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The electrical system 2
Generation
(power stations)
p.93-112 +117 (California)
Literature for today
Shively Ch. 4.
I-D E/S
HS
I-D E/S
HS
Terminology
What is the difference
between power and energy?
Speed &
Distance
Speed
(KM/Hr)
Hours
(Hr)
Distance
(KM)
12 KM/Hr 1 12 KM
12 KM/Hr 2 24 KM
Power &
Energy
Power
(MW)
Hours
(Hr)
Energy
(MWh)
200MW 1 200MWh
200MW 2 400MWh
Speed &
Distance
KM/hr Hr KM
Power &
Energy
MWh/Hr Hr MWh
=MW
Terminology
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
Germany
France
UK
NMS10
Italy
Spain
Poland
Sweden
Norway
Netherlands
Belgium
Czech
Finland
Austria
Romania
Greece
Portugal
Bulgaria
Hungary
Denmark
Slovakia
Ireland
Slovenia
Estonia
Croatia
Latvia
Cyprus
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Annual consumption in 2011 in GWh
5 €cent/KWh= 0.05€/ KWh= 50€/ MWh
• I have a nuclear with a capacity of 500MW (power).
• How much energy can this power plant produce in a
year?
• How many hours are in a year?
• 24*365= 8760
– (Q&D, +/- 10.000 minus 12%)
≈500MW * 10.000 hours
≈ 5.000.000MWh
≈ 5.000GWh
≈ 5 TWh
=4.4 TWh
• In the EU in 2012 there was a capacity of 120GW
(power) in solar. This produced 100TWh in 2012.
• What is approximately the capacity factor of EU solar?
• How many hours are in a year?
– 10.000 minus 12%
• If it ran at full capacity (100% c.p.) it would have
produced about 120 * 10.000GW
≈1.200.000 GW
≈1.200 TW
≈1.000 TW (minus the 12%)
• But it produced 10 times less…
• Thus c.p. is ≈ 10%
Where the world gets its energy
?
Renewables Efficiency
Carbon
emissions
EU’s 20-20-20 strategy for
2020
Acceleration of Germany
Nuclear Phase-out
Acceleration of Germany
Nuclear Phase-out
Germany to start up more coal-
fired power stations than at any
time in the past 20 years
Irsching-5 in Bavaria, Germany (EON )
A gas-fired power station,
Commissioned in 2010
“Germany needs flexible gas
plants to underpin a greater
share of renewable sources”
German environment
Minister Peter Altmaier
?
“energy providers have little interest
in building new power plants”
Der Spiegel, October 10, 2012
German electricity wholesale market
December, 25th
,2013, 2:00, a negative
hourly price record: -222 €/MWh
2. Why coal
rather than
(new) gas
generatiors?
1.Why a diversity
of generation
types?
3. Negative
prices?
Effect of climate
policy
INTRO
Overview of generation
types
Hydro-plant
VID
Wednesday 2_ Hydroelectic Power - How it Works (hq).mp4
Nuclear plants
Baseload
Nuclear Fission
Cost escalation curse
1979:
Three Mile Island
1986
Chernoby
Nuclear Fusion
Experimental but breakthrough is
imminent (since 1954)
"Our children will enjoy in
their homes electrical
energy too cheap to
meter...
“famines will be known as
matters of history”
Lewis Strauss, 1954
Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission
referring to the prospects of nuclear
fusion (not fission).
Nuclear Fusion
Best nuclear fusion reactor has a
net energy output of -30%
1952
Large coal plants
Baseload
Combined heat & power (must-run)
Gas burning plants
Peaker
http://iea-etsap.org/web/Highlights%20PDF/E02-gas_fired_power-GS-AD-gct%201.pdf
OCGT
CCGT
OCGT
VID
Wednesday 2_ Gas Turbine Basics (hq).mp4
CCGT
Oil burning plants
Peaker
Wind turbines Solar panels
Renewables
(not dispatchable)
Renewables
(dispatchable)
Biomass
Renewable energies
Concentrated solar power
VID
• Wednesday 2_ Wind Turbines - How does it actually work- Investment-
(hq).mp4
• What is Biomass- (hq)
Location of main electric plants
Jiří Krejsa
http://www.cez.cz/en/power-plants-and-environment/maps-of-power-plants.html#!&category%5B%5
Hydro
Thermal (mostly black and brown coal)
Nuclear
TOP 10 producers in ČR 2010
Source: energostat.cz, ERU
1. ČEZ, a.s. 56004,4 65,20%
2. Sokolovská uhelná, právní
nástupce, a.s. 3366,6 3,92%
3. Dalkia Česká republika, a.s. 1 961,83 2,28%
4. Elektrárny Opatovice, a.s. 1853,66 2,16%
5. Alpiq Generation (CZ), s.r.o. 1399,25 1,63%
6. UNIPETROL RPA, s.r.o. 1167,62 1,36%
7. Energotrans a.s. 1132,82 1,32%
8. ArcelorMittal Ostrava a.s. 1010,14 1,18%
9. United Energy, a.s. 616,49 0,72%
10. ENERGETIKA TŘINEC, a.s. 607,87 0,71%
Total ČR 85900,1 80,47%
Jiří Krejsa
I-D E/S
HS
NEED:
Backup capacity
NEED:
More transmission lines
Multiplication
by 4!
The future of the EU transmission network
2050
Increase from
34 GW to 127 GW
Feed-in tariffs
500 €/MWh 200€/MWh
Coal or gas plant
costs
40€/MWh
2004 2012
Case of Germany
Coal or gas plant costs
0.04€/ KWh=40€/ MWh
CZ
Jiří
Krejsa
Jiří Krejsa
Consumers
P
(€/kWh)
62
63
Consumers
P
(€/kWh)
64
Industry
P
(€/kWh)
65
The electrical system 2
Generation
(power stations)
2. Why coal
rather than
(new) gas
generatiors?
1.Why a diversity
of generation
types?
3. Negative
prices?
Climate policy
Today’s lecture based on:
p.32, p.34-39, p.44-48.
Optimal Dispatch
Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Shortage
Exceptionally
high
Very
highModerateLow
Load curve
00 05 07 10 13 15 18 24
Very Low
Low
Moderate
Very high
Exceptionally high
Very
Low
P
0
20
30
50
P=0
P=20
P=30
P=50 P=CAP
Hours
71
Demand & Supply curve
Power Energy
(Capacity)
For finding the cheapest
technique it is useful to know
the average cost…
Fixed cost Power
(MW)
years Days/
year
Hrs/
day
Hrs /
year
total
hours
FC/
MWh
1,300,000,000 500 30 365 24 8760 262800 9.9
5,000,000,000 500 30 365 24 8760 262800 38.1
≈40
≈10
Levelized costs of generation
Technology Costs Table
Multitude of generation types
Trade-off:
Economics of scale
Flexibility
Baseload power plants
Midload power plants
Fixed cost per
MWh
Variable cost
per MWh
Baseload 40 0
Midload 20 30
Peaker 10 50
Peaker power plants
Technology Costs Table
9 12 15 170 24
Daily
Demand
in MW
1
2
3
TIME
DURATION (%)
Yearly
Demand
in MW
365
720
1085
100
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
16 250
Load Curve
9 12 15 170 24
1
2
3
TIME
DURATION (%)10033
365
720
1085
160
Yearly
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
9 12 15 170 24
1
2
3
TIME
DURATION (%)10025160
365
720
1085
Yearly
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
9 12 15 170 24
1
2
3
TIME
DURATION (%)10025160
365
720
1085
Yearly
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
9 12 15 170 24
1
2
3
TIME
DURATION (%)10025160
365
720
1085
Some random variation in the levels
Yearly
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
9 12 15 170 24
1
TIME
DURATION (%)10025160
Demand
in MW
365
720
1085
Some random variation in the levels
Daily
Demand
in MW
2
3
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Source: ERU
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = # Hours where [Demand > y]
Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
9 12 15 170 24
1
2
3
TIME
Daily
Demand
in MW Load Curve
Daily variations (UK)
DURATION (%)100500
1
2
3
9 12 15 170 24
1
2
3
TIME
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
DURATION (%)100500
9 12 15 170 24 TIME
1
2
3
1
2
3
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
FIND THE MISTAKE!!!
DURATION (%)100500
9 12 15 170 24 TIME
1
2
3
1
2
3
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
33.3
DURATION (%)100500
9 12 15 170 24 TIME
1
2
3
1
2
3
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
33.3
A bit a difficult load-
duration curve (and also
quite a-typical)
DURATION (%)100500
9 12 15 170 24 TIME
1
2
3
1
2
3
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
How to get this
more typical,
nicer LD curve?
DURATION (%)100500
1
2
3
9 12 15 170 24
1
2
3
TIME
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
DURATION (%)100500
9 12 15 170 24 TIME
1
2
3
1
2
3
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily
Demand
in MW
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Load Curve
DURATION (%)100500
1
2
3
Fixed cost per
MWh
Variable cost
per MWh
Baseload 40 0
Peaker 10 50
Daily
Demand
in MW D=3-2* Duration
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Technology Costs Table
0
60
40
Capacity factor
Baseload
Peaker
100%60%
10
(=8760 hours/year)
Fixed cost per
MWh
Variable cost
per MWh
Baseload 40 0
Peaker 10 50
0%
Cost/MWh
Screening curve
(Capacity-cost based)
Technology Costs Table
Screening curve
(Capacity-cost based)
Screening curve
(Energy-cost based)
0
60
40
Capacity factor
Baseload
Peaker
100%60%
10
(=8760 hours/year)
Fixed cost per
MWh
Variable cost
per MWh
Baseload 40 0
Peaker 10 50
0%
Cost/MWh
Use baseload when
capacity factor > 60%
Use peakers when
capacity factor < 60%
Screening curve
(Capacity-cost based)
Technology Costs Table
Use baseload when
capacity factor > 60%
Use peakers when
capacity factor < 60%
0
60
40
Capacity factor
Baseload
Peaker
100%60%
10
DURATION (%)100500
1
2
3
BASELOAD
D=3-2* Duration
1.8
PEAKER
Daily
Demand
in MW
60
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]
Screening curve
(Capacity-cost based)
Nuclear
Oil
Old, inefficient plants
(old Coal & OCGT)
Gas (CCGT)
Coal
Daily Load-Duration Curve:
Duration[y] = Pr[Demand > y]

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Ee w04.2 w_ 2. electricity generation _ part 3 (generation technologies)

Editor's Notes

  1. Ofgem said last month the country may face a power capacity shortfall as the lack of gas- fired capacity
  2. High fixed cost Low variable costs Low fixed costs High variable costs
  3. A load-duration curve shows the percentage (or number) of hours of the year at which the load is at or above a given value or percentage of peak load. To make a load-duration curve, the 8,760 hours of the year (8,766 average including Leap Day) are sorted in decreasing order of their average (or peak) hourly load. The y-axis can then represent either the actual load levels (MW) or the percentage of the peak load over the course of the year. The load-duration curve for a particular system makes it easy to see, for example, that the total system load exceeds 90% of peak load in 200 hours out of the year, or that in 50% of the year, the load is at or above some level of capacity in MW. In general, a flatter load-duration curve is better for grid operation, allowing dispatchable generation to run at a higher capacity factor over the entire year and requiring less peaking reserves. The easiest system to operate, for example, would be one with a load-duration curve that is a horizontal line—indicating the demand is entirely constant for the whole year.