a Yet judgement / conclusion Although• Use the language of assessment / evaluative style
Mark scheme All A2 work is Levels marked; there is no point marking Levels mark schemes have a step-like structure, which successive levels requiring higher skills and greater precision: Assessment Some examples Range of examples Some examples Balanced Balanced costs and benefits Descriptive Some structure Structured Carefully structured comments Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Section A summary: Top 5 tips• BALANCE – between ‘a’ and ‘b’ in terms of marks available i.e. 10 and 15.• RANGE of examples and (possibly) case studies rather than 1 or 2 ‘biggies’.• ADAPT what has been learned in class to suit the question e.g. the water question is not always about conflict.• JUDGE the meaning of the question by reading it carefully, not deciding on the basis of the Figure, or the expected question.• WEIGH-UP different perspectives using evaluative language to achieve Level 4 marks.
Lucky Dip – Exam QuestionsENERGY SECURITY: 1, 2 or 3 WATER CONFLICTS: 1, 2 or 3 SUPERPOWERS: 1, 2 or 3 DEVELOPMENT GAP: 1, 2 or 3
Energy Security Referring to examples, examine the issues when assessing global reserves of energy. (15 marks) Discuss how far economic development can be affected by energy security. (15 marks) The development of alternative energy sources is a possible response to future energy demands. Assess the possible costs and benefits of this approach. (15marks) Click here to return to home slide
Click here to return to home slide Water ConflictsReferring to examples, assess the validity of the statement that ‘water conflicts are as much to do with water quality as quantity’. (15 marks) Referring to examples, assess the potential for water conflict in areas where demand exceeds supply. (15 marks) Using named examples, assess the role of different players and decision makers in trying to secure a sustainable ‘water future’. (15 marks) Assess the likely environmental and socio-economic impacts of the different proposals for coping with water shortages in different countries. (15 marks)
Superpowers Evaluate the factors which lead to superpower status. (15 marks) Using examples, assess the view that the relationship between the developed and the developing world is a neo-colonial one. (15 marks) Explain how membership of Intergovernmental Organisations gives some countries political and economic power. (10 marks) Assess the view that economic development is not possible without causing environmental degradation. (15 marks) To what extent is the USA the world’s ‘cultural superpower’? (15 marks) Click here to return to home slide
Superpowers (Topic in Blue, Focus in Red) Evaluate the factors which lead to superpower status. (15 marks) Evaluate the factors which lead to superpower status. (15 marks) Using examples, assess the view that the relationship between the developed and the developing world is a neo-colonial one. (15 marks) Using examples, assess the view that the relationship between the developed and the developing world is a neo-colonial one. (15 marks) Assess the view that economic development is not possible without causing environmental degradation. (15 marks) Assess the view that economic development is not possible without causing environmental degradation. (15 marks) To what extent is the USA the world’s ‘cultural superpower’? (15 marks) To what extent is the USA the world’s ‘cultural superpower’? (15 marks)
Development Gap Give reasons why the world’s megacities have become poverty hotpots? (10 marks) Examine the role played by debt in maintaining a global development gap. (15 marks) Examine the barriers that exist against the expansion of trade in some developing countries. (15 marks) Based on your evaluation, justify that future development projects should be managed in a bottom-up way? (15 marks) Click here to return to home slide