Switches Presentation


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Switches Presentation

  1. 1. Switches in the MDS/Functional Classroom Bonnie Young & Wendy Homlish
  2. 2. Post-It Acitivity <ul><li>What are the BARRIERS to effective switch use in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know which switch to use with each student? </li></ul><ul><li>What goals are addressed in your classroom through switch use? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Areas to Address <ul><li>Intro/Background Information </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment – Roles, Team, Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and Activities (Participation and Independence) </li></ul><ul><li>IEPs and Goal Writing </li></ul>
  4. 5. Factors that influence successful (or not!) switch use <ul><li>Health and Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility Support </li></ul><ul><li>Current Positioning Equipment (wheelchair, stander, etc.) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Positioning of Student <ul><li>Effective seating & positioning is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Should allow student to concentrate on the activity controlled by the switch & movements to activate the switch rather than maintaining position & balance. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Types of Switches <ul><li>Divided into 2 categories </li></ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Contact </li></ul>
  7. 9. Contact Switch <ul><li>Student needs to make physical contact </li></ul><ul><li>Most common </li></ul><ul><li>Will meet most needs if firmly fixed in an appropriate position </li></ul>
  8. 10. Considerations <ul><li>Target size </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity (how much pressure must be exerted to activate) </li></ul><ul><li>Travel (how flexible, or how much “play”) </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback (auditory, tactile) </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul>
  9. 11. These are NOT the only switches available!
  10. 12. Size Does Matter! Animal Switches 3/8 “ Switches Floating Pillow Switch Plate Switch Vibrating Plate Switch Large Lens Switch
  11. 13. Sensitivity Fingertip Switch (adjust Sensitivity ) Grasp Switch Mini Joggle – adjustable force MicroLite PalPad
  12. 14. Feedback (Tactile/Visual/Auditory) Floating Pillow Switch Vibrating Plate Switch Min-Vibrating Switch Musical Fan Switch See, Feel, Hear Large Lens Switch Gooshy Switch
  13. 15. Durability Slammer Switches PalPads Trigger Switches
  14. 17. Non-Contact <ul><li>Non contact triggers-e.g. eye movement, tilt of head, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Technically more difficulty to set-up </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to require a higher level of understanding to operate </li></ul>
  15. 19. Identifying the switch <ul><li>Want a switch that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be operated quickly by the student… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When they want to… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently and reliably…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And is the least tiring to access and use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be able to be activated and RELEASED with ease </li></ul>
  16. 20. Steps in Assessment for Switch Use <ul><li>ID which parts of body offer best possibility for reliable control </li></ul><ul><li>Identify which voluntary movement with that part of the body is easiest to control </li></ul>
  17. 22. Assessment <ul><li>Establish area that student can reliably target with this voluntary movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This will determine the size of the switch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish the strength of this movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enough pressure to activate the switch? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish best position of the switch in relation to student’s body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to be within range of movement </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Fixing the Switch <ul><li>Switch must be firmly fixed once a position is determined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the student to be confident that it will be there when they try to activate it </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Fixing the Position of the Switch
  20. 25. Choosing Switches & Switch Position <ul><li>Important to have switch firmly fixed in appropriate position </li></ul><ul><li>Prerequisite to identification of appropriate switch and switch position is that the student is positioned in a stable/functional position </li></ul><ul><li>Need to work as team (e.g. teacher, OT, PT, SLP, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous process of trial, monitoring, evaluating & modifying </li></ul>
  21. 26. ACTIVITY Hands-on Switch Exploration Group A – Break Group B – Activity Switch
  22. 35. Developing Switch Skills <ul><li>Frequent opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Within the routine of the school day </li></ul><ul><li>As much opportunity to use switch(es) as other students have to develop pencil skills </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, activities should be as motivating and cognitively easy as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates factors of cognitive and/or physical issues </li></ul></ul>
  23. 36. Staying at one stage too long can result in boredom and an unwillingness to cooperate !
  24. 37. Prompting <ul><li>Critical to success </li></ul><ul><li>Physical prompt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially, may need physical prompt to press, but should reduce as quickly as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal Prompt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be consistent across all staff and environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do you say??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Press the switch”, “Hit the switch”, “Play the music” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 38. Verbal Prompting <ul><li>Most productive to focus on the activity being controlled, rather than the switch itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Play the music” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Make the car go” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Mix the milkshake” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student must understand the switch is a means to an end </li></ul>
  26. 39. Verbal Prompting cont’d <ul><li>Necessary to monitor the amount of prompting given </li></ul><ul><li>Need to determine if the student is understanding the effect of the switch activation or responding to the verbal prompts </li></ul>
  27. 40. Stages in Developing Switch Skills <ul><li>SPECTATOR </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT </li></ul><ul><li>CREATOR </li></ul>
  28. 41. Spectator <ul><li>Student not exerting any active control over their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Student shows interest by watching/listening </li></ul><ul><li>Technology may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance sensory awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide visual, auditory or tactile stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful to establish interest in switch-driven activity </li></ul><ul><li>What is motivating???? How do you find out? </li></ul>
  29. 42. Goal - Spectator <ul><li>S will attend to action which has animation and/or sound stimulus, for 3 minutes, without prompts, during _/_ presentations. </li></ul>
  30. 43. Participant <ul><li>4 Components stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul>
  31. 44. Participant - Cause Effect <ul><li>Student begins to interact with environment </li></ul><ul><li>Involve development of understand that an action can cause a response </li></ul><ul><li>Student will activate switch, look and/or listen for and show pleasure in reward </li></ul><ul><li>If reward is motivating will activate switch again </li></ul>
  32. 45. Goal - Participant <ul><li>S will activate switch, look and/or listen for reward, and respond (look, turn head, vocalize, smile, etc), -/- times during 5 presentations. </li></ul>
  33. 46. Cause Effect Activities <ul><li>Switch-adapted battery operated devices </li></ul><ul><li>Power Link for use with electrical appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Low tech communication devices </li></ul><ul><li>Cause effect software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laureate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul></ul>
  34. 47. Activities <ul><li>Battery operated toys/device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only expected to turn on/off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will soon become bored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to make part of a fun activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move car to knock down blocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tape recorder for musical chairs with peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spin art for decorating art project </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 48. Activities cont’d <ul><li>Electrical devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating in cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate a foot spa for themselves or someone else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A fan/light for sensory </li></ul></ul>
  36. 49. Activities cont’d <ul><li>Low-tech Communication devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step-by-Step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BigMack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message must be motivating/control their environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ tickle me”, blow a raspberry”, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach to a toy (dog) and have it “bark”, “I’m falling and can’t get up!” </li></ul></ul>
  37. 50. Computer <ul><li>Cause Effect software </li></ul><ul><li>Power Point stories (age/gender appropriate) </li></ul>
  38. 51. Cause Effect Software Links and Examples <ul><li>SoftTouch </li></ul><ul><li>SimTech </li></ul><ul><li>SwitchIt by IntelliTools </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Don Johnston UKanDu </li></ul><ul><li>Laureate (Creature Chorus, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Free downloads </li></ul>
  39. 52. Participant-Build <ul><li>Student has an understanding of cause effect….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to move to activities that require several switch activations to elicit/repeat reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities on the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Switch It” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint can be set up for this level </li></ul></ul>
  40. 53. Goal Example – Build Level <ul><li>“S. will draw a multi-part picture on the computer (requiring 3-5 activations per completed item), independently, with 80% accuracy over 3 consecutive opportunities, using a switch, switch interface, and computer program </li></ul>
  41. 54. Build – Software <ul><li>Switch It activities Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Make It Happen </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint (examples) </li></ul><ul><li>SimTech – Switch Kids, Super Switch Puzzles </li></ul>
  42. 55. Participant-Turn Taking <ul><li>Involves alternation of 2 switch activations </li></ul><ul><li>Students work together </li></ul><ul><li>To develop shared attention </li></ul><ul><li>Example – 2 students at computer, each has a switch programmed with a specific command – one does “Enter” and one does “Space” – or simply take turns building a picture </li></ul>
  43. 56. Goal – Turn Taking <ul><li>S will take turns during a cooperative activity with at least one other student, in order to complete a task or activity, -/- times during 3 consecutive opportunities. </li></ul>
  44. 57. Turn Taking <ul><li>Switch It </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Switch Arcade – SimTech </li></ul><ul><li>Dice </li></ul>
  45. 58. Participant-Timing <ul><li>Activities that involve timing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To establish whether student has motor coordination skills to control a single-switch scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves perceptual & cognitive concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the ability to press switch within a predetermined time-frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – Spot on Games, Teen Tunes </li></ul></ul>
  46. 59. Goal - Timing <ul><li>S. will activate a switch to control an activity (computer activity, AAC for repetitive line story) within a pre-determined time frame, in response to a prompt, 8/10 times, during 3 consecutive opportunities. </li></ul>
  47. 60. Computer Activities - Timing <ul><li>Switch It Opposites </li></ul><ul><li>ChooseIt Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Arcade Games </li></ul>
  48. 61. Creator <ul><li>Students can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discriminate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposefully make choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to use the computer as a tool to express his/her imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two-switch scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – Clicker, First Verbs, Writing with Symbols Environments, IntelliTools, Don Johnston (U Kan Du, Write:OutLoud, etc) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 62. Choosing <ul><li>Prerequisite skill for using a switch to make choices is ability to scan </li></ul><ul><li>For scanning a student needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to press & look/listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To either use 2 switches or activate a single switch within a given time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To recognize pictures/symbols/auditory prompts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to understand when something is highlighted it can be selected </li></ul></ul>
  50. 63. Goal - Creator <ul><li>S. will make choices, using a switch to scan 2 available options, -/- times, during 3 consecutive opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>May be as far as some students are able to progress: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent to some degree upon cognitive ability (recognition, discrimination, categorization) unless you’re involved in a errorless choice activity </li></ul></ul>
  51. 64. HOW DO YOU KNOW WHERE TO BEGIN??? (Switch Control Checklist)
  52. 65. Switches and the IEP <ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SDI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“S. will participate in a cooking activity by activating the blender, mixer, etc., 4/5 times in 3 consecutive opportunities, with a verbal prompt (“Turn on the ______”), using a switch and switch interface for electric appliances . </li></ul></ul>
  53. 66. Wrap Up <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns? </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s next???? </li></ul>