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GRAMMAR BOOKSonia Mayfield
Table of Contents1.    Nationalities2.    Stem Change3.    Para4.    IOP5.    Pronoun Placement6.    Gustar7.    Affirmati...
Nationalities
Stem Change                      Pedir e -> i   Dormir o -> ue      duermo             Pido      duermes           Pides  ...
Para  • used with an infinitive to express the purpose of doing    something      Examples:       Trabajamos para ganar di...
IOP      Me Nos                     - to whom      Te Os                      - for whom      Le Les      S   V       DOP ...
Pronoun Placement• A Reflexive pronoun is in front of an Indirect object pronoun, and a  Direct object is the last pronoun...
Gustar      Gustar (singular)                               Gustar (plural)   Me gusta     Nos Gusta                     M...
Affirmative & Negative WordsAfirmative:alguno (any)siempre (always)también ( also)algún (some)algo (something)alguien (som...
Superlativos• The suffixes –ísimo, -ísimos, -ísima, and –ísimas are added to adjectives  and adverbs• It is equivalent to ...
Reflexivos• In the reflexive construction, the subject is also the object• A person does as well receives the action…• The...
Affirmative tu commands• For affirmative commands, put the verb in it’s tu form and then drop the  s. • Example:       cam...
Negative tu commands1.   Put the verb in its yo form2.   Change the vowel (ar -> e, er, ir -> a)3.   Add an s at the end. ...
Sequencing Eventsprimero   entonces   Luego/    Por fin   Antes de/   Por la       Los lunes,                     después ...
Pretérito             ar:-é             -amoshablé          hablamos-astehablaste-ó             -aronhabló          hablar...
Trigger WordsUn día – One dayUna vez – OnceAyer - YesterdayA noche – At nightHace un año – A year agoYa - AlreadyEl mes pa...
- car, -gar, -zarTocar               Jugar     ComenzarToqué               Jugué     ComencéTocaste             Jugaste   ...
Deber + Infinitive• The verb deber means should or ought to. To say hat people should  do, use a conjugated form of deber ...
Modal Verbs• When verbs are used in modal verb communication, the 2 nd verb is  not conjugated but rather left in the infi...
Present Progressives• When you use pronouns with the present progressive, you can put  them in one of two places. • Put pr...
Adverbs• When an adjective ends in e, l, or z, simply add –mente to the end.Examples: Reciente - Recientemente Frecuente -...
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Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOKSonia Mayfield
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Nationalities2. Stem Change3. Para4. IOP5. Pronoun Placement6. Gustar7. Affirmative & Negative Word8. Superlativos9. Reflexivos10. Affirmative tu commands11. Negative tu commands12. Sequencing Events13. Preterito14. Trigger Words15. -car, -gar, -zar16. Deber + Infinitive17. Modal Verbs18. Present Progressive19. Adverbs
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Stem Change Pedir e -> i Dormir o -> ue duermo Pido duermes Pides duerme duermen Pide Piden Pensar e -> ie Jugar u -> ue Pienso Juego Piensas Juegas Piensa Piensan Juega Juegan
  5. 5. Para • used with an infinitive to express the purpose of doing something Examples: Trabajamos para ganar dinero. We work to earn money. Coma las legumbres para la salud. Eat vegetables for health / to be healthy.
  6. 6. IOP Me Nos - to whom Te Os - for whom Le Les S V DOP IOP I give flowers to my teachers. Le doy las flores a mi maestra. Le las doy. Se las doy. Gustar (like/please) - No goes before the indirect object. (No le gusta…)
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement• A Reflexive pronoun is in front of an Indirect object pronoun, and a Direct object is the last pronoun. • RID (Reflexive, Indirect, Direct); the order of the pronouns in a sentence.• Note: When two object pronouns begin with the letter l, the first object pronoun is changed to se. (not a reflexive pronoun) • Example: I give flowers to my teachers. Le doy las flores a mi maestra. Le las doy. Se las doy.
  8. 8. Gustar Gustar (singular) Gustar (plural) Me gusta Nos Gusta Me gustan Nos gustan Te gusta Os gusta Te gustan Os gustan Le gusta Les Gusta Le gustan Les gustan Examples: Me gusta limonada. Me gustan enchiladas. Le gusta el te. Le gustan la fajitas.
  9. 9. Affirmative & Negative WordsAfirmative:alguno (any)siempre (always)también ( also)algún (some)algo (something)alguien (someone)Negative:nada : (nothing)nunca (never)nadie ( no-one)ningún ( anything)tampoco (nor)
  10. 10. Superlativos• The suffixes –ísimo, -ísimos, -ísima, and –ísimas are added to adjectives and adverbs• It is equivalent to extremely or very before an adjective or adverb malo > malísimo muchas > muchísimas difícil > dificilísimo• Adjectives and adverbs ending in c, g, or z change spelling to qu, gu, and c respectively rico > riquísimo larga > larguísima feliz > felicísimo• Adjectives that end in –n or –r form by adding –císimo joven > jovencísimo trabajador > trabajadorcísimo
  11. 11. Reflexivos• In the reflexive construction, the subject is also the object• A person does as well receives the action…• The subject, the pronoun and the verb are all the same form… • Por ejemplo: • Yo me levanto a las ocho de la mañana. • Ella se despierta muy temprano. 1. Conjugate the verb 2. Add the reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se)Posición de las pronombres reflexivos:1. In front of the conjugated verb 1. Me acuesto a las diez de le noche.2. Attached to a gerund 1. Estoy acostándome ahora mismo.3. Attached to an infinitive 1. Voy a acostarme ahora mismo.4. Attached to an affirmative command 1. Bañate!
  12. 12. Affirmative tu commands• For affirmative commands, put the verb in it’s tu form and then drop the s. • Example: caminar -> іCamina! comer -> іCome! abrir -> іAbre! Irregular Affirmative Commands: decir – di hacer – haz ir – ve poner – pon salir – sal ser – sé tener – ten venir – ven
  13. 13. Negative tu commands1. Put the verb in its yo form2. Change the vowel (ar -> e, er, ir -> a)3. Add an s at the end. • Example: hablar -> hablo -> іNo hables! volver -> vuelvo -> іNo vuelvas! Irregular Negative Commands: Tener – no tengas Venir – no vengas dar/ decir – no des/ digas ir – no vayas ser – no seas hacer – no hagas estar – no estés saber – no sepas/ salgas
  14. 14. Sequencing Eventsprimero entonces Luego/ Por fin Antes de/ Por la Los lunes, después después mañana/ etc. de tarde/ nochefirst then Later/ finally Before/ In/ during On after after the… (no mondays specific time given)
  15. 15. Pretérito ar:-é -amoshablé hablamos-astehablaste-ó -aronhabló hablaron er/ir:-í -imoscomí comimosescribí escribimos-istecomisteescribiste-ió -ieroncomió comieronescribió escribieron
  16. 16. Trigger WordsUn día – One dayUna vez – OnceAyer - YesterdayA noche – At nightHace un año – A year agoYa - AlreadyEl mes pasado – Last monthAnteayer – Day before yesterdayPor una hora – For one hourPor fin - FinallyA las ocho – At eightEl cinco de febrero – On February fifth
  17. 17. - car, -gar, -zarTocar Jugar ComenzarToqué Jugué ComencéTocaste Jugaste ComenzasteTocó Jugó ComenzóTocamos Jugamos ComenzamosTocaron Jugaron Comenzaron
  18. 18. Deber + Infinitive• The verb deber means should or ought to. To say hat people should do, use a conjugated form of deber with the infinitive of another verb. Deber Debo Debemos Debes Debeis Debe DebenExample: Debo quitar el polvo.
  19. 19. Modal Verbs• When verbs are used in modal verb communication, the 2 nd verb is not conjugated but rather left in the infinitive form. (You would never say “No puedo nado.”)
  20. 20. Present Progressives• When you use pronouns with the present progressive, you can put them in one of two places. • Put pronouns before the conjugated form of estar, or attach them to the end of the present participle. Someone says: Estoy sacándolas para algo muy importante. They could’ve said: Las estoy sacando para algo muy importante. • Present Progressive Irregulars • When the stem of an –er or –ir verb ends in a vowel, change the –iendo to –yendo to form the present participle.
  21. 21. Adverbs• When an adjective ends in e, l, or z, simply add –mente to the end.Examples: Reciente - Recientemente Frecuente - Frecuentemente Normal – Normalmente• For adjectives with –o or –a ending, add mente to the feminine form.Examples: Cuidadoso – Cuidadosamente Rápido – Rápidamente Lento – Lentamente

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