Principles of transmission, applied to the eu transmission network 2011.12.06

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Electricity is all-present in our lives and it is easy to take for granted. The whole industry that is working behind the scenes to provide us with electricity is usually invisible for us.



The electricity industry is transforming and faces many technical and economic challenges. This presentation unveils the basic principles of a part of the industry that figures the most in economic analyses: electricity transmission.



The presentation also presents the role of transmission in one of the most serious electricity incidences in the last decade of the electricity grid: the 2003 Italy blackout. In this incident, Italy was first disconnected from the Continental European grid and then experienced a country-wide blackout.



Apart from being important to keep the lights on, electricity transmission also plays a crucial role in the realization of the EU Internal Market and in reaching the EU Carbon Reduction targets.



The topics I will address:

1. Limits of transmission lines

2. Dispatch (how to “send” electricity over a transmission line)

3. Frequency and stability requirements in transmission

4. The future development of the EU transmission network.

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Principles of transmission, applied to the eu transmission network 2011.12.06

  1. 1. Principles of Transmission applied to the EU transmission network Silvester van Koten Jean-Monnet Fellow at the Florence School of Regulation
  2. 2. Transmission Principles of Transmission, applied to the EU transmission network <ul><li>Line limits </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>Role of frequency in ac lines and stability requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission shortage, the internal market and the 2050 carbon targets </li></ul>
  3. 5. Electricity is an essential part of our lives
  4. 6. Power plants
  5. 7. Distributors
  6. 8. Transmission
  7. 9. Huge blackout cripples Italy! September 28 th , 2003
  8. 10. Rome’s “white night”
  9. 11. Rome’s “white night” 110 trains stopped Thousands of people stuck
  10. 13. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 “ Cross-border transmission lines” “ Interconnectors” Tree flashover!
  11. 14. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Tree flashover!
  12. 15. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 03:01-03.16
  13. 16. 03:11 The Swiss TSO operator asks the Italian TSO for countermeasures
  14. 17. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:21 Italy reduces import by -300 MW 03:25 Tree flashover!
  15. 18. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:25 Tree flashover!
  16. 19. 03:26 All interconnectors are automatically disconnected
  17. 22. 1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. The future of the EU transmission network
  18. 23. <ul><li>Transmission lines limits </li></ul>
  19. 24. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Tree flashover! Transmission lines limits
  20. 25. 3 risk factors for flashover Factor 1: High voltage Transmission lines limits
  21. 27. High voltage Dramatically lowers losses to resistance 1 KV-> 10KV Loss falls to 1% Factor 100 Transmission lines limits
  22. 28. 1 KV-> 100KV Loss falls to 0.01% Factor 10.000 Transmission lines limits
  23. 29. 3 risk factors for flashover Factor 1: High voltage Factor 2: High load Transmission lines limits
  24. 30. Sagging of the line Transmission lines limits
  25. 31. 3 risk factors for flashover Factor 1: High voltage Factor 3: Proximity to trees Factor 2: High load Transmission lines limits
  26. 32. Clearance: Trees below transmission lines must be kept short enough Transmission lines limits
  27. 33. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza After the blackout incident, the Swiss authorities revised their policy of clearance. Transmission lines limits
  28. 34. <ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Do transmission  lines have a higher capacity in winter or in summer? </li></ul><ul><li>Raise your hand if you think that transmission lines have a higher capacity in winter. </li></ul>Transmission lines limits
  29. 35. 1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch
  30. 36. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Dispatch
  31. 37. ? A B Injection: 100MW Injection: 20MW Withdrawal: 50MW Withdrawal: 70MW Net Injection: 50MW Net Withdrawal: 50MW Dispatch
  32. 38. Physical flow: 50MW A B Net Injection: 50MW Net Withdrawal: 50MW Dispatch
  33. 39. Net Withdrawal: 50MW Physical flow: 50MW A B Net Injection: 50MW ∆ -10MW 40MW ∆ -10MW 40MW ∆ -10MW 40MW Dispatch
  34. 40. Physical flow: 40MW A B Net Injection: 40MW Net Withdrawal: 40MW Electricity cannot just be “send” somewhere Any flow is the RESULT of the injection and withdrawals Dispatch
  35. 41. 03:11 The Swiss TSO operator asks the Italian TSO for countermeasures
  36. 42. Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:21 Italy reduces import by -300 MW 03:25 Dispatch
  37. 43. 1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity
  38. 44. Frequency and Synchronicity Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC)
  39. 45. Frequency and Synchronicity Alternating Current (AC) 50 Hertz
  40. 46. Does a lamp in your house receive zero energy 100 times a second and is thus blinking? Raise your hand if you think that this is indeed the case. Frequency and Synchronicity
  41. 47. 50 Herz is the frequency in Europe Frequency and Synchronicity
  42. 48. A shortage of generation makes the frequency fall Slight shortage Frequency and Synchronicity
  43. 49. A surplus of generation makes the frequency rise Slight surplus Frequency and Synchronicity
  44. 50. <ul><li>http://www.dynamicdemand.co.uk/grid.htm </li></ul>Frequency and Synchronicity
  45. 51. All generators are synchronized UCTE = Continental Synchronous Area
  46. 52. UCTE = Continental Synchronous Area
  47. 53. 03:26 All interconnectors are automatically disconnected Frequency and Synchronicity
  48. 54. Mini circuit breakers Frequency and Synchronicity
  49. 55. High voltage circuit breakers Frequency and Synchronicity
  50. 56. 1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. The future of the EU transmission network.
  51. 57. 03:26 Interconnectors very high loaded at night! The future of the EU transmission network
  52. 58. <ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>What can explain the intensive use of interconnectors? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability and security support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reserves sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal energy market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The EU 2020 and 2050 targets </li></ul></ul>The future of the EU transmission network
  53. 59. Internal EU market induces increase in cross-border trading The future of the EU transmission network
  54. 60. Greenhouse-effect undisputed The future of the EU transmission network
  55. 61. 2020 Targets: 20% decarbonization 2050 Targets: 80% decarbonization The future of the EU transmission network
  56. 62. Massive deployment of wind and solar energy The future of the EU transmission network
  57. 63. ENTSOE Ten-year network development plan 2015-2020 Increase from 300.000 KM to 340.000KM The future of the EU transmission network Increase of 14%
  58. 64. European Climate Foundation Increase of almost 400% The future of the EU transmission network 2050 Increase from 34 GW to 127 GW
  59. 67. References <ul><li>ENTSOE. 210. Ten-year network development plan 2010-2020. ENTSO-E AISBL: Brussels. </li></ul><ul><li>European Climate Foundation, 2010. Roadmap, a practical guide to a prosperous, low-carbon Europe. Available at www. roadmap2050.eu. </li></ul><ul><li>Grainger, John and William Stevenson, 1994. Power system analysis. McGraw-Hill: New York. </li></ul><ul><li>UCTE. 2004. Final report of the Investigation Committee on the 28 September 2003 Blackout in Italy. Secretariat of UCTE: Brussels. </li></ul><ul><li>UCTE. 2009. The 50 Year Success Story – Evolution of a European Interconnected Grid. Secretariat of UCTE: Brussels. </li></ul>
  60. 68. THANK YOU! Principles of Transmission applied to the EU transmission network Silvester van Koten Jean-Monnet Fellow at EUI, FSR [email_address]

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