Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. AAC Augmentative And Alternative Communication Bonnie Young Wendy Homlish AT Consultants – CLIU 21
  2. 2. What is AAC? <ul><li>Used to describe communication modes other than verbal speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol or picture systems </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. AAC is… <ul><li>Aided or unaided communication modes used as a supplement to or as an alternative to oral language, including gestures, sign language, picture symbols, the alphabet, and computers with synthetic speech. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Augmentative Communication <ul><li>Any approach designed to enhance an individual’s already existing speaking skills. Not designed to replace existing communication abilities, but rather to support them. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Alternative Communication <ul><li>Those communication approaches that are an individual’s primary means of communication. Utilized when an individual possesses no oral communication abilities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. AAC System <ul><li>An integrated group of components, including the symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques used by individuals to enhance communication </li></ul>
  7. 7. Candidates for AAC <ul><li>Congenital disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental apraxia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquired neurogenic disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary structural changes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Symbol <ul><li>Methods used for visual, auditory, and/or tactile representation of conventional concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Can be gestures, photographs, manual sign sets/systems, printed words, objects, spoken words, Braille </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aid <ul><li>A physical object or device used to transmit or receive messages </li></ul><ul><li>Can include communication book, board, chart, mechanical or electronic device, computer </li></ul>
  10. 10. Strategy <ul><li>Specific way of using AAC aids, symbols, and/or techniques more effectively for enhanced communication. </li></ul><ul><li>A plan that can facilitate one’s performance </li></ul>
  11. 11. Technique <ul><li>A method of transmitting messages </li></ul><ul><li>Linear scanning, encoding, signing, natural gesturing, direct selection </li></ul>
  12. 14. Output <ul><li>The information AAC users transmit to communication partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesized speech (computerized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitized speech (recorded) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard copy print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer screen messages </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Array <ul><li>An organized display of symbols, pictures, letters, or other information on an AT device; often in a row-column matrix </li></ul>
  14. 16. Selection Techniques <ul><li>Direct Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Touching, pointing, headsticks, eye gaze </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular, linear, group-item </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Central Goal of AAC <ul><li>To communicate messages so users can interact in conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Participate at school, home, work, recreational activities </li></ul><ul><li>Establish and maintain social roles </li></ul><ul><li>Meet personal needs </li></ul>
  16. 18. Purpose of Communicative Interaction <ul><li>Communication of needs and wants </li></ul><ul><li>Information transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Social closeness </li></ul><ul><li>Social etiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Janice Light, 1988 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Message Selection <ul><li>Learning to Communicate vs. Communicating to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Factors to be considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive/linguistic levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities/involvement level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural issues </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Messages Should Be… <ul><li>Age appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Fun and motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeful and meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and useful to the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Promote active and natural participation in the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Generic and reusable </li></ul>
  19. 21. Messages… <ul><li>Promote communication – not activity sequencing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Have high frequency of occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Continually updated and revised </li></ul>
  20. 22. Participation Model <ul><li>Academic Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. How do we know which is best? <ul><li>Feature match </li></ul><ul><li>Team involvement </li></ul><ul><li>SETT Framework </li></ul>
  22. 24. Fixed Display <ul><li>Symbols and items on board are in a fixed location </li></ul><ul><li>Number of items varies </li></ul><ul><li>Must typically use a variety of fixed displays to accommodate communication needs </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate for limitations with levels, encoding </li></ul>
  23. 25. Dynamic Displays <ul><li>Computer screens with visual symbols that , when activated, automatically change the screen to a new set of symbols </li></ul>
  24. 26. Including the Student Who Uses AAC <ul><li>Structure the environment to support communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to AAC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement in motivating activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respond to the individual’s communication attempts </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm the intended message </li></ul>
  25. 27. Including the Student… <ul><li>Ensure shared focus of attention </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for communication </li></ul><ul><li>Wait and provide enough time to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Model appropriate use of AAC </li></ul>
  26. 28. No Tech Solutions (Unaided) <ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><li>Eye gaze </li></ul><ul><li>Manual signing </li></ul>
  27. 29. Low Tech Solutions <ul><li>Manual communication board/book </li></ul><ul><li>Single message vocal output communication devices </li></ul><ul><li>PECS vs. PCS </li></ul>
  28. 30. Mid-Tech Solutions <ul><li>Multiple message vocal output communication systems, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TechTalk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message Mate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak Easy </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. High Tech Solutions <ul><li>Dynavox products (DV4, MT4, MightyMo) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynasyms vs. PCS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathfinder/Vanguard/ Vantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed/Dynamic Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Compaction - MinSpeak </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Remember: “ Incidental teaching episodes are brief, positive, and oriented towards COMMUNICATION rather than language-teaching, per se.”
  31. 33. Partner Characteristics Communication Interaction Style <ul><li>Adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to dominate the interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preempt the student’s or young child’s turn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t give students or young children time to formulate messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often fail to respond to student’s or young child’s initiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often anticipate the student’s or young child’s needs and thoughts, making it unnecessary for them to communicate </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Solutions <ul><li>Understand how partners can facilitate the effective use of communication through the use of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>environmentally-based cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a unique, least-to-most prompt hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the use of appropriate descriptive feedback </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. The Prompt Hierarchy <ul><li>1. Pause </li></ul><ul><li>2. Open Question </li></ul><ul><li>3a. Partial Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>3b. Request for Communication (Mand) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Full Model </li></ul><ul><li>* Descriptive Feedback </li></ul>
  34. 36. “ Communicative competence is about people. It is not about computer technology, or AAC systems. Technology is just the tool , it is the people and the interactions between them that must be our main focus.” Janice Light