Algeria

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A lesson on the African nation Algeria, for year 9 geography SOW

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  • ♣ ((My Official language is Arabic, but many of my inhabitants also speak French)) ... Thank you for Berberians (Kabyle, Chaoui, Tergui, Mzab, ...
    Please, check the Algerian Constitution, in the first page, it may surprise you. -_-'
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Algeria

  1. 1. STARTER<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g8mA4L4ZeA8&feature=related<br />National anthem<br />Which nation is today’s subject? Identify from the clues!<br />This is my flag<br />This is my shape<br />My official language is Arabic, but many of my inhabitants also speak French <br />My main export is Natural Gas and other Petroleum based products<br />I share borders with Mali, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco and Niger<br />I have a coastline on the Mediterranean Sea<br />A large part of me is covered by the Sahara desert<br />
  2. 2. Algeria or الجزائر<br />Aim<br />To get to know the little known nation of Algeria<br />To understand the problems of having a inhospitable landscape<br />To appreciate some of the world’s protected places<br />
  3. 3. Algeria has a troubled past-<br />A bloody struggle for independence from colonial France in the 60s<br />Internal conflict between conflicting groups within it’s borders- some who support a more westernised culture and some who support a more ‘traditionally’ Islamic culture and those who are berber and cherish there indigenous berber culture <br />Many people of my generation grew up in conflict with bombs and guns symbols of everday life<br />
  4. 4. Due to the struggles Algeria has a very strong identity today and as my Algerian friends say ‘you can take a man out of Algeria, but you cannot take Algeria out of the man’ <br />So lets discover a little more about this little known nation<br />Fill in your sheet as we go through the next few slides<br />
  5. 5. Algeria’s main cities and towns<br />The capital is Algiers, on the Mediterranean coast<br />The other major cities are Oran in the North West, Tindouf in the Centre West, Tamanrasset in the South and Constantine and Annaba to the North East<br />
  6. 6. Algeria’s physical Geography!!<br />Sahara Desert<br />Algeria’s lowest point is ChottMelrhir near Biskra<br />It’s highest is Mount Tahat near Tamanrasset<br />The Sahara covers most of the country<br />
  7. 7. The Hoggar Mountains<br />EL HOGGAR<br />
  8. 8. Algeria’s Gas fields<br />
  9. 9. ALGERIA TASK SHEET<br />ALGERIA TASK SHEET<br />Task One<br />On your outline mark the following-<br />The capital City in the correct place with a star<br />The Sahara Desert<br />The main cities of Oran, Constantine, <br />Tamanrasset and Tindouf<br />The Mediterranean coastline<br />The Hoggar mountains<br />The main gas field areas<br />The countries lowest point at <br />The countries highest point at <br />Task One<br />On your outline mark the following-<br />The capital City in the correct place with a star<br />The Sahara Desert<br />The main cities of Oran, Constantine, <br />Tamanrasset and Tindouf<br />The Mediterranean coastline<br />The Hoggar mountains<br />The main gas field areas<br />The countries lowest point at <br />The countries highest point at <br />Task Two-<br />Using the information sheets compete a fully annotated map of Algeria, showing <br />places to visit and giving reasons to go (atleast 2 cities/ towns and 2 natural features and 1 world heritage site)- locate these on your map<br />Describe how you will bet there from London<br />Outline the problems it faces as a nation<br />Include information about Algerian culture and language<br />5 Interesting facts<br />Task Two-<br />Using the information sheets compete a fully annotated map of Algeria, showing <br />places to visit and giving reasons to go (atleast 2 cities/ towns and 2 natural features and 1 world heritage site)- locate these on your map<br />Describe how you will bet there from London<br />Outline the problems it faces as a nation<br />Include information about Algerian culture and language<br />5 interesting facts<br />
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  11. 11. Task One<br />Complete task one from the worksheet- when you have finished, come and take a piece of A3 paper and stick your completed map in the centre-<br />
  12. 12. What problems does Algeria face?<br />Problem<br />Problem because…<br />High unemployment rates- in some places 25% (1/4) people are unemployed<br />Relies on natural gas to make money<br />Most people are squashed into the northern coastal strip of the country because of the inhospitable desert in the centre and south<br />Threats to tourists (people have been kidnapped in the Sahara)<br />Many nations still advise their citizens not to travel to Algeria as they deem it unsafe (there are still threats from bombings)<br />Only the northern border with Tunisia can be used for general tourist crossings- others are shut or require police/ guide escort which must be arranged and paid for in advance<br />I will give you a number in groups of 3, you will have 4 minutes to read your problem and then think of reasons why it could be a problem, we will then go round and share with the class<br />
  13. 13. What problems does Algeria face?<br />Problem because…<br />Problem<br />Jobless people do not pay tax and contribute to improving the country, also jobless have less money to invest or spend so businesses struggle and close- stopping the country getting rich<br />High unemployment rates- in some places 25% (1/4) people are unemployed<br />Relies on natural gas to make money<br />Most people are squashed into the northern coastal strip of the country because of the inhospitable desert in the centre and south<br />Threats to tourists (people have been kidnapped in the Sahara)<br />Many nations still advise their citizens not to travel to Algeria as they deem it unsafe (there are still threats from bombings)<br />Only the northern border with Tunisia can be used for general tourist crossings- others are shut or require police/ guide escort which must be arranged and paid for in advance<br />Although the supply is currently plentiful, obviously natural gas is finite and will run out- Algeria needs to develop other money makers before this happens to avoid becoming poorer<br />Parts of the country are overcrowded and others empty- overcrowding can lead to tension and fights. Also housing tends to be cramped as space is at a premium<br />Algeria is a beautiful country but if people are warned against travel there most will not go- if people do not visit the country cannot make money from tourism, fewer jobs will be created as without tourists fewer hotels, restaurants, guides etc are needed. Less money comes into the country and less is made by Algerians themselves through working in the industry.<br />
  14. 14. The lonely planet website describes Algeria as ‘the country you never knew you wanted to visit’ <br />Let’s see what it has to offer<br />
  15. 15. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Puua1rndaS8 Algeria’s beautiful places<br />Whilst you watch the clip write down the things that could attract you to Algeria (or someone else you know, if you are not attracted) <br />
  16. 16. Algiers- the White City<br />Algeria’s capital city- with a population of about 1.2 million- its an important port.<br />You can get here by plane from London<br />Or by ferry from France, Spain or Greece<br />
  17. 17. To have UNESCO protection means it is protected from destruction by the United Nations- who frequently visit to ensure the site is maintained<br />Things to see in Algiers!<br />The UNESCO protected Kasbah <br />
  18. 18. The monument of the martyrs- a monument to commemorate the Algerian War of Independence from France in 1962<br />Djemaa el-DjedidMosque<br />350 years old, originallly built by ottomans, but changed numerous times- it’s a mosque but has a church like tower! A symbol of every religion in one building<br />
  19. 19. The great Mosque of Algiers, built in 1097, one of few buildings of the time in the world today<br />Notre Dammed’Afrique- a Catholic basilica- built in the 19th century by the French.<br />A Roman Catholic building in a Muslim country seen as a sign of Algeria’s religious tolerance<br />
  20. 20. The North East- Batna, Djemila, Annaba, Constantine<br />Annaba- a vibrant city with beautiful beaches. The centre of Algeria’s steel production. To the south is the beautiful Basilica of St, Augustine and this dominates the skyline. It has a relaxed pace of life and a bustling nightlife- it is the city to which many Algerians flock to relax and escape from the bustle of Algiers.<br />Basillica of St. Augustine.<br />A beautiful beach- like the ones in neighbouring <br />Tunisia (popular with Brits) but quieter as Algeria<br />Isn’t such a tourist place.<br />
  21. 21. Timgrad- Roman town remains<br />Ancient Roman remains built in 2nd century AD. In the Sahara, the theatre has been so well preserved performances are still held there. <br />
  22. 22. North West Algeria- Oran- Algeria’s second city<br />A new luxury hotel constructed recently as tourists increase.<br />A more Spanish connection than the rest of Algeria- nice Mosques and more Moorish architecture here.<br />
  23. 23. Saharan Algeria<br />Ghardaia, M’zab valley- another UNESCO protected site in Algeria. It has a culture all of its own the Ibadi Muslims- who are very traditional in their beliefs and dress. Visitors here should taka a local guide and dress appropriately.<br />Best for a day trip as staying overnight in the town is not appreciated by locals<br />The town is a group of desert oases, where many fig and date trees grow.<br />
  24. 24. Tamanrasset- the South Sahara<br />The gateway to the beautiful Algerian Sahara- most desert treks start and end here- but beware you must have a guide and its best not to drive- the place is littered with cars abandoned en route.<br />
  25. 25. HassiMessaoud- oil rich Sahara<br />The town at the centre of Algeria’s natural gas and oil extraction- more modern and rich than most Algerian regions, but at a cost to the beauty of the country?<br />HassiMessaoud means ‘blessed well’ in Arabic.<br />
  26. 26. Algerian Culture<br />Algeria's culture is strongly influenced by the country's recent history, as well as other aspects such as their literature, music, arts, crafts and religion.<br />Arabic is Algeria's primary language and is spoken by around 82% of people. The French colonialism experienced by the country in the past has resulted in French being the second language of many educated Algerians, and English is very rarely spoken. Many people of Algeria also speak different dialects of Berber.<br />The culture of most countries is also influenced by its past and this is certainly true of Algeria. There are also many ethnic groups in the country that contribute to its diverse and fascinating culture.<br />Islam is the official religion of Algeria and the majority (99%)of Algerians are Muslims. Approximately one percent of Algeria's population is Jewish or Christian<br />Algerian literature is split between French and Arabic and the country has produced a number of famous novelists, Mohammed Dib, KatebYacine and AssiaDjebar, during the 20th century. AssiaDjebar's works are widely translatedinto English.<br />The musical genre of Algeria that is best known abroad is Rai. Rai is a pop-flavored, opinionated take on folk music, featuring stars such as Khaled and ChebMami. Chaabi style music also remains very popular with stars such as El Hadj El Anka and Dahmane El Harrachi making their mark on the local music scene. For those with a more classical taste in music, Andalusi music, brought from Al-Andalus by Morisco refugees, is preserved in many older coastal towns.<br />Algeria has a thriving handicrafts industry. Part of the charm of the country is the richness of its production. From carpets to ceramics, from leather to lute making, from pottery to glass working to silverwork, the country has a tremendous variety of skills that produce goods which are sold in many other countries as well as to visiting tourists.<br />
  27. 27. Algerian cuisine<br />Couscous is the national dish- it is often flavoured with raisins and cinnamon or with chilli paste (harissa)<br />Tagines and soups are widely eaten, using lamd vegetables like corgettes and dried fruit like apricots<br />Dates are a staple sweet food along with semolina or sweetened couscous.<br />They drink mint tea, but coffee is widely consumed.<br />Usually lamb and beef are the preferred meats- but in the north seafood is widely eaten<br />Merguez sausages- originate in the Atlas mountains- a spicy lamb sausage<br />Burek- Algerian spring rolls- mix of meat and veg rolled in thin pastry layers and fried<br />Bread usually accompanies every Algerian meal, it can be made from semolina or wheat<br />Couscous<br />Lamb shanks<br />merguez sausages<br />Burek<br />
  28. 28. Algerian Music<br />Rai- ‘meaning advice/ opinion’ in Algeria- a message in the lyrics- very popular in Middle East, rest of North Africa, Turkey and Europe. Usually has a repetitive beat- making it ideal for dancing<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbiN8JGhvTE&playnext=1&list=PL86E176D9A7F1F68E extract<br />Algerian folk music- mainly Kabilye in origin- uses instruments like the Banjo <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwCjwd3yvVQ&feature=relatedsouadMassi (yaQalbi (my heart)<br />More modern Algerian music- <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEvYRVAUYTQcameleon<br />Algerian Hip Hop on the increase- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jiro3LRbWmI<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_iv8mptXAvo<br />
  29. 29. Algerian Proverbs<br />Esberrmaftah el djena - Patience is the key to paradise <br />Hbibek min charkek fi lafrahoualaqrah - A friend is someone who shares your happiness and your pains <br />Li fi kerchoutben ma khaf mi nar - The one whose belly isn't full of straw isn't afraid of fire <br />What do you think these mean?<br />
  30. 30. Task<br />Complete an annotated map of Algeria, include the following information<br />The completed labelled map from earlier in the lesson<br />Details about Algerian culture- music, food, literature<br />Information about places to visit- linked to their location on the map<br />

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