Prevention The MedicalApproachPresented By: Dr. Kalicharan Ramnarine
OUTLINEINTRODUCTION/DEFINITIONHEALTH SURVEILLANCEPROGRAMMESTRESS IN THE WORKPLACE(SYMPTOMS)DETERMINANTS OF STRESSMANA...
INTRODUCTIONOccupational Health is the promotion and maintenance ofthe highest degree of physical, mental and social well...
INTRODUCTION CONTHealth screening refers to the early detection andtreatment of diseases associated with particularoccupa...
INTRODUCTION CONT: The Joint ILO/WHO Committee onOccupational Health at its 12th Session in 1995defined an occupational h...
INTRODUCTION CONT:It includes health records for individuals andmay involve questionnaires or medicalexaminations to info...
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SURVIELLANCEIt is essential to the planning, implementation andevaluation of occupational health prog...
SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMEYou must decide whether the work you do needshealth surveillance. Ask yourself whether any of yourw...
DEVELOPING A HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROG (HSE)
SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMME CONTNIOSH defined three indicators of workplacehealth surveillance programme.Availability of easi...
SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMESMajor limitations: underreporting of occupational health disorders (verycommon in most of the unde...
WORK STRESS
INTRODUCTION/ BURDENHigh job demands and unjust effort-rewardare risk factors for mental and physicalhealth problems.Stu...
WORK STRESSDefinition:“Work-related stress is the responsepeople may have when presented withwork demands and pressures th...
IMPACT OF WORK STRESS According to Marmot & Wilkinson, 2006 theworking environment and the nature of work itselfare both ...
LEGISLATION T&T - OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Act, 2004 No mention of work stress
EFFECTS OF WORK STRESSPhysical symptomsMental health symptomsSocial symptomsEmotional health symptoms
SYMPTOMS OF WORK STRESSPHYSICAL BEHAVIOURALUlcers (G. I.)Weight lossHigh blood pressureHeart diseaseMusculoskeletal d...
LOOK OUT FOR THESE SIGNSPSYCHOLOGICALMemory LossDepressionMental ConfusionDifficulty ConcentratingLoss of Sexual Desi...
DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSPSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDSWorkloadWork Schedule/Pressure (urgency/competing demands)Surveillance (...
DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSJob contentLack of variety or short work cycles, fragmentedor meaningless work, under use of s...
DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSWork scheduleShift working, night shifts, inflexible workschedules, unpredictable hours, long ...
DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSEnvironment &equipmentInadequate equipment availability, suitability ormaintenance; poor envir...
DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSInterpersonal relationships at workSocial or physical isolation, poor relationshipswith superi...
DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSCareer developmentCareer stagnation and uncertainty, underpromotion or over promotion, poor pa...
STRUCTURAL/MANAGERIAL CHANGES INTHE MODERN WORLDPrivatizationGlobalisationMergers/acquisitionsDownsizingGrowing too r...
Management of WORK STRESSAn effective risk assessment approach isnecessaryMeasure the current situation (using surveysan...
Management of Work stress Medical Management of physical sign /symptoms. Employee Assistance Programme Present in many ...
Stress Management cont:HSE developed the Management Standards fordealing with work-related stress in an organizationwhate...
STRESS MANAGEMENT CONTRelationships – including promoting positiveworking to avoid conflict and dealing withunacceptable ...
ACTIVITIES THAT CAN IMPROVEEMOTIONAL HEALTHRead something you enjoyListen to soothing musicDo breathing exercisesWalk...
CONCLUSIONDuring the implementation of a health surveillancesystem, involve your workers and theirrepresentatives at an e...
CONCLUSION CONT:Work-related stress is the response people mayhave when presented with work demands andpressures that are...
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice   dr kalicharan ramnarine
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Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice dr kalicharan ramnarine

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Occupational health program structure, benefit, background, responsibility & good practice dr kalicharan ramnarine

  1. 1. Prevention The MedicalApproachPresented By: Dr. Kalicharan Ramnarine
  2. 2. OUTLINEINTRODUCTION/DEFINITIONHEALTH SURVEILLANCEPROGRAMMESTRESS IN THE WORKPLACE(SYMPTOMS)DETERMINANTS OF STRESSMANAGEMENT OFWORKPLACE STRESSCONCLUSION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONOccupational Health is the promotion and maintenance ofthe highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations by preventingdepartures from health, controlling risks and theadaptation of work to people, and people to their jobs.(ILO/WHO 1950)The concept of workplace health surveillance is new toOccupational health and is different from medicalscreening.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION CONTHealth screening refers to the early detection andtreatment of diseases associated with particularoccupations.NIOSH defines occupational health surveillanceas “the tracking of occupational injuries, illnesses,hazards, and exposures.”The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (or NIOSH).
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION CONT: The Joint ILO/WHO Committee onOccupational Health at its 12th Session in 1995defined an occupational health surveillancesystem as “a system which includes afunctional capacity for data collection,analysis and dissemination linked tooccupational health programmes.This means having a system to look for early signsof ill health caused by hazards at work.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION CONT:It includes health records for individuals andmay involve questionnaires or medicalexaminations to inform the employer.Corrective action may involve referral fortreatment and/or adaptations to work forindividuals affected.Serve as an indication that controls may befailing, review of risk management and action.
  7. 7. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SURVIELLANCEIt is essential to the planning, implementation andevaluation of occupational health programmes and controlof work-related ill health and injuries and the protectionand promotion of workers’ health.
  8. 8. SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMEYou must decide whether the work you do needshealth surveillance. Ask yourself whether any of yourworkers are at risk from: noise or vibration solvents, fumes, dusts, biological agents and othersubstances hazardous to health asbestos, lead or work in compressed air ionizing radiations or commercial diving – theserequire a particular type of high-level medicalsurveillance.
  9. 9. DEVELOPING A HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROG (HSE)
  10. 10. SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMME CONTNIOSH defined three indicators of workplacehealth surveillance programme.Availability of easily obtainable dataPublic health importance of the occupationalhealth effect or exposure to be measuredPotential for intervention activities
  11. 11. SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMMESMajor limitations: underreporting of occupational health disorders (verycommon in most of the undeveloped and developingcountries) inability to diagnose the etiology by the occupationalhealth care workers and availability of the data such as death records.
  12. 12. WORK STRESS
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION/ BURDENHigh job demands and unjust effort-rewardare risk factors for mental and physicalhealth problems.Studies have indicated that work stress isassociated with heart disease, depression,and musculoskeletal disorders .Leads to increased spending on healthcare.Prevention and management of thispsychosocial risk not priority.
  14. 14. WORK STRESSDefinition:“Work-related stress is the responsepeople may have when presented withwork demands and pressures that arenot matched to their knowledge andabilities and which challenge theirability to cope.”WHO 2007.
  15. 15. IMPACT OF WORK STRESS According to Marmot & Wilkinson, 2006 theworking environment and the nature of work itselfare both important influences on health. Systematic reviews shows stress at work isassociated with heart disease, depression, andMSDs ( Melchoir et al.2007) Leads to absences from work and also presenteeism,(although present at work, the performance is poor andsometimes even hazardous to themselves as well asothers around them).
  16. 16. LEGISLATION T&T - OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Act, 2004 No mention of work stress
  17. 17. EFFECTS OF WORK STRESSPhysical symptomsMental health symptomsSocial symptomsEmotional health symptoms
  18. 18. SYMPTOMS OF WORK STRESSPHYSICAL BEHAVIOURALUlcers (G. I.)Weight lossHigh blood pressureHeart diseaseMusculoskeletal disordersPain (generalized)An increase in alcoholconsumptiondifficult in the workplaceless co-operative, more accident prone, less sociable. inability to cope withfamily/domestic roles, neglect of personalappearance
  19. 19. LOOK OUT FOR THESE SIGNSPSYCHOLOGICALMemory LossDepressionMental ConfusionDifficulty ConcentratingLoss of Sexual DesireIrritabilityInsomniaFeelings of guilt and uselessness
  20. 20. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSPSYCHOSOCIAL HAZARDSWorkloadWork Schedule/Pressure (urgency/competing demands)Surveillance (by management)/ controlJob insecurityStructural and Managerial ChangesPhysical conditions (environment)/ Equipment.Job designWork organization/ Work-home interface
  21. 21. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSJob contentLack of variety or short work cycles, fragmentedor meaningless work, under use of skills, highuncertainty, continuous exposure to peoplethrough workWorkload & work paceWork overload or under load, machine pacing,high levels of time pressure, continually subject todeadlines
  22. 22. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSWork scheduleShift working, night shifts, inflexible workschedules, unpredictable hours, long orunsociable hoursControlLow participation in decision making, lack ofcontrol over workload.
  23. 23. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSEnvironment &equipmentInadequate equipment availability, suitability ormaintenance; poor environmental conditionssuch as lack of space, poor lighting, excessivenoiseOrganisational culture& functionPoor communication, low levels of support forproblem solving and personal development .
  24. 24. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSInterpersonal relationships at workSocial or physical isolation, poor relationshipswith superiors, interpersonal conflict, lack ofsocial support, bullying, harassmentRole in organizationRole ambiguity, role conflict, and responsibilityfor people
  25. 25. DETERMINANTS OF WORK STRESSCareer developmentCareer stagnation and uncertainty, underpromotion or over promotion, poor pay, jobinsecurity, low social value to workHome-work interfaceConflicting demands of work and home, lowsupport at home, dual career problems
  26. 26. STRUCTURAL/MANAGERIAL CHANGES INTHE MODERN WORLDPrivatizationGlobalisationMergers/acquisitionsDownsizingGrowing too rapidlyTechnological introductionAll contribute to work stress !
  27. 27. Management of WORK STRESSAn effective risk assessment approach isnecessaryMeasure the current situation (using surveysand/or other techniques)Work in partnership with employees and theirrepresentatives to make practical improvementsAgree and share an action plan with employeesand their representativesRegularly review the situation to ensure itcontinues to improve
  28. 28. Management of Work stress Medical Management of physical sign /symptoms. Employee Assistance Programme Present in many larger organizations in Trinidadand Tobago. Confidential UK National model for work stress (see slide below)
  29. 29. Stress Management cont:HSE developed the Management Standards fordealing with work-related stress in an organizationwhatever the size or type.The Standards identify six factors to be addressed:Demands – including issues such as workload, workpatterns and the work environmentControl – how much say the person has in the way theydo their workSupport – including the encouragement, sponsorshipand resources provided by the organization, linemanagement and colleagues
  30. 30. STRESS MANAGEMENT CONTRelationships – including promoting positiveworking to avoid conflict and dealing withunacceptable behaviourRole – whether people understand their role withinthe organisation and whether the organisationensures that they do not have conflicting rolesChange – how organisational change (large or small)is managed and communicated
  31. 31. ACTIVITIES THAT CAN IMPROVEEMOTIONAL HEALTHRead something you enjoyListen to soothing musicDo breathing exercisesWalkExperience natureTake a relaxing bathPlay with a petTend to your bodyEngage in a physical activity
  32. 32. CONCLUSIONDuring the implementation of a health surveillancesystem, involve your workers and theirrepresentatives at an early stage, so they understandits purpose and their roles and responsibilities in anyresulting health surveillance programme.Ask for advice from a competent occupational healthprofessional in developing a health surveillanceprogrammer
  33. 33. CONCLUSION CONT:Work-related stress is the response people mayhave when presented with work demands andpressures that are not matched to their knowledgeand abilities and which challenge their ability tocope. (WHO, 2003)Psychosocial risks (work-related stress ) are majorchallenges to occupational health and safety (EU-OSHA, 2007

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