Original picture: The Constitution was written at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, during the summer of 1787. (Source: Library of Congress.) Source: http://www.cqpress.com/incontext/constitution/docs/constitutional_law.html
One vote per state on ALL issues.
Required a simple majority of all states present.
Seven of thirteen states must be present for a meeting.
Secret debates and meetings – no press or public. WHY????
Students are to draw this organizer in their notes, with notes to follow.
This is a mnemonic visual for the two parts.
There was a disagreement over how to determine the number of representatives each state would have.Southern states wanted slaves counted for representation but not taxes; Northern states wanted the opposite.
The Northern states wanted the national government to have complete control over trade with other nations.The Southern states were afraid a populated North might hurt their agricultural trade.
The constitutional convention revised
The Pennsylvania Gazette ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY NEWSPAPER Est. 1754 September 1786 Priceless CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION!Shays .George AnnapolisRebellion: Washington: Convention:A Weak Back to Attack Onward to Since 1785, formerGovernment. President Philadelphia!After an economic Washington has been ..Although all 13depression hit acting as a liaison colonies were invited toMassachusetts Farmer’s between attend, only delegateshard, the State Supreme representatives of from five statesCourt refused to issue an Maryland and his attended. Among theinjunction against the home state of delegates was Alexanderforeclosures on the Virginia. Differences Hamilton of New York,farms. 1200 angry men, over who convinced theunder the direction of currencies, import convention that nothingformer Revolutionary duties, and short of a new designWar captain, Daniel navigation were for government wasShays, advanced on the among the most needed. It was decidedfederal arsenal. While contentious. As a to meet at Independencethe uprising was result of these Hall in Philadelphia ineventually quelled, the meetings, it was May 1787.need for a stronger decided that ALL 13central government was colonies should meetnot. in Annapolis to Source: http://www.cqpress.com/incontext/constitution/docs/constitutional_law.html discuss these
Who’s Who at the Convention?• All states EXCEPT… Rhode Island• Only 55 of the 74 delegates attended • 7 were former governors • 39 served in the Confederation Congress • 8 signed the Declaration of Independence • 6 signed the Articles of Confederation
CONSENSUS on basic issues:• Limited government• Representative government• Separation of powers(three branches)• Limit states rights to coin money• Strengthen the national government
VIRGINIA PLAN NEW JERSEY PLAN GREAT COMPROMISE
- Three (3) branches of government: legislative, judicial, and strong executive- bicameral legislature = lower house elected by the people, upper house picked by the lower house- favored large states
NEW JERSEY PLAN- a weak executive = executive could appoint national judiciary- keep the unicameral legislature = one vote for each state = congress could collect taxes and regulate trade- favored small states
Other COMPROMISESThe Three-Fifths CompromiseEach slave counted as 3/5 of a person,OR 5 slaves equal 3 people!
Other COMPROMISES: Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Agreed not to ban the slave trade until 1808 and forbidCongress to impose export taxes
Why Compromise on Slavery?- The Northern states were outlawing slavery.- The Southern states would never agree to the Constitution if it were outlawed!
RATIFICATIONFederalists Anti-Federalists(FOR) (AGAINST)- mainly merchants - mainly farmers and others in the and laborers cities and coastal regions - feared a strong national- argued that without government a strong national government, - Lacked a “Bill anarchy would of Rights” occur
Our New GovernmentMarch 4, 1789- Federal Hall, New York City, temporary capital- 22 senators and 59 representatives electedApril 30, 1789- George Washington, took oath as first president- John Adams, elected vice-president