Unit 14The organization of urban spaceTania Hidalgo ReyesMaria Bonilla LorenteAnna Garcia Rasero
The process of urbanization.The phenomenon of urbanization is due to the growth ofcities, both because it has increased the number of inhabitants andthe new economic activities conducted there.The growth of the town and surrounding areas has been alternatingwith the morphology over time, so that in the historical evolution ofEuropean cities recognize three stages: The pre-industrial cityThe industrial citypost-industrial city
THE OLD CITY: GREECE AND ROMECharacteristics of the first Greek cities:They haven’t a regular layout, and the streets werenarrow and winding.Later on it was used a layout of streets cutting offperpendicularly, with spaces and public buildings(Agora)Characteristics of Roman cities:They had a regular form, with two principals streets.They had water pipes, bridges, buildings forshows, roads…TheatreCommercialportAcropolisAgoraHomesAgoraHomes
THE CITY IN THE MIDDLE AGESThe cities in the middle ages were step up as centerseconomics. Was a safe place for people, becauseprotect the walls from the outside in case of attack.Characteristics:The streets were narrow and winding.They formed authentic mazes.In the centers there used to be a place votedimportance of buildings.CITIES IN THE MODERN AGEThe cities in the modern age changed a lot of. Theold outside city was incorporated at the cities, andoutside the wall, without throw out them, they wasbuilding news districts. The cities was incorporatedsquares, gardens, monumental fountain and sewagesystem and they was pave the streets.medievalwallextramural
The industrial cities•The industrial cities appear with the industrial revolution.•The installation of factory and railway did grow theworkforce and the number of inhabitants.•The workes lived in wet habitatges with bad sanitaryconditions.•The news means of transport modified the stretches of roadsand helped in the connection between the diferents areas andnearby villages.
THE POST-INDUSTRIAL CITY The postindustrial city arises from the seventiesof the century XX, especially in developedcountries.The center loses residential functions and tendsto greater specialization in tertiary activities. The trend towards more flexible productionprocess has enabled the factories move some toother areas. Ease of transport and communications allowsthe movement of the population to ever moredistant areas, as what matters is the availability(time) not distance.
Program 11.1-Globalization and urban space.• Since the late 20th century, the globalitzation the economy hastransformed the urban space and has favored the emergence ofnew types of cities: global cities for example: New York.Aleix GallegoAntonio CaballeroDavid Barrera
1.2 Transformations in large cities.• To adapt to the new global functions, large cities haveexperienced significant socio-economic changes. As a result ofthis increase in building large cities have experienced strongprices rose land and buildings.
1.3 Urban networks• Populations are not isolated only means interconnected throughtrade.• These trade flows or linking cities and urban networks are.
Program 2:Territorial and social inequalitiesDaniel LopezJudith BlanchAmanda MedinaPaula Vizcarra
2.1 Social and territorial differences• The Globalization is not just economic or financial, is aprocess that also includes social, cultural, occupational, andenvironmental. Number of advantages, accentuating povertyand social inequalities.• The phenomen on of globalization favors a few other citieson favors industrial zones.• The urban housings are distributed in the territory accordingto the purchasing power of the population who lives everyplace.
2.2 New areas for a rich people• People with a lot of money, want privileged areas of the citywith comfortably and luxuriously homes.• This emerging private estates, gardens, greenareas, restricted access to residents, golf courses, etc ...
2.3 Marginal areas• In the prefer of the cities form the developing countries, anda many cities in developed countries, there are areas ofsettlement precarious.• In these areas, there is a part of the population who livesbadly with a minimal conditions and, illegally.
2.3 The central city• Recover parts of the historic center through the transformation of somebuildings in luxury hotels and restaurants or design shops. This process isknown as gentrification.• New exclusive services influence a rise of land prices, and attract residentswith a high standard of living.• The usual residents tend to leave these areas of the city and seekeconomically affordable neighborhoods.• There are neighborhoods that are deteriorating from the center to the lackof investment in infrastructure and the part of the public or the privatesector.• The town has few resources remains in these degraded areas of the citycenter.
Program 3The urban landscape in the world todayYasmina VazquezAida Ibañez
3.1 A world of cities• During the last decades the urban population now exceeds thepopulation rural. The characteristics of this improvement are:* Big cities the millions of people.* Cities have a high technology but with environmental problems.* Cities compete worldwide* Multicultural cities.
3.2 Cities in developed countries• Cities in developed countries have experienced a loss of density,because the population moved to live outside the city or medium-sized cities. So there has been a remarkable growth of metropolitanareas.• Compact city has spent a continuous urban area where it is verydifficult to determine where it begins and ends in the city.
3.3 Cities in developing countries• Largest cities are called the third world megacities and megalopolises.• What are large urban concentrations exceding ten million inhabitants.• The urban conurbations play a dominant role• Examples of the megacity have in Rio de Janeiro and developedcountries there are in Tokyo or Yokohama-Boston-Washington.
• The boundaries between the rural and the urban:• In metropolitan areas , the boundary betweenthe city and countryside is not a line defined. City moves on thecountryside and this created an area were mixed it has activities mixedurban and rural. It’s a very dynamic and changind, we can call in severalsways:Diffuse cityPeri-urban areaStrip rururbano
Uses and functions to urban sprawl:• The activities in the territory of the urban sprawl organizedaccording to the needs of the metropolis could hardly be placed intothe strict city:Urbanization, industrial parks, sports facilities and urban farmlandrecipients market etc ...• It’s a kind of diffusions of the functions andactivities of the tradicional city, but developed a more extensive andvariebles limits, which for this reason is called urban sprawl.
Causes of diffuse city• Causes of diffuse city:The growth of diffuse city is mainly due to higher pre-ground from thebig city and it is possible, in large part thanks to the development ofprivate transport (cars, trucks, etc.) and the increase in roadinfrastructure (roads, etc.) to facilitate bringing some rural areas inthe city.
Impact of urban sprawlIf not carried out a proper planning, the repercussion of the growth modelof urban sprawl can be very negative for these reasons:• Very high consumptions of the sun• Services increased• Constant mobility• Development of a more individualistic social model
Model of diffuse city: metropolitanic areaof Barcelona
5. The new urban spacesAndrea BarrilAndrea IglesiasNerea NavarroAndrea PonceNerea NavarroAndrea PonceAndrea BarrilAndrea Iglesias
5.1 The new spacesThe city has organized a diffuse redistribution for space. This has meant thatindustrial activities have been away from the city, while the emergence of neweconomic activities has created new land intended for the installation oftechnology parks and major shopping areas.
5.3 The functions of the central townor big cityThe relocation of industries in the city was assumed that large cities wouldlose economic importance. But that has not happened. Big cities are theplace chosen by the multinationals.This situation changes in the use of the city.
5.4 Technology parksThe location of high-tech industries has driven sites innovació the existenceof the so-called technological parks. Work in close collaboration withuniversities, research centers and other institutions of higher education.It is located near the cities.
5.5 Shopping centersThese large consumption centers are also spaces of sociability and ralacióinterpersonal.Their characteristics:• indoors• controlled areas• safe spaces• (Miami)
THE ENVIRONMENTALPROBLEMS IN CITIESJORDI RUBIO SALVADOR3r I
URBAN AREA- Alters the natural- Constructs a humanized landscape- Operation and modification of resources
LACK OF VEGETATION• Lack of vegetation:- deforestation- Lack of grenery.• EFECTS- Reduction of water from rivers and wells- Climate change
SCARCITY AND WATER POLLUTION• Scarcity and water pollution:- ¼ people affected by the shortage- Developed countries consume too much water- Contamination of groundwater due to lack of separation betweenthe potable water networks and sewage pipes• Efects: infectious diseases (hepatitis)
6- THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSOF CITIES• Fiorella Villanueva Gárate• Mireia Florejachs Costa• Laia Agudo Utrero
HIGH CONTAMINATION• In the cities there are other sources of contamination very difficultto control and cause a considerable air pollution, such as sulfurdioxide and carbon monoxide, smoke from vehicles and factories.• The urban population also has to bear the noise pollution, noisefrom vehicles, industries of public works and neighbors and citizenswho behave antisocial.
A CONSUMER SOCIETY• The big consumption that exist in cities cause a great accumulationof solid waste which are difficult to collect, classify, recycle oreliminate.• The hygienic and health problems more serious happen in cities lessdeveloped by budget or by infrastructure, are frequent landfillsoutdoors
A CONSUMER SOCIETY (part 2)• The consequences of that there are dumps:odors, the danger of contamination of groundwater and theproliferation of rodents, animals that have many diseases which aretransmitted to the population.Currently the "modern city" does a great consumption of non-renewable energy (oil, natural gas ..).http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEyjWTJX4UA