Regulation of glucose during exercise

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  • Exercise has an insulin-like effect of lowering blood glucose levels. Muscle contractions stimulate glucose transport and metabolism into working muscles, without the use of insulin.The delivery of glucose is facilitated by increased blood flow to exercising muscles. The increased blood flow allows more glucose to enter muscles to be used as energy.
  • The following are proposed mechanisms that play a role in the benefits gained though physical activity as a treatment of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes.Reduction in abdominal fat: Abdominal fat accumulation is highly related to the development of insulin resistance.Increase in muscle mass:Skeletal muscle is the largest mass of insulin-sensitive tissue in the body. Increasing muscle mass helps alleviate insulin resistanceIncreased number of insulin receptors: A reduced number of receptors has been reported in obese individuals and type 2 diabeticsImproved skeletal muscle insulin action: Increases in insulin-regulatable glucose transporters and enzymes.Improved glucose tolerance: Conditioned muscles have improved glucose tolerance
  • Regulation of glucose during exercise

    1. 1. Regulation of Blood Sugar During Exercise<br />
    2. 2. Diabetes<br />Adequate amount of insulin is not produced<br />Insulin not used effectively due to tissue insensitivity<br />
    3. 3. Insulin transports glucose (blood sugar) into cells throughout the body for energy<br />Without insulin, glucose is unable to enter the cell, so it remains in the bloodstream<br />Accumulation is eventually excreted by the body<br />If uncontrolled can result in blood vessel, heart, nerve, feet, eye, and kidney problems<br />Insulin & glucose<br />
    4. 4. Exercise has an insulin-like effect<br />Stimulates glucose transport and metabolism<br />Increases blood flow to exercising muscles<br />More glucose to enter the muscle to be burned up for energy<br />Exercise lowers glucose levels<br />
    5. 5. Reduction in abdominal fat<br />Increase in muscle mass<br />Increased number of insulin receptors<br />Improved skeletal muscle insulin action<br />Improved glucose tolerance<br />Exercise improves insulin sensitivity<br />
    6. 6. Exercise can reduce insulin requirements by 30-50%<br />Improved insulin sensitivity lasting 1 – 2 days after each bout of exercise<br />Insulin is more effective in glucose uptake<br />Improved cardiovascular and psychological well-being<br />Must be regular exercise and long-term to keep improvements<br />Type 1 Diabetes<br />
    7. 7. Regular exercise leads to long-term improvements in diabetic control<br />For obese type 2 diabetics, the combination of diet and exercise can reduce insulin requirements up to 100%<br />Type 2 Diabetes<br />
    8. 8. American Diabetes Association. (2002). Diabetes mellitus and exercise. Diabetes Care, 25(suppl. 1). doi:10.2337 /diacare.25.2007.S64<br />Durstine, J.L., Moore, G. E., Painter, P. L., & Roberts, S.O. (Eds.).(2009). ACSM’s exercise management for persons with chronic diseases and disabilities (3rd Ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.<br />Sources<br />

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