Industrial hygiene & control ms eva karpinski

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Industrial hygiene & control ms eva karpinski

  1. 1. Trinidad and Tobago National Safety WeekApril 28 – May 4, 2013Recognition and Prevention ofOccupational DiseasesIndustrial Hygiene PerspectiveEva Karpinski, M.Sc., P.Eng.Industrial Hygiene EngineerOccupational Health and Safety DivisionWorkplace Directorate
  2. 2. 2Definition of Occupational Disease Occupational disease – a disease associated withexposure to a chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic, orpsychosocial hazard in a workplace.Canadian Standard Association (CSA):CSA Z795-03 Coding of Work Injury or Disease Information (notreferenced in the COHSR)
  3. 3. 3Workplace hazards which may cause occupationaldisease Chemical hazards – dusts, fumes, smoke, aerosols, mists, gases andvapours Physical hazards – noise, vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation,thermal stresses Biological hazards – bacteria, viruses, fungi, moulds, insects Ergonomic hazards – improperly designed tools/work areas, improperlifting/reaching, repeated motions, mechanical vibrations Nanomaterials – materials with any external dimention in the nanoscale orhaving internal structure or surface structure in the nanoscale (1 nm to 100nm) Psychosocial hazards – violence, bullying, harassment, other chronicstressors identified by workers
  4. 4. 4Effects of exposure to hazardous substances Acute effects – the ill-health effects caused by sudden one-time exposure torelatively high concentrations of hazardous substances. Most acute effectsare over in a few minutes, hours, days or at most, in a few weeks. Recovery iscomplete (e.g. pulmonary edema) or there is a permanent disability or death(e.g. exposure to IDLH condition). Chronic effects – the ill-health effects caused by repeated exposure torelatively low concentrations of hazardous substances or as long term effect ofa short but severe exposure to a hazardous substance. Recovery is complete(e.g. tendonitis) or there is a permanent disability or death (e.g. pleuralthickening, mesothelioma).Latent period – the time from the first exposure to the disease development
  5. 5. 5Routes of entry Inhalation Skin absorption Ingestion Eyes
  6. 6. 6Examples of occupational diseases Asthma, e.g., caused or triggered by exposure to isocyanates Silicosis, caused by exposure to silica Hearing impairment caused by noise Tuberculosis, caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis Carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by repetitive motions combinedwith extreme postures of the wrist and forceful exertions Mesothelioma, caused by exposure to asbestos
  7. 7. 7Occupational diseases in CanadaInjuries Musculoskeletal system disorders continue to rank the highest but areshowing a sharp decline over the 11 year period. (It may be related toincreased knowledge of the importance of ergonomics.)Note: Musculoskeletal system disorders have made up at least half ofoccupational injuries every year in the 11 year period. Infectious diseases peculiar to the intestines over the 11 year period(15% increase from 2001 to 2011, peaking in 2010). Other diseases seem to be trending downward.
  8. 8. 8Fatalities• Malignant neoplasms and tumors continue to rank the highest and areshowing an upward trend.Note1: This disturbing trend is likely due to:– work practices in the past– long latency periods– increased association of adverse health outcomes with work history– advances in occupational medicineNote2: This trend is expected to peak within the next few years and thentrend downwards
  9. 9. 9Prevention of occupational disease Primary prevention – preventing development of disease by takingnecessary measures to eliminate or control worker exposure Secondary prevention – early detection of disease, intervention andtreatment to prevent from further development, e.g. medicalsurveillance Tertiary prevention – medical management of established disease
  10. 10. 10Primary prevention of occupational diseaseIndustrial hygiene elements include: anticipation recognition evaluation controlof hazards which may cause illness, impaired health, or significantdiscomfort among workers.
  11. 11. 11RecognitionIn order to recognize a hazard it is necessary to: study the process identify all the ingredients used and their quantities obtain their safety data sheets understand the chemistry involved identify and quantify all the products and by-products of theprocess identify sources of contaminant generation
  12. 12. 12• establish the toxicity of the hazardous substances andtheir limits of exposure• study their physical properties• determine the effectiveness of control measures already in place
  13. 13. 13EvaluationIf a potential hazard to the health of a worker is identified, the next stepis to evaluate the hazard.At the evaluation stage, the following factors must be determined: the number of employees exposed and the duration of exposure the number of samples the type of samples and period of activity to be sampled
  14. 14. 14• the concentration or level of the hazardous substance towhich a worker is exposed• whether this concentration or level of the hazardoussubstance is in excess of the occupational exposure limitfor that hazardous substance, e.g., TLV
  15. 15. 15Types of control measuresSource Elimination Substitution Source or process modification Automation Isolation/containment/enclosure Local exhaust ventilation
  16. 16. 16Path• General ventilation• Increased distanceWorker• Good work practices• Operating procedures• Job rotation/work scheduling• Personal protective equipment
  17. 17. 17Secondary prevention of occupational diseasesEmployers may establish a medical surveillance program for the benefit ofworkers that includes: medical examination (pre-employment, pre-placement, periodic)– history, e.g., previous exposure, smoking, signs and symptoms– physical examination clinical tests, e.g., pulmonary function tests, chest x-ray, blood and urine tests action levels health education, e.g., personal cleanliness, hazards, discussion of examinationresults record keeping
  18. 18. 18Tertiary prevention of occupational diseasesMedical management of established disease
  19. 19. 19Questions?Thank you!

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