13 factors explain surge in new infectious diseases in past 30 years Microbial adaptation and change (MRSA: methicillin oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) Human susceptibility to infection Climate and weather Changing ecosystems Human demographics and behavior Economic development and land use International travel and commerce Technology and industry Breakdown of public health measures Poverty and social inequality War and famine Lack of political will and clout Biological warfare
Syndrome: cluster of clinical manifestations, laboratory and other diagnostic tests that fit a recognizable, predictable pattern Examples: AIDS, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Almost everyone experiences fatigue from time to time. But for 800,000 U.S. adults, the fatigue is crushing, unrelieved by rest and accompanied by a constellation of other punishing symptoms. They suffer from chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). Also widely recognized as chronic fatigue syndrome or CFS, its symptoms are debilitating enough to destroy good health and active lifestyles, end fulfilling careers and devastate families. More people suffer from CFIDS/CFS than MS, lung cancer or AIDS. Yet 80% have not been diagnosed by a medical provider. Preliminary studies indicate that for CFIDS/CFS, as with other chronic conditions, early detection, diagnosis and treatment ultimately yield better health outcomes. If you think you may have CFIDS/CFS, use the &quot;Do I Have CFIDS&quot; questionnaire for an assessment that will familiarize you with the symptom patterns and exclusionary conditions that lead a health care provider to make a CFIDS/CFS diagnosis. http://www.cfids.org/about-cfids/do-i-have-cfids.asp Barbara Brock, a 53-year-old registered nurse who lives in Evanston, Ill., felt her life disintegrate when unrelenting symptoms she describes as &quot;pure hell&quot; descended on her in the mid 1990s. She worked every other day to give her body and mind some reprieve and crashed on the days she endured a full shift. But by 1997, her symptoms, including profound cognitive problems, left her unable to work at all. After a decade of illness, Barbara says she is &quot;still hanging in.&quot; She manages her symptoms by sitting down to brush her teeth, resting after eating and not cooking since it requires too much energy. &quot;Changing the bedding is a major task,&quot; she says. &quot;It takes everything I have and then I have to lie down.&quot; Megan Robinson Medina, New York For most 10-year-olds, fifth grade is a time spent with friends, learning and growing up, laughing in the halls, playing in gym class and socializing. For Megan Robinson of Medina, New York, fifth grade was quite different. Megan, who was diagnosed with CFIDS at the age of four, might make it to school for a couple of hours a day. She might make it in for one class, or, her mom says more realistically, &quot;for 45 minutes on a good day.&quot; &quot;Not many people understand what it's like to be sick all the time,&quot; says Megan. &quot;I miss school and being involved in school activities.&quot; Mark Peterson Chesapeake, Virginia In 1988, what at first seemed to be a stubborn case of the flu landed Dr. Mark Peterson, an orthodontist in his 40s, in the hospital. &quot;I thought I would die,&quot; he says. &quot;Light and sound hurt, and my heart would go into arrhythmias.&quot; At his insurance company's insistence, Mark was sent home even though he was too sick to lift his head off the pillow. He has improved, but is still a long way from returning to a normal lifestyle. A good part of his day is still spent in bed and he uses a wheelchair. &quot;The frustrations are overwhelming,&quot; he says. &quot;You have to confront medical professionals not educated about the illness and friends who have a hard time believing that you have a serious medical condition.&quot; Although its name trivializes the illness as little more than mere tiredness, chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), brings with it a constellation of debilitating symptoms. CFIDS is characterized by incapacitating fatigue (experienced as profound exhaustion and extremely poor stamina) and problems with concentration and short-term memory. It is also accompanied by flu-like symptoms such as pain in the joints and muscles, unrefreshing sleep, tender lymph nodes, sore throat and headache. A distinctive characteristic of the illness is post-exertional malaise, a worsening of symptoms following physical or mental exertion occurring within 12-48 hours of the exertion and requiring an extended recovery period. The symptoms of CFIDS are highly variable and fluctuate in severity, complicating treatment and the ill person’s ability to cope with the illness. Most symptoms are invisible, which makes it difficult for others to understand the vast array of debilitating symptoms with which people with the illness must contend. Other Common Symptoms Additional symptoms are reported by people with CFIDS (PWCs) such as word-finding difficulties, inability to comprehend/retain what is read, inability to calculate numbers and impairment of speech and/or reasoning. PWCs may also have visual disturbances (blurring, sensitivity to light, eye pain, need for frequent prescription changes); psychological problems (depression, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, personality changes, mood swings); chills and night sweats; shortness of breath; dizziness and balance problems; sensitivity to heat and/or cold; alcohol intolerance; irregular heartbeat; irritable bowel (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, intestinal gas); low-grade fever or low body temperature; numbness, tingling and/or burning sensations in the face or extremities; dryness of the mouth and eyes (sicca syndrome); gynecological problems including PMS and endometriosis; chest pains; rashes; ringing in the ears (tinnitus); allergies and sensitivities to noise/sound, odors, chemicals and medications; weight changes without changes in diet; light-headedness; mental fogginess; fainting; muscle twitching; and seizures.
Feed a cold, starve a fever (since 1852) Misnomer: 1500’s “if you stuff a cold then you’re going to have to feed a fever later” and “ fasting is a great remedy for fevers” Folk belief that there are 2 kinds of illness low temperatures (colds, chills) and high temperatures (fever). If you had a chill, then you wanted to stoke the interior fires, so pig out. If you had a fever, you don’t want things to overheat, so slack off on the fuel New Scientist magazine, Jan. 2002. Netherlands tested the adage subjects given a liquid meal in the lab; blood tests showed 4x increase in gamma interferon (marker in immune response to viral infection), then subjects given water only and blood tests showed increase in interleukin-4-which marks immune response to bacterial infection. Also test was chicken soup: blood tests showed reduced activity of neutrophils, which are used by the immune system in response to inflammation. Remember, inflammation is an immune response to an antigen/foreign body (swelling from increased permeability by vessels and allows WBC’s to infiltrate surrounding tissue.
Choose from: Cholera West Nile Virus Smallpox Anthrax SARS Avian Flu
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Typical symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans . If left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Lyme disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings (e.g., rash), and the possibility of exposure to infected ticks; laboratory testing is helpful in the later stages of disease. Most cases of Lyme disease can be treated successfully with a few weeks of antibiotics. Steps to prevent Lyme disease include using insect repellent, removing ticks promptly, landscaping, and integrated pest management. The ticks that transmit Lyme disease can occasionally transmit other tick-borne diseases as well. The '4-Poster' basically consists of a central bin containing clean whole kernel corn used as a bait and two application/feeding stations located at either end of the device. As deer feed on the bait, the design of the device forces them to rub against pesticide-impregnated applicator rollers. The rollers in turn apply tickicide to their ears, heads, necks, and shoulders where roughly 90% of feeding adult ticks are attached. Through grooming, the deer also transfer the tickicide to other parts of the body. Studies (see below) have shown that use of '4-Poster' technology has resulted in the control of 92 to 98% of free-living tick populations in areas around the devices after three years of use.
The '4-Poster' basically consists of a central bin containing clean whole kernel corn used as a bait and two application/feeding stations located at either end of the device. As deer feed on the bait, the design of the device forces them to rub against pesticide-impregnated applicator rollers. The rollers in turn apply tickicide to their ears, heads, necks, and shoulders where roughly 90% of feeding adult ticks are attached. Through grooming, the deer also transfer the tickicide to other parts of the body. Studies (see below) have shown that use of '4-Poster' technology has resulted in the control of 92 to 98% of free-living tick populations in areas around the devices after three years of use.
121 Week 3 Chapter 4 Infectious Disease
Objectives <ul><li>Differentiate between infectious and communicable disease </li></ul><ul><li>Identify methods of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize immunosuppressant syndromes </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between influenza and common cold </li></ul>
Differentiate between infectious and communicable disease <ul><li>Infectious disease caused by pathogenic microorganism that finds acceptable host where it can grow. Communicable disease is when an infectious disease can be transmitted from one person to another </li></ul>
Recognize immunosuppressant syndromes <ul><li>Disease result of immune response that fails to distinguish “non-self” from “self” antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Immune response is directed towards “self” and serves as basis for chronic inflammation, which leads to cellular alterations and injury </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment strategies based on interference with responses seen in autoimmunity and hypersensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: AIDS, Anaphylactic reactions, systemic lupus erythematosus, Rh isoimmunization and chronic fatigue syndrome </li></ul>
Differentiate between influenza and common cold <ul><li>Cold Flu </li></ul><ul><li>Cause virus virus </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms predominantly symp- more serious, sick </li></ul><ul><li>toms of the nose and all over </li></ul><ul><li>above the neck </li></ul>
In class assignment <ul><li>Short 5 minute presentation (groups of 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Create story (using infection process diagram as a guide) about transmission of your assigned disease to each member of group </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation should include: name of disease (and any other names known by), how is it caused (type of microorganism), how is it transmitted, how is it treated, 1 interesting feature of disease found from outside source </li></ul>