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Lecture 1
Energy Economics
Intro
• The unbundling regime for electricity utilities in the EU: A
case of legislative and regulatory capture?
• Bidding behavior when one bidder and the auctioneer
are vertically integrated: Implications for the partial
deregulation of EU electricity markets
– (Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU:
Profitability and allocation of capacity)
• Legal unbundling and auctions in vertically integrated
(utilities) markets
http://fsr.eui.eu/Home.aspx
Experimental papers
Energy Economics
Intro
1. Electricity markets
2. Fossil fuels: Oil, Gas & Coal
3. Climate Policy
Interest-driven
Extrapolation /
Speculation
Highest
standards
research
Core science
Policy papers
Oil price
predictions
Propaganda
Misleading
Plainly wrong/
Rotten lies
Literature indication
I-D E/S
HS
0.01 TWy/year
. Solar energy
production end 2012
• Syllabus
One short presentation on a topic within the field of energy economics.
• Length 10-15 minutes long.
• For example:
– Challenges or chances for energy companies, energy regulators or energy
traders
– The electrical system (capacity, production, consumption) and its challenges (eg
lack of transmission, abundance of intermittent renewables, falling short of
fulfilling the 20-20-20 target, etc) for region or country X
– Outlook for (and maybe historical development of) generating technology Y (in
region or country X).
– … many other topics…
A short feedback presentation.
• Length: 2-4 minutes long
• singles out
– 1 or 2 points that were very good, astute and clear
– 2 points that could be improved upon.
The electrical system 1
Transmission
Literature for today
Shively Ch.1, 2, 5, 6, 7.
I-D E/S
HS
I-D E/S
HS
MIT: Appendix B
Transmission
Principles of Transmission, applied
to the EU transmission network
1. Line limits
2. Principles of dispatch
3. Role of frequency in ac lines and stability
requirements
4. Transmission shortage, the internal market
and the 2050 carbon targets
Power plants
Distributors
Transmission
Power Plants
Transmission
Industrial
consumers
Distributors
Residential consumers:
Households
Other countries
2. Transmission
lines
September 28th
, 2003
Huge blackout cripples Italy!
Rome’s “white night”
Rome’s “white night”110 trains stopped
Thousands of people stuck
Huge blackout cripples Italy!
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:01
“Cross-border
transmission lines”
“Interconnectors”
Tree
flashover!
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:01
Tree
flashover!
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:0103:01-03.16
03:11
The Swiss TSO operator asks the
Italian TSO for countermeasures
TSO= Transmission System Operator
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:21
Italy reduces
import by -300 MW
03:25
Tree
flashover!
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:25
Tree
flashover!
03:26
All interconnectors are
automatically disconnected
1. Transmission lines limits
2. Dispatch
3. Frequency and synchronicity
4. Transmission shortage in the EU
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:01
Tree
flashover!
Transmission lines limits
flashover
Transmission lines limits
High voltage
High voltage
Dramatically lowers losses to resistance
1 KV-> 10KV
Loss falls to 1%
Factor 100
Transmission lines limits
1 KV-> 100KV
Loss falls to 0.01%
Factor 10.000
Transmission lines limits
Transmission lines limits
Sagging of the line
High load
Clearance: Trees below transmission lines
must be kept short enough
• Limit of a line varies…
– The line itself
- Maximum allowed sagging
– Air temperature & wind
- For example, Increase in temperature from 30C to
40C can lower the limit with 10%
VIDEO
“1. Tree Flashover
10.03.09 (hq)”
Line flashover
3 risk factors for line flashover
Factor 1: High voltage
Factor 2: High load
Factor 3: proximity to other objects (trees)
1. Transmission lines limits
2. Dispatch
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:01
Dispatch
2 node network
?
A B
Injection:
100MW Injection:
20MW
Withdrawal:
50MW
Withdrawal:
70MW
Net Injection:
50MW
Net
Withdrawal:
50MW
Dispatch
Physical flow: 50MW
A B
Net Injection:
50MW
Net
Withdrawal:
50MW
Dispatch
Net
Withdrawal:
50MW
Physical flow: 50MW
A B
Net Injection:
50MW ∆ -10MW
40MW
∆-10MW
40MW
∆ -10MW
40MW
Dispatch
Physical flow: 40MW
A B
Net Injection:
40MW
Net
Withdrawal:
40MW
Electricity cannot just be “send”
somewhere
Any flow is the RESULT of the
injection and withdrawals
Dispatch
40MW
A B
40MW
Limit: 50MW
Limit: 50MW
Net
Withdraw:
80MW
Net
Injection:
80MW
Mettlen-Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
Italy
Switzerland
A B
40MW
Net
Withdraw:
80MW
Net
Injection:
80MW
Mettlen-Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
Italy
Switzerland
A B
40MW80MW
Limit: 50MW
Net
Withdraw:
80MW
Net
Injection:
80MW
Mettlen-Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
Italy
Switzerland
A B
Limit: 50MW
Limit: 50MW
Apply N-1 security standards
25MW
25MW
Net
Withdrawal:
50MW
Net
Injection:
50MW
Mettlen-Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
Italy
Switzerland
Net
Withdrawal:
50MW
Net
Injection:
50MW
25MW
A B
25MW
Limit: 50MW
Limit: 50MW
40MW
40MW
Both lines can
have 80MW
(15 minuts)
Decrease in
withdrawal of 30MW
available
(within 15 min)
Decrease in
injection of 30MW
is possible
(within 15 min) 80MW
80MW
Fulfills N-1 security standards
A B
25MW
Limit: 50MW
40MW
Both lines can
have 80MW
(15 minuts)
Net
Withdrawal:
80MW
Net
Injection:
80MW
Fulfills N-1 security standards
Decrease in
withdrawal of 30MW
available
(within 15 min)
Decrease in
injection of 30MW
is possible
(within 15 min)
A B
25MW
Limit: 50MW
80MW
Both lines can
have 80MW
(15 minuts)
Net
Withdrawal:
80MW
Net
Injection:
80MW50MW
50MW
50MW
Fulfills N-1 security standards
Decrease in
withdrawal of 30MW
available
(within 15 min)
Decrease in
injection of 30MW
is possible
(within 15 min)
03:11
The Swiss TSO operator asks the
Italian TSO for countermeasures
Dispatch is done by national TSOs
Mettlen-
Lavorgo
Sils-Soazza
03:21
Italy reduces
import by -300 MW
03:25
Dispatch
1. Transmission lines limits
2. Dispatch
3. Frequency and synchronicity
Frequency and Synchronicity
Direct Current (DC)
Alternating Current (AC)
Frequency and Synchronicity
Alternating
Current (AC)
50 Hertz
Does a lamp in your house receive zero energy 100 times a second
and is thus blinking?
Frequency and Synchronicity
•VID
• Wednesday 1_ light bulb.divx
Alternating
Current lines
(AC)
Frequency and Synchronicity
Direct Current (DC)
Alternating Current (AC)
Easy & cheap transformation
Direct Current lines
(DC or HVDC)
50 Herz is the frequency in Europe
Frequency and Synchronicity
A shortage of generation
makes the frequency fall
Slight shortage
Frequency and Synchronicity
A surplus of generation
makes the frequency rise
Slight surplus
Frequency and Synchronicity
Lost of a nuclear unit (1300 MW) within the UCTE system
• http://www.dynamicdemand.co.uk/grid.h
tm
Frequency and Synchronicity
• http://www.dynamicdemand.co.uk/grid.h
tm
Frequency and Synchronicity
Russian frequency
All generators are synchronized
UCTE =
Continental
Synchronous
Area
Ee  w03.1 m_ 1. the system (transmission) part 1

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Ee w03.1 m_ 1. the system (transmission) part 1

Editor's Notes

  1. 1 EMs: My field Our society cannot be imagined without Electronics: IT, computers, mobile phones Light Industrial processes Transport Very convenient form of energy (high value) versus heat as low value May become even more important, why? Present renewables (wind, solar) mostly result in electricity Fossils: Electricity is mostly generated by burning fossils Mostly used for transport due to their energy density Worries of energy security: will their be enough? Is there enough in the ground? Climate policy: Climate is about our habitat. If it is destroyed we may not be able to sustain ourselves -> we may die. Climate policy is starting to shape the EMs and the Fossil fuels. EMs: more renewables on the grid affect the electricity business and “break” the old model Fossils: coal must be left in the ground.