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RDA for Original Catalogers

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This is intended to be a two day workshop on RDA for individuals experienced with cataloging and MARC. This workshop will explore RDA with a specific focus on theories, practicalities, authority work, change highlights, and hands on cataloging. Formats covered will include monographs, serials, audio/visual materials, and online resources (integrating and monographs). The workshop will take the student through understanding the theories behind RDA and then cataloging by RDA standards.

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RDA for Original Catalogers

  1. 1. RDA for Original Catalogers Shana L. McDanold Head, Metadata Services
  2. 2. Introductions and Acknowledgments  Who am I and why am I teaching this?  Attendees intro  Slide content credits:  Adam Schiff (University of Washington)  Library of Congress  Barbara Tillett, Judy Kuhagen, the staff of the Cataloging & Acquisitions Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division  Jacquie Samples (Duke U.)  Kathy Glennan (U. of MD)  Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA  And many more who have contributed bits and pieces
  3. 3. Course outline  Day 1  RDA – where did it come from?  FRBR – the core concepts  Authorities aka Authorized Access Points  Hybrid records  Bibliographic records - print monographs (with practice)  Day 2  Bibliographic records – serials (with practice)  Bibliographic records - A/V (with practice)  Bibliographic records - online and Provider Neutral (with practice)  What’s next? Relationships!  Wrap-up
  4. 4. Day 1 Background, General RDA, and Monographic Materials
  5. 5. Cataloging brief history  Early cataloging codes  No “one” set for US libraries  1940s: ALA cataloging rules  1961 IFLA’s Paris Principles  Cutter’s Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog  1967: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR)  2 versions!: North American text and a British text  1969: ISBDs (consolidated in 2007)  1978: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules Revised (AACR2)  Revisions: 1988, 1998, 2002  1960s: MARC developed (Henriette Avram)  Work completed 1969  US standard by 1971; international standard 1973  Several “flavors” of MARC
  6. 6. So why RDA? And why now?  AACR2 is based on a card environment, thus it is limited by that 3x5 inch boundary  RDA is designed for the web and online communication, making use of how intertwined the web is to share information  From RDA 0.0 Purpose and Scope:  “RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resource discovery.”  “RDA provides a comprehensive set of guidelines and instructions covering all types of content and media.”
  7. 7. So why RDA? And why now?  RDA Objectives (RDA 0.4.2):  Responsiveness to user needs  Cost efficiency  Flexibility  Continuity  RDA Principles (RDA 0.4.3)  Differentiation  Sufficiency  Relationships  Representation  Accuracy  Attribution  Common usage or practice  Uniformity
  8. 8. So why RDA? And why now?  Specific RDA Goals  Easy to use and interpret  Applicable to an online, networked environment  Provide effective bibliographic control for all types of media  Encourage use beyond library community  Compatible with other similar standards  Have a logical structure based on internationally agreed-upon principles  Separate content and carrier data, and separate content from display  Examples – numerous and appropriate
  9. 9. RDA – the birth story  2005: Final update of AACR2 2002 ed.  1997: International Conference on the Principles & Future Development of AACR  2002: AACR3 development begins  2003-2007: meetings of the International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)  2005: AACR3 renamed RDA: Resource Description and Access  2006, 2007: drafts of RDA chapters and appendices  2008: first full draft of RDA  2009: delivered to the publishers  2010: first published in the RDA Toolkit  2010/2011: testing, testing  2012: re-writing by an editor, other tasks designated by U.S. Test Coordinating Committee  March 31, 2013: RDA implementation!
  10. 10. RDA – testing, testing  Goal: assure the operational, technical, and economic feasibility of RDA  Who: U.S. RDA Test Coordinating Committee  Test participants: Library of Congress, National Agricultural Library, National Library of Medicine, 23 partner institutions  Timeline:  June-Sept. 2010: training  Oct.-Dec. 2010: record creation  Jan.-Mar. 2011: analyze results  Apr.-June 2011: report and decision
  11. 11. RDA – testing, testing  Questions answered by the test and the reports  Does RDA meet the stated goals?  What is user reaction to the records?  What is the economic impact?  How was the data being assessed and collected?  Review and analysis of records  Surveys  Statistics on time  Record use and impact in shared environment (OCLC, SkyRiver) to ensure RDA/AACR2 compatibility
  12. 12. RDA – testing, testing  CONCLUSION! Finally.  Decision published June 13, 2011  Overarching conclusion:  “Contingent on the satisfactory progress/completion of the tasks and action items below, the Coordinating Committee recommends that RDA should be implemented by LC,NAL, and NLM no sooner than January 2013. The three national libraries should commit resources to ensure progress is made on these activities that will require significant effort from many in and beyond the library community.”
  13. 13. FRBR family?  Family:  FRBR: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records  FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data  FRSAD: Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data  Conceptual model used as the foundation for RDA  FRBR: WEMI attributes/elements (resource)  FRAD/FRSAD: entitles (persons, corporate bodies) and subjects (concepts) associated with the resource  Focus: user tasks and relationships
  14. 14. FRBR User Tasks  Find  to locate either a single entity or a set of entities as the result of a search using an attribute or relationship of the entity  Identify  to confirm that the entity described corresponds to the entity sought, or to distinguish between two or more entities with similar characteristics  Select  to choose an entity that meets the user's requirements with respect to content, physical format, etc., or to reject an entity as being inappropriate to the user's needs  Obtain  to acquire an entity through purchase, loan, etc., or to access an entity electronically through an online connection
  15. 15. FRBR Structure  Group 1 (WEMI): products of intellectual of artistic endeavor  Work  Expression  Manifestation  Item  Group 2: entitles responsible for Group 1 production/creation  Person  Corporate Body  Family  Group 3: subjects for works (Group1)  Concept  Object  Event  Place
  16. 16. 16 Work Expression Manifestation Item is realized through is embodied in is exemplified by Inherent Group 1 Relationships FRBR Structure – Group 1
  17. 17. Original Work - Same Expression Same Work – New Expression New WorkCataloging Rules Cut-Off Point DerivativeEquivalent Descriptive Facsimile Reprint Exact Reproduction Copy Microform Reproduction Variations or Versions Translation Simultaneous “Publication” Edition Revision Slight Modification Expurgated Edition Illustrated Edition Abridged Edition Arrangement Summary Abstract Digest Change of Genre Adaptation Dramatization Novelization Screenplay Libretto Free Translation Same Style or Thematic Content Parody Imitation Review Criticism Annotated Edition Casebook Evaluation Commentary Family of Works
  18. 18. FRBR Structure - Relationships 18 Work Expression Manifestation Item is owned by is produced by is realized by is created by Person Corporate Body Family Relationships Between Groups 1 and 2
  19. 19. FRBR exercise  What are the identifying elements of the:  Work  Expression  Manifestation  Item  Relationship(s)  Other Group 1 entities?  Group 2 (person, family, corporate body)?
  20. 20. An important distinction  FRBR  conceptual model  RDA/AACR2:  content standard  ISBD  display format/standard  MARC/MARC21  communication format  other communication formats: ONIX, Dublin Core
  21. 21. RDA Toolkit  Tabs  RDA – text of RDA  Tools  RDA element set  RDA mappings (MARC-RDA; MODS-RDA)  RDA record examples  Workflows – can be global (public) or local  Maps – Metadata Application Profiles  Entity Relationship Diagrams (FRBR, FRAD, etc.)  Schemas – element sets  Resources  AACR2  LC-PCC PS (policy statements)  Other (various links)
  22. 22. RDA Toolkit  Updates  “When there is a new release for RDA Toolkit, it is made on the second Tuesday of the month. Releases typically contain updates to content and metadata, enhancements to RDA Toolkit functionality, and fixes to existing bugs.” (RDA Toolkit blog)  May 14, 2013  Next: July 9, 2013  Training  RDA Toolkit Essentials - FREE
  23. 23. Authorities  Based on attributes and relationships identified in FRAD  Person  Family  Corporate body  Place  Authorized/variant access points and elements will for now continue to be documented in authority records
  24. 24. Authority records - vocabulary changes AACR2 RDA Heading Authorized access point See reference Variant access point See also reference Authorized access point for related entity
  25. 25. Authority records – new MARC fields  046 : associated dates (Work, Expression, Person, Family, Corporate Body)  336 : content type (Work, Expression, Person, Family, Corporate Body)  370 : associated place (Work, Expression, Person, Family, Corporate Body)  371 : address (Person, Family, Corporate Body)  372 : field of activity (Person, Family, Corporate Body)  373 : affiliation (Person, Family, Corporate Body)  374 : occupation (Person, Family, Corporate Body)  375 : gender (Person)  376 : family information (Family)  377 : associated language (Person, Family, Corporate Body entities)
  26. 26. Authority records – new MARC fields  380 : form of work (Work)  381 : other distinguishing characteristic of work or expression (Work, Expression)  368 : additional corporate body attributes  378 : fuller form of personal name  382 : medium of performance (Work)  383 : numeric designation of a musical work (Work)  384 : key (Work)
  27. 27. Key changes for Authorities  Authorized access point is based on *usage* or preferred name  Date of birth/death are required (if known)  Spell out born, died, approximately, use – (hyphen) for open dates  Include titles or terms associated with surnames  Such as Junior (Jr.), Senior, etc.  Separate guidelines for royalty, nobility, religious persons
  28. 28. Key changes for Authorities  Families  Fictitious persons and real non-human entities can now be authors  Treatment of pseudonyms – separate identities  If pseudonym is preferred and real name is not used, establish under pseudonym; otherwise establish each identity separately
  29. 29. Key changes for Authorities  Undifferentiated names – avoid creating  Options:  Dates  Qualifiers  Titles/designations  Profession/field of activity  And more!  Conferences, Congresses, other events with dates  Include frequency in the name  Include number, date, and location
  30. 30. Key changes for Authorities  Uniform titles  Language: Polyglot no longer used  Separate authorized access points for each language of translation  Works always present  Selections.  Works. Selections.  Bible: removal of O.T. and N.T.  Bible. O.T. Genesis  Bible. Genesis. AND Bible. Old Testament. (for the whole)  Koran  Qur’an
  31. 31. RDA authority record example(s)  Identification:  040 |e rda  008/10 (Rules) = z (other)
  32. 32. Bibliographic records  RDA is fundamentally different in it's approach to describing materials/resources/things  Focus on content *first* and carrier/format second  RDA cultivates relationships  “Guidelines and instructions” rather than rules  Cataloger’s judgment – one size does not fit all  MARC record contains a mix of Group 1 WEMI attributes as well as Group 2 and Group 3 entities.
  33. 33. Bib records – vocabulary changes AACR2 RDA Heading Authorized access point Author, composer, artist, etc. Creator Main entry Preferred title, and, if appropriate, authorized access point for the creator Uniform title Two RDA counterparts: 1. Preferred title + differentiating information 2. Conventional collective title like “works” Physical description Carrier description General material designator (GMD) Three elements: 1. Content type 2. Media type 3. Carrier type Chief source Preferred source(s)
  34. 34. Bib records – new MARC fields  336 – content type  337 – media type  338 – carrier type  344 – sound characteristics  345 – projection characteristics of moving image  346 – video characteristics  347 – digital file characteristics  264 – production, publication, distribution, manufacture, and copyright notice  New subfields for relationships  New subfields to parse 502 Dissertation information
  35. 35. Bib records - vocabularies  Registered and controlled  Vocabularies are included in the Open Metadata Registry  http://metadataregistry.org/  The vocabulary lists for the content, media, and carrier types, as well as the relationship terms, are considered *closed* lists  You MUST use a term from those lists  There is a petition process to add new terms
  36. 36. Key changes: General  Transcription – record what’s there!  Source(s)  Relationships for authorized access points  *Required* for the creator  Rule of three – gone!  Be liberal in recording alternate titles  Related works are no longer in a general note field, but rather traced so they can be linked (prefer linking fields 76x-78x (and some 70x-75x) to 5xx notes)  GMD replaced by 336 (content type), 337 (media type), 338 (carrier type)
  37. 37. Key changes: General  Spelling out of abbreviations  p.  pages  ill.  illustrations  cm is not an abbreviation, it is a symbol, like ©  Latin terms no longer used  [S.l. : s.n.]  [Place of publication not identified] : [publisher not identified]  [et al.]  [and # others]  [sic]  245 has title as appears on piece; 246 contains corrected form of title  Adjacent bracketed elements are bracketed separately
  38. 38. Standard Records  These records are FLOOR records – add additional content as identified and needed  they provide the essential elements to meet the FRBR User Needs  BIBCO Standard Record (BSR)  The BIBCO Standard Record (BSR) metadata application profile based on RDA includes elements applicable to archival materials, audio recordings, cartographic resources, electronic resources (if cataloged in the computer file format), graphic materials, moving images, notated music, rare materials, and textual monographs. The RDA BSR is arranged along a baseline for RDA elements.  CONSER Standard Record (CSR)  The CONSER RDA cataloging checklist and core elements document CONSER decisions reconciling AACR2 based CSR elements with RDA core elements for serials and serves as the primary source for CONSER RDA descriptive elements and practices.
  39. 39. RDA or AACR2?  Hybrid records?  What: A record that contains elements from more than one content standard  Why: add things that will enhance and contribute to the user tasks  What can I edit?  You can safely add or edit any element that does NOT impact the transcription based descriptive fields  When do I re-describe?  When you need to edit the descriptive fields that are based on transcription (e.g. core elements)
  40. 40. Hybrid records  Guidelines available on LC website  RDA records: http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/rda/PCC%20RDA%20guidelin es/Serial-RDA.doc  Pre-RDA records: http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/rda/PCC%20RDA%20guidelin es/Hybrid-Guidelines-Serials-Post-Impl.docx  Remember:  Goal: enhancing the record to improve user access (user tasks: find, identify, select, and obtain)  DO NO HARM: If it's not wrong, leave it alone  Be nice: avoid editing just for style 40
  41. 41. RDA bib record example(s)  Identification:  040 |e rda  LDR/18 (Desc) = i (ISBD), c (ISBD not included), blank (non-ISBD)
  42. 42. PRACTICE  Monographic print materials  Pay particular attention to the 264 field dates and the 33x fields
  43. 43. Image created by: Jennifer Young Northwestern University
  44. 44. Day 2 Special Formats and Linked Data
  45. 45. Key changes: Serials  300 field is core for currently published, tangible non-print formats  Carrier type changes (338)  RDA 3.1.6.1: Create a new description if there is a change in the carrier type of a serial to online resource from another computer carrier, or vice versa  Transcription exceptions:  Omit numbering from title proper or parallel title (use mark of omission wherever in title)  Some alternatives allow some conversions and some omissions for some elements  No more manifestation level differentiation  [Reminder]: ISSN key title (222) is at manifestation level, NOT work or expression title, so key title and authorized access point for the work may not match 45
  46. 46. Key changes: Serials: new description 46
  47. 47. Key changes: Audio/Visual materials  SOUND RECORDINGS  2.2.2.1 – Preferred source general guidelines  When choosing a preferred source of information, treat as part of the resource itself: the storage medium (e.g., paper, tape, film); any housing that is an integral part of the resource (e.g., a cassette, a cartridge).  When describing the resource as a whole using a comprehensive description, treat accompanying material as part of the resource itself.  When preparing an analytical description of one or more components of a resource, treat accompanying material as a source outside the resource itself (i.e., as a related resource).  Treat a container issued with the resource (e.g., a box in which a game or kit is issued, a clamshell box containing compact discs in individual jewel cases or cardboard sleeves) as part of the resource itself. Treat a container that is not issued with the resource (e.g., a box or case made by the owner) as a source outside the resource itself.  Always give phonogram date  RDA 3.16 – Sound characteristic
  48. 48. Key changes: Audio/Visual materials  SOUND RECORDINGS – New MARC fields  344 – Sound characteristics  347 – Digital file characteristics  380 – Form of work  381 – Other distinguishing characteristic  382 – Medium of performance  383 – Numeric designation of musical work  384 – Key
  49. 49. Key changes: Audio/Visual materials  VIDEO  2.2.2.3: Preferred source – Moving images  1st choice: use the title frame or frames, or title screen or screens, as the preferred source of information  BUT, if the title frames or title screens only list the titles of the individual contents and another source forming part of the resource has a formally-presented collective title, use as the preferred source of information the first applicable source with a formally-presented collective title.  RDA 3.16 – Sound characteristic  RDA 3.18 – Video characteristic
  50. 50. Key changes: Audio/Visual materials  VIDEO – New MARC fields  344 – Sound characteristics  346 – Video characteristics  347 – Digital file characteristics  380 – Form of work
  51. 51. PRACTICE  Serials and Audio/Visual materials
  52. 52. Key changes: Online  Integrating Resources  2.1.2.4 Basis for description:  When preparing a comprehensive description for an integrating resource (e.g., an updating Web site), choose a source of information identifying the current iteration of the resource as a whole.  If there is no source of information identifying the current iteration of the integrating resource as a whole, treat the sources of information identifying its individual contents as a collective source of information for the whole.  Make a note identifying the latest iteration consulted in making the description (goes in a 588 field)
  53. 53. Key changes: Integrating: new description 53
  54. 54. Provider Neutral and RDA  What? How is that possible?  Identification:  040 |e rda |e pn  The provider-neutral model (in contrast to RDA) specifies that if the e-resource being cataloged is an online reproduction of a tangible resource, usually the Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture and Copyright notice information will come from the original tangible source record  588 field – source of description is REQUIRED
  55. 55. PRACTICE  Online materials  Integrating resource  Provider Neutral  Book or serial – your choice
  56. 56. RDA or AACR2?
  57. 57. RDA or AACR2?
  58. 58. RDA or AACR2?
  59. 59. RDA or AACR2?
  60. 60. What’s next?  BIBFRAME  Linked Data and the Semantic Web  Tools  Bibframe.org  RIMMF – RDA in Many Metadata Formats  VTLS Sandbox (subscription) – “FRBRize” records  Linkeddata.org  Schema.org
  61. 61. QUESTIONS? 61
  62. 62. Image created by: Jennifer Young Northwestern University

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