Social Dimension ofSocial Dimension ofLanguage LearningLanguage Learning ininRomaniaRomaniaProf. Daniela BoboceaProf. Dani...
Innovative programmes forInnovative programmes forEuropean PlurilingualismEuropean Plurilingualism PlurilingualismPlurili...
 The resolution of November 23rd, 2008 of the Council forThe resolution of November 23rd, 2008 of the Council forEducatio...
 In the last 5 years, many European projects have been developpedIn the last 5 years, many European projects have been de...
 In our school English and French are taught as foreignIn our school English and French are taught as foreignlanguages bo...
 European Label is another program of supportEuropean Label is another program of supportand promotion of language learni...
 Plurilingualism increases the interest andPlurilingualism increases the interest andtolerance in the other’s image, and ...
 And a Europe in which people from different MemberAnd a Europe in which people from different MemberStates speak several...
 Programmes such as the European Union’s, which are concerned withProgrammes such as the European Union’s, which are conc...
 Romania expresses its approval towards the linguistic diversificationRomania expresses its approval towards the linguist...
 At the level of political statements (intended policy),At the level of political statements (intended policy),Romania ad...
 At the level of decisional consequences (actual policy),At the level of decisional consequences (actual policy),Romania’...
Europass in RomaniaEuropass in Romania The implementation of was achieved by following some very important decisionalThe ...
Actual difficultiesActual difficulties :: The teachers have not been trained to use The CommonThe teachers have not been ...
Challenges in the foreignChallenges in the foreignlanguage classroom usinglanguage classroom usingICT and CLILICT and CLIL...
 Each year the class collectively decides on one or two electives, usually anEach year the class collectively decides on ...
 With increasing emphasis on foreign language, especially English,With increasing emphasis on foreign language, especiall...
 In secondary education, many teachers believe that the use ofIn secondary education, many teachers believe that the use ...
 In foreign language learning there are many specific features to whichIn foreign language learning there are many specif...
 Education in Romania is free and compulsory for children betweenEducation in Romania is free and compulsory for children...
 Romanian students are obliged to study two foreign languages, starting withRomanian students are obliged to study two fo...
Strategies for inclusion andStrategies for inclusion andstudent entrepreneurshipstudent entrepreneurship Did you know tha...
 The Strategy of the Government of Romania for the Inclusion of theThe Strategy of the Government of Romania for the Incl...
 The existing legal framework including the provisions related toThe existing legal framework including the provisions re...
 The National Agency for Roma conducts structural projects, such asThe National Agency for Roma conducts structural proje...
 After 1989 Romania has been a kind of laboratory for introducing and experimenting variousAfter 1989 Romania has been a ...
 Support for minority pupils and students (OECD, 2006)Support for minority pupils and students (OECD, 2006) The educatio...
 An important source of the weak social inclusion is the traditional school segregation of personsAn important source of ...
 Lifelong learning is the key element to ensure goodLifelong learning is the key element to ensure goodtransition between...
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Romania-Galati_by Daniela Bobocea_ Study Visit 2013-189-ES (Barcelona)

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Romania : Presentation for the European Study Visit 2013-189-ES (Catalonia, Spain), "Language learning spaces: diversity and transversality". Author Daniela Bobocea . Visit the web: http://blocs.xtec.cat/cataloniastudyvisit2013languagelearning/report/

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Romania-Galati_by Daniela Bobocea_ Study Visit 2013-189-ES (Barcelona)

  1. 1. Social Dimension ofSocial Dimension ofLanguage LearningLanguage Learning ininRomaniaRomaniaProf. Daniela BoboceaProf. Daniela BoboceaCTAT “Dumitru Motoc”, GalatiCTAT “Dumitru Motoc”, Galati
  2. 2. Innovative programmes forInnovative programmes forEuropean PlurilingualismEuropean Plurilingualism PlurilingualismPlurilingualism does not mean thedoes not mean thedisappearance of borders, whether they aredisappearance of borders, whether they arephysical, political, religious, intellectual, artisticphysical, political, religious, intellectual, artisticor any others. Such as a door, the border can beor any others. Such as a door, the border can beopened or closed; it is a marker of identity and ofopened or closed; it is a marker of identity and ofdifferentiation, but at the same time, it is adifferentiation, but at the same time, it is acondition for a real and authentic exchange.condition for a real and authentic exchange.Whatever the border, plurilingualism transformsWhatever the border, plurilingualism transformsthem as areas of exchanges, enrichment andthem as areas of exchanges, enrichment andcreativity, a creativity nurtured by an assumedcreativity, a creativity nurtured by an assumedand recognized otherness.and recognized otherness.
  3. 3.  The resolution of November 23rd, 2008 of the Council forThe resolution of November 23rd, 2008 of the Council forEducation, Culture and Youth reminded the aim that theEducation, Culture and Youth reminded the aim that theEuropeans of tomorrow should master at least twoEuropeans of tomorrow should master at least twoforeign languages in addition of their mother tongue, andforeign languages in addition of their mother tongue, andset the principle of diversification of the linguistic offerset the principle of diversification of the linguistic offerfrom a very young age.from a very young age. In order to provide stable and successful services to itsIn order to provide stable and successful services to itscitizens, plurilingualism is promoted in the EU by meanscitizens, plurilingualism is promoted in the EU by meansof certain programs, developed in Romania, too, forof certain programs, developed in Romania, too, formany years. The Lifelong Learning Programme offers amany years. The Lifelong Learning Programme offers awide range of language opportunities for those who wishwide range of language opportunities for those who wishto gain experience in teaching and learning in anotherto gain experience in teaching and learning in anotherEuropean country.European country.
  4. 4.  In the last 5 years, many European projects have been developpedIn the last 5 years, many European projects have been developpedin our school only:in our school only: "Preparation and co-mentorship for European hospitality training""Preparation and co-mentorship for European hospitality training"(Leonardo da Vinci Partnership, 2008), "E-learning & flexible(Leonardo da Vinci Partnership, 2008), "E-learning & flexiblelearning in invatamantul vocational si tehnic (VET)" (Leonardo dalearning in invatamantul vocational si tehnic (VET)" (Leonardo daVinci VETPRO, 2008), "European Parents School for LifelongVinci VETPRO, 2008), "European Parents School for LifelongLearning" (Grundtvig, 2008), "Retracing Myths - Between Magic andLearning" (Grundtvig, 2008), "Retracing Myths - Between Magic andReality Through Europes Traditions and Culture" (ComeniusReality Through Europes Traditions and Culture" (ComeniusMultilateral, 2010-2012), „Kitchen and restaurant guide for starters"Multilateral, 2010-2012), „Kitchen and restaurant guide for starters"(Leonardo da Vinci, 2010-2012), „Quels outils éducatifs pour la(Leonardo da Vinci, 2010-2012), „Quels outils éducatifs pour lasocialisation des jeunes adultes avec les parents?” (Grundtvigsocialisation des jeunes adultes avec les parents?” (GrundtvigLearning Partnership, 2012 –ongoing).Learning Partnership, 2012 –ongoing). I, personally, benefited two in-service training courses:I, personally, benefited two in-service training courses: InnovationsInnovationsin Special Educational Needs Support in Regular Educationin Special Educational Needs Support in Regular Education, Dublin,, Dublin,Irland, 2004,Irland, 2004, The English Teacher Experience - Methodolgy AndThe English Teacher Experience - Methodolgy AndLanguage Enhancement for the 21st CenturyLanguage Enhancement for the 21st Century, London, UK, 2009., London, UK, 2009.
  5. 5.  In our school English and French are taught as foreignIn our school English and French are taught as foreignlanguages both as first and as second languages.languages both as first and as second languages.Students are very interested in learning other languages,Students are very interested in learning other languages,thats why they get involved in school projects or go tothats why they get involved in school projects or go tostudent exchanges in other countries to learn new andstudent exchanges in other countries to learn new andinteresting languages which are not included in theinteresting languages which are not included in thecurriculum. The school has many IT resources: three ITcurriculum. The school has many IT resources: three ITmodern labs, a network system with non –stop access tomodern labs, a network system with non –stop access tothe internet, multimedia instruments, applicationthe internet, multimedia instruments, applicationsoftware, which are used during classes according to thesoftware, which are used during classes according to thesyllabus. All our teachers are qualified and the majoritysyllabus. All our teachers are qualified and the majorityhave teaching degrees and Master’s Degree diplomas.have teaching degrees and Master’s Degree diplomas.In our school there are also 2 training-firms registered inIn our school there are also 2 training-firms registered inthe national network of the training-firms as travelthe national network of the training-firms as travelagencies and other 8 not-registered training-firms.agencies and other 8 not-registered training-firms.
  6. 6.  European Label is another program of supportEuropean Label is another program of supportand promotion of language learning in the EU;and promotion of language learning in the EU;the European linguistic label is given tothe European linguistic label is given toinitiatives that have successfully managed toinitiatives that have successfully managed topromote creative and innovative languagepromote creative and innovative languagelearning activities.learning activities. Scholarships offered by various member-statesScholarships offered by various member-stateswithin the union help promote the language andwithin the union help promote the language andculture of the state, and the Europeans, whoculture of the state, and the Europeans, whohave received by means of bilateral agreements,have received by means of bilateral agreements,scholarships in the Romanian language andscholarships in the Romanian language andcivilization courses, have studied our languagecivilization courses, have studied our languageand became acquainted with the culture andand became acquainted with the culture andcivilization of the Romanian people.civilization of the Romanian people.
  7. 7.  Plurilingualism increases the interest andPlurilingualism increases the interest andtolerance in the other’s image, and the interest intolerance in the other’s image, and the interest inthe study of one or more foreign languages inthe study of one or more foreign languages inEurope. The knowledge of foreign languages isEurope. The knowledge of foreign languages isan asset in the business environment. Thanks toan asset in the business environment. Thanks tothe knowledge of several foreign languages,the knowledge of several foreign languages,businesses and employees may become morebusinesses and employees may become morecompetitive, and EU citizens may have greatercompetitive, and EU citizens may have greatermobility. The European Union strategy onmobility. The European Union strategy onforeign languages and economicforeign languages and economiccompetitiveness opens up new opportunities.competitiveness opens up new opportunities.
  8. 8.  And a Europe in which people from different MemberAnd a Europe in which people from different MemberStates speak several foreign languages is a moreStates speak several foreign languages is a morewelcoming society for people traveling within it. Youngwelcoming society for people traveling within it. Youngpeople who speak several foreign languages can movepeople who speak several foreign languages can movemore easily throughout Europe to study or work.more easily throughout Europe to study or work. Foreign languages really contribute to EuropeanForeign languages really contribute to Europeancompetitiveness. Companies that have employeescompetitiveness. Companies that have employeesmastering language skills are better prepared to takemastering language skills are better prepared to takeadvantages of the opportunities offered by the Europeanadvantages of the opportunities offered by the Europeanmarket – the largest in the world. Also, language skillsmarket – the largest in the world. Also, language skillshelp businesses reach customers and markets all aroundhelp businesses reach customers and markets all aroundthe world. (Leonid Orban)the world. (Leonid Orban)
  9. 9.  Programmes such as the European Union’s, which are concerned withProgrammes such as the European Union’s, which are concerned withtransnational mobility, lifelong education, fresh approaches to languagetransnational mobility, lifelong education, fresh approaches to languageteaching, access to new multimedia environments and, through the Netdaysteaching, access to new multimedia environments and, through the Netdaysprojects, raising awareness of the information and communication society,projects, raising awareness of the information and communication society,are part of this process of enriching life together for Europeans.are part of this process of enriching life together for Europeans. Teachers training on plurilingualism is crucially important, considering thatTeachers training on plurilingualism is crucially important, considering thatoutdated pedagogical settings, which hold plurilingualism responsible ofoutdated pedagogical settings, which hold plurilingualism responsible ofpoor learning in L2, are still common among them.poor learning in L2, are still common among them. The valorization of first language and the relationship between the first andThe valorization of first language and the relationship between the first andsecond language can be achieved by:second language can be achieved by: ••Training courses for teachers;Training courses for teachers; ••Language and citizenship courses for children and adults;Language and citizenship courses for children and adults; ••Didactic materials for language teaching and intercultural education;Didactic materials for language teaching and intercultural education; ••Project websites;Project websites; ••International conferences and other dissemination activitiesInternational conferences and other dissemination activities
  10. 10.  Romania expresses its approval towards the linguistic diversificationRomania expresses its approval towards the linguistic diversificationpolicy by signing the European Treaties, this action havingpolicy by signing the European Treaties, this action havingnoticeable decisional consequences in favour of linguisticnoticeable decisional consequences in favour of linguisticdistension, such as:distension, such as: # an early learning of foreign languages (the school curriculum# an early learning of foreign languages (the school curriculumcomprises subjects like English, French, Italian, Spanish, Germancomprises subjects like English, French, Italian, Spanish, Germanand Russian, thus expanding the school offer);and Russian, thus expanding the school offer); # the focusing of the curriculum on skills, allowing a transfer of# the focusing of the curriculum on skills, allowing a transfer ofknowledge and skills in new and dinamic situations (formingknowledge and skills in new and dinamic situations (formingcommon skills in foreign languages, as well as introducing newcommon skills in foreign languages, as well as introducing newinteraction skills at highschool level which favour interdisciplinarityinteraction skills at highschool level which favour interdisciplinarityand enhance the valorization of intercultural skills);and enhance the valorization of intercultural skills); # introducing the third foreign language (as optional) in the high# introducing the third foreign language (as optional) in the highschool curriculum (1999);school curriculum (1999); # initiating a two models concept of the Linguistic Portfolios (both for# initiating a two models concept of the Linguistic Portfolios (both foradults and children between 8 and 11 years old).adults and children between 8 and 11 years old).
  11. 11.  At the level of political statements (intended policy),At the level of political statements (intended policy),Romania adopted the European documents on linguisticRomania adopted the European documents on linguisticeducational policy (The Common European Framework,educational policy (The Common European Framework,The European Linguistic Portfolio, the memorandum forThe European Linguistic Portfolio, the memorandum forlifelife--long learning, Europass), proving its interest andlong learning, Europass), proving its interest andconcern for the policies dealing with multilinguism andconcern for the policies dealing with multilinguism andmulticulturality, linguistic diversity and Europeanmulticulturality, linguistic diversity and Europeancitizenship.citizenship. All these took place without having a legislativeAll these took place without having a legislativeframework for the promotion of foreign language studyframework for the promotion of foreign language studyand without setting up comittees or comissions whichand without setting up comittees or comissions whichwould coordinate the implementation of key objectiveswould coordinate the implementation of key objectivesestablished by the European Union in this particular field.established by the European Union in this particular field.
  12. 12.  At the level of decisional consequences (actual policy),At the level of decisional consequences (actual policy),Romania’s interest to follow the European linguisticRomania’s interest to follow the European linguisticpolicy is reflected particularly in the gradual revision ofpolicy is reflected particularly in the gradual revision ofschool curricula for modern languages, before and afterschool curricula for modern languages, before and afterThe European Year of Languages (2001).The European Year of Languages (2001). Although the new curricula highlight the europeanAlthough the new curricula highlight the europeandimension, taking into account The Common Europeandimension, taking into account The Common EuropeanFramework of Reference for languages (CEFR), as wellFramework of Reference for languages (CEFR), as wellas the Education and Training programme 2010 – theas the Education and Training programme 2010 – thesources of defining skills and target performance levels –sources of defining skills and target performance levels –it is not specified the way in which these levels wereit is not specified the way in which these levels wereestablished, what do they mean or how can the teachersestablished, what do they mean or how can the teachersand students assess their own proficiency in a specificand students assess their own proficiency in a specificforeign languages.foreign languages.
  13. 13. Europass in RomaniaEuropass in Romania The implementation of was achieved by following some very important decisionalThe implementation of was achieved by following some very important decisionalsteps, such as:steps, such as: ––Following the recommendations from Krakow, in 2002 it is founded The RomanianFollowing the recommendations from Krakow, in 2002 it is founded The RomanianNational Committee for the Approval of the European Portfolios of Languages:National Committee for the Approval of the European Portfolios of Languages: ––In 2003, the Committee analyses and approves the Romanian version of theIn 2003, the Committee analyses and approves the Romanian version of thePortfolio for adults designed by Centrul Prosper ASE;Portfolio for adults designed by Centrul Prosper ASE; ––A group of experts from the Institute of EducationA group of experts from the Institute of Education ofof Sciences finalizes theSciences finalizes thedocumentation and design stage of the European Linguistic Portfolio, Junior versiondocumentation and design stage of the European Linguistic Portfolio, Junior version(8-11 years old);(8-11 years old); ––Romania adopts in January 2005 the Single Community framework for transparencyRomania adopts in January 2005 the Single Community framework for transparencyof qualifications and skills established by the European Parliament and the Europeanof qualifications and skills established by the European Parliament and the EuropeanCouncil in December 2004, in order to sustain European mobility and lifelongCouncil in December 2004, in order to sustain European mobility and lifelonglearning. Aiming at unifying the Europass papers (Europass CV, Europass Mobility,learning. Aiming at unifying the Europass papers (Europass CV, Europass Mobility,the Appendix to the Europass Certificate, the Europass Linguistic Portfolio, thethe Appendix to the Europass Certificate, the Europass Linguistic Portfolio, theAppendix to the Europass Professional Certificate), the National Agency forAppendix to the Europass Professional Certificate), the National Agency forCommunitary Programmes in Education and Professional Training (ANPCDEFP) wasCommunitary Programmes in Education and Professional Training (ANPCDEFP) wasinvested as the Europass National Center (CNE) in February 2005 (MO no.invested as the Europass National Center (CNE) in February 2005 (MO no.3254/2005).3254/2005).
  14. 14. Actual difficultiesActual difficulties :: The teachers have not been trained to use The CommonThe teachers have not been trained to use The CommonEuropean Framework, , and although the schoolEuropean Framework, , and although the schoolcurricula have been reorganised according to thiscurricula have been reorganised according to thisEuropean instrument, they don’t offer specific details.European instrument, they don’t offer specific details. The teaching process has been modified for theThe teaching process has been modified for thetransition to a skills based curriculum. Although intransition to a skills based curriculum. Although inteaching and learning foreign languages the teacherteaching and learning foreign languages the teacheremphasizes the development of general communicationemphasizes the development of general communicationskills (reception, production, interaction, mediation),skills (reception, production, interaction, mediation),assessment is still focused on testing only the linguisticassessment is still focused on testing only the linguisticskills, taking into consideration and sanctioning grammarskills, taking into consideration and sanctioning grammaraccuracy.accuracy.
  15. 15. Challenges in the foreignChallenges in the foreignlanguage classroom usinglanguage classroom usingICT and CLILICT and CLIL Romanian education has changed dramatically within the last half century,Romanian education has changed dramatically within the last half century,transitioning from the influences of the Soviet Union, the Romanian Communist party,transitioning from the influences of the Soviet Union, the Romanian Communist party,anti-communist reformers, and Western Europe.anti-communist reformers, and Western Europe. Romania has done much in its educational transition since the fall of communism inRomania has done much in its educational transition since the fall of communism in1989. New subjects, western thought, and internationalized curricula have1989. New subjects, western thought, and internationalized curricula havecontributed to a well-rounded education for Romanian students. A variety of foreigncontributed to a well-rounded education for Romanian students. A variety of foreignlanguages are taught, students must demonstrate technological competency tolanguages are taught, students must demonstrate technological competency tograduate high school, religion and philosophy are now standard,graduate high school, religion and philosophy are now standard, Its European Union ascension in 2007 has marked it as a strong and modern nation,Its European Union ascension in 2007 has marked it as a strong and modern nation,yet still sometimes parenthetically referred to as a newer Eastern Europe an member.yet still sometimes parenthetically referred to as a newer Eastern Europe an member.The transition has not been easy, and there is certainly much room for improvement,The transition has not been easy, and there is certainly much room for improvement,but Romania’s reform has shown its capacity for change and asserted itself as havingbut Romania’s reform has shown its capacity for change and asserted itself as havingan important role on the stage of international education.an important role on the stage of international education. Once a class is formed, it functions as a cohesive unit and remains together eitherOnce a class is formed, it functions as a cohesive unit and remains together eitherthrough lower secondary (grades 5-8), or high school (grades 9-12). Both upper andthrough lower secondary (grades 5-8), or high school (grades 9-12). Both upper andlower secondary students study a broad curriculum usually including Romanianlower secondary students study a broad curriculum usually including RomanianLanguage and Literature, History, Geography, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology,Language and Literature, History, Geography, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology,Physics, Religion, Physical Education, Art or Music, and two foreign languages (mostPhysics, Religion, Physical Education, Art or Music, and two foreign languages (mostoften English and French, though German, Russian, Italian and Romanian as aoften English and French, though German, Russian, Italian and Romanian as asecond language are also taught depending on the region).second language are also taught depending on the region).
  16. 16.  Each year the class collectively decides on one or two electives, usually anEach year the class collectively decides on one or two electives, usually anadditional hour from one of the core subject areas, which is intended eitheradditional hour from one of the core subject areas, which is intended eitherto better prepare them for further study, or to gain favor from the subjectto better prepare them for further study, or to gain favor from the subjectteacher.teacher. Foreign language education has taken a prominent role in the RomanianForeign language education has taken a prominent role in the Romanianeducation system. Most Romanian students study two foreign languages,education system. Most Romanian students study two foreign languages,usually English and French. In 2009, for example, 98.1% of upperusually English and French. In 2009, for example, 98.1% of uppersecondary students were studying English (Eurostat, 2011c), and 85.3%secondary students were studying English (Eurostat, 2011c), and 85.3%were studying French (Eurostat, 2011d).were studying French (Eurostat, 2011d). Though in the few years following the 1989 revolution, students located inThough in the few years following the 1989 revolution, students located inurban areas were more likely to study English than those living in ruralurban areas were more likely to study English than those living in ruralareas, students from every sector of the modern Romanian populationareas, students from every sector of the modern Romanian populationgenerally have access to English.generally have access to English. The Romanian Ministry of Education agreed and has required students toThe Romanian Ministry of Education agreed and has required students todemonstrate competency in one international language based ondemonstrate competency in one international language based oninternational standards in order to pass the Baccalaureate exam and beinternational standards in order to pass the Baccalaureate exam and beadmitted to higher education. Romania has adopted the Common Europeanadmitted to higher education. Romania has adopted the Common EuropeanFramework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as means of evaluatingFramework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as means of evaluatingBaccalaureate exams for exiting high school students. CEFR is meant to beBaccalaureate exams for exiting high school students. CEFR is meant to beable to be applied to the evaluation of any European language and is scoredable to be applied to the evaluation of any European language and is scoredalong six gradations from A1 to C2.along six gradations from A1 to C2.
  17. 17.  With increasing emphasis on foreign language, especially English,With increasing emphasis on foreign language, especially English,many students are taking internationally recognized exams such asmany students are taking internationally recognized exams such asCambridge First Certificate in English or Certificate of AdvancedCambridge First Certificate in English or Certificate of AdvancedEnglish, which they use to bolster their CVs to get into university,English, which they use to bolster their CVs to get into university,increase their employment options, or pursue internationalincrease their employment options, or pursue internationaleducation.education. The evolution of society, namely the Romanian society imposedThe evolution of society, namely the Romanian society imposedspecific changes in the school curricula, and also the short and longspecific changes in the school curricula, and also the short and longterm strategies.term strategies. The focus is moving from traditional learning to the creative,The focus is moving from traditional learning to the creative,innovative and active learning. The curriculum requires a flexibleinnovative and active learning. The curriculum requires a flexibleinter, multi and trans-disciplinary approach. The traditional teachinginter, multi and trans-disciplinary approach. The traditional teachingparadigm is changing to keep pace with the increase in non-paradigm is changing to keep pace with the increase in non-traditional students and the changing workforce. As a result, schooltraditional students and the changing workforce. As a result, schoolin Romania, education at superior levels, high-schools, colleges andin Romania, education at superior levels, high-schools, colleges anduniversities continue to add more distance education courses,universities continue to add more distance education courses,education focusing more and more on e-learning.education focusing more and more on e-learning.
  18. 18.  In secondary education, many teachers believe that the use ofIn secondary education, many teachers believe that the use ofcomputers motivates students only as an initial novelty, and as theycomputers motivates students only as an initial novelty, and as theybecome used to them, motivation diminishes. They claim that ICTbecome used to them, motivation diminishes. They claim that ICThelps them control the problems of discipline in the classroom, duehelps them control the problems of discipline in the classroom, dueto the fact that students feel more motivated to work with a newto the fact that students feel more motivated to work with a newinstrument, and are therefore more settled; but at the same time it isinstrument, and are therefore more settled; but at the same time it ismore difficult to get them to concentrate on the language tasks,more difficult to get them to concentrate on the language tasks,since they tend to open applications dedicated to games and leisuresince they tend to open applications dedicated to games and leisuresuch as playing computer games, checking their emails or chatting.such as playing computer games, checking their emails or chatting.The overall feeling is that the use of ICT has not improved theThe overall feeling is that the use of ICT has not improved theperformance of the students in learning English.performance of the students in learning English. Normalization has been achieved at an administrative level, but theNormalization has been achieved at an administrative level, but themain problem is that the use of ICT has not been normalized in themain problem is that the use of ICT has not been normalized in theteaching of foreign languages, above all becauseteaching of foreign languages, above all because somesome teachers doteachers donot have the training necessary to be able to integrate it into theirnot have the training necessary to be able to integrate it into theirclasses.classes.
  19. 19.  In foreign language learning there are many specific features to whichIn foreign language learning there are many specific features to whichexperts that develop educational content and e-learning modalities mustexperts that develop educational content and e-learning modalities mustadhere. E-learning is facilitated by the use of digital tools and content.adhere. E-learning is facilitated by the use of digital tools and content. Typically, it involves some form of interactivity, which may include onlineTypically, it involves some form of interactivity, which may include onlineinteraction between the learners and their teacher or peers. The selection ofinteraction between the learners and their teacher or peers. The selection ofproper multimedia technologies in foreign language learning is veryproper multimedia technologies in foreign language learning is veryimportant issue. It should be possible to achieve the necessary quality ofimportant issue. It should be possible to achieve the necessary quality ofteaching materials for mastering reading skills, listening comprehension,teaching materials for mastering reading skills, listening comprehension,writing and communication skills. Nowadays the Internet and the ITCwriting and communication skills. Nowadays the Internet and the ITCtechnologies havetechnologies have ecome every-day tools for everyone who has a computerecome every-day tools for everyone who has a computerat home and a subscription with an Internet provider. Things that wouldat home and a subscription with an Internet provider. Things that wouldhave been impossible some twenty years ago are commonalities today.have been impossible some twenty years ago are commonalities today.While the average user exploits the advantages of the new trends inWhile the average user exploits the advantages of the new trends ineducation, however they see fit, in a formal environment, that is school, theeducation, however they see fit, in a formal environment, that is school, theteacher will teach the students to benefit as much as possible from theteacher will teach the students to benefit as much as possible from theusing of the Internet, improve education by offering the students theusing of the Internet, improve education by offering the students theopportunity of e-learning. The teacher becomes a guide that will show theopportunity of e-learning. The teacher becomes a guide that will show thechildren the correct way of extracting, selecting and using the informationchildren the correct way of extracting, selecting and using the informationavailable on the Internet.available on the Internet.
  20. 20.  Education in Romania is free and compulsory for children betweenEducation in Romania is free and compulsory for children betweenthe ages of 6/7 and 14/15.  Most children choose to continue theirthe ages of 6/7 and 14/15.  Most children choose to continue theireducation beyond the compulsory school age which offers them aeducation beyond the compulsory school age which offers them ageneral type of education. There are two ways of continuinggeneral type of education. There are two ways of continuingSecondary level education.  The Lower Level (ages 14/15 to 16/17)Secondary level education.  The Lower Level (ages 14/15 to 16/17)comprises professional schools and is compulsory for thosecomprises professional schools and is compulsory for thosestudents who have not obtained the required grade for entry into thestudents who have not obtained the required grade for entry into theHigher Level. The latter type of school (ages 16/17 to 18/19), andHigher Level. The latter type of school (ages 16/17 to 18/19), andthe Baccalaureate, are the entry points to the institutes of higherthe Baccalaureate, are the entry points to the institutes of highereducation. education.  In Romania there are two types of curriculum: a national one,In Romania there are two types of curriculum: a national one,compulsory for all students, and a regional one, which is drawn upcompulsory for all students, and a regional one, which is drawn upby the schools themselves according to their specific needs andby the schools themselves according to their specific needs andtheir profile. The curriculum consists of a description of content andtheir profile. The curriculum consists of a description of content andexamples of activities.  At the end of high school students areexamples of activities.  At the end of high school students areexpected to have mastered certain competences which areexpected to have mastered certain competences which areassessed by national examinations.assessed by national examinations.
  21. 21.  Romanian students are obliged to study two foreign languages, starting withRomanian students are obliged to study two foreign languages, starting withone foreign language in first grade, at the age of 7.  They then take up aone foreign language in first grade, at the age of 7.  They then take up asecond one in fifth grade, at the age of 11.second one in fifth grade, at the age of 11. It is possible for a school to establish bilingual classes as a way of teachingIt is possible for a school to establish bilingual classes as a way of teachinga foreign language.  In this case students have five class hours per week ina foreign language.  In this case students have five class hours per week inwhich one of the foreign languages is taught alongside History, Geographywhich one of the foreign languages is taught alongside History, Geographyand Civilisation courses which are taught in that language.  Alternatively, theand Civilisation courses which are taught in that language.  Alternatively, thestudents can choose to follow an intensive language course of four classstudents can choose to follow an intensive language course of four classhours per week in a chosen foreign language plus Civilisation courses inhours per week in a chosen foreign language plus Civilisation courses inthat language.  Thus, students following the bilingual programme receivethat language.  Thus, students following the bilingual programme receivemore hours in the foreign language as well as using the foreign language asmore hours in the foreign language as well as using the foreign language asa medium of instruction. According to the regional curriculum, the schoola medium of instruction. According to the regional curriculum, the schoolmay increase the number of these hours and of courses by 1 or 2 hours permay increase the number of these hours and of courses by 1 or 2 hours perweek.  The study of other subjects through the foreign language is allowedweek.  The study of other subjects through the foreign language is allowedon condition that qualified teachers are available.  These classes are alsoon condition that qualified teachers are available.  These classes are alsodivided into smaller groups of students.divided into smaller groups of students. For bilingual education scenarios, ICT is an ideal platform for developingFor bilingual education scenarios, ICT is an ideal platform for developinginteractive strategies and methodologies that help to promote independentinteractive strategies and methodologies that help to promote independentlearning, peer interaction and language use for real communicativelearning, peer interaction and language use for real communicativepurposes.purposes.
  22. 22. Strategies for inclusion andStrategies for inclusion andstudent entrepreneurshipstudent entrepreneurship Did you know that…Did you know that… ““There are 20 national minorities officially recognized (or with officialThere are 20 national minorities officially recognized (or with officialpolitical representation) in Romania, representing more than 11% ofpolitical representation) in Romania, representing more than 11% ofthe population. The largest ones are the Hungarians (6.6% of thethe population. The largest ones are the Hungarians (6.6% of thepopulation) and the Roma (2.5% of the population), according to thepopulation) and the Roma (2.5% of the population), according to the2002 census. The Hungarians are mainly located in the central and2002 census. The Hungarians are mainly located in the central andwestern part of the country and have important political and masswestern part of the country and have important political and massmedia representation. Hungarian language is widely used inmedia representation. Hungarian language is widely used ineducation, local administration and the justice system whereeducation, local administration and the justice system whereHungarians represent over 20% of the local population. The RomaHungarians represent over 20% of the local population. The Romaminority is still underrepresented in power positions. Romaniminority is still underrepresented in power positions. Romanilanguage is also underrepresented in mass media and education.language is also underrepresented in mass media and education.Approximately 11% of the pre-university educational institutions inApproximately 11% of the pre-university educational institutions inRomania have a minority language as a medium of instruction in atRomania have a minority language as a medium of instruction in atleast one section, 90% of these being in Hungarian language.).”least one section, 90% of these being in Hungarian language.).”
  23. 23.  The Strategy of the Government of Romania for the Inclusion of theThe Strategy of the Government of Romania for the Inclusion of theRomanian Citizens Belonging to Roma Minority for the Period 2012-Romanian Citizens Belonging to Roma Minority for the Period 2012-20202020 is the newest document related to the inclusion of Romais the newest document related to the inclusion of Romaminority. The document is quoting the European Commissionminority. The document is quoting the European Commissionstatement that «Roma inclusion is a dual process which involves astatement that «Roma inclusion is a dual process which involves achange in the mentality of the majority and also in the mentality ofchange in the mentality of the majority and also in the mentality ofthe members of Roma community, a challange that requires firmthe members of Roma community, a challange that requires firmactions, developed in an active dialogue with Roma minority, both atactions, developed in an active dialogue with Roma minority, both atnational and EU level».national and EU level». Affirmative actions for Roma students in secondary and higherAffirmative actions for Roma students in secondary and highereducation institutions were implemented with the initiative of highereducation institutions were implemented with the initiative of highereducation institutions or by orders of the Minister of Education.education institutions or by orders of the Minister of Education.Thus, in 1992 the Faculty of Sociology and Social Work of theThus, in 1992 the Faculty of Sociology and Social Work of theUniversity of Bucharest allocated the first reserved places to RomaUniversity of Bucharest allocated the first reserved places to Romacandidates in the specialization for Social Workers. In 1998 thecandidates in the specialization for Social Workers. In 1998 theMinister of Education adopted the first official regulations to reserveMinister of Education adopted the first official regulations to reservespecial places for Roma candidates in 7 Romanian universities andspecial places for Roma candidates in 7 Romanian universities andin pedagogical high-scools. In 2000 the Ministry of Educationin pedagogical high-scools. In 2000 the Ministry of Educationextended the affirmative action to the entire secondary educationextended the affirmative action to the entire secondary educationsystemsystem..
  24. 24.  The existing legal framework including the provisions related toThe existing legal framework including the provisions related toRoma education has been applied during the last years and hasRoma education has been applied during the last years and hasproduced some good results.produced some good results. The allocation of special places for Roma candidates for admissionThe allocation of special places for Roma candidates for admissionto high schools, vocational education or university was also ato high schools, vocational education or university was also apositive measure which seek to stimulate Roma young adults’positive measure which seek to stimulate Roma young adults’interest to continue their studies. Statistic data gathered from schoolinterest to continue their studies. Statistic data gathered from schoolinspectorates and univerities state that 4,486 Roma students wereinspectorates and univerities state that 4,486 Roma students wereenrolled on reserved places in high-schools and 1,420 Romaenrolled on reserved places in high-schools and 1,420 Romastudents were enrolled in univerity studies during 2000- 2007.students were enrolled in univerity studies during 2000- 2007.However, only two third of the reserved places in secondary andHowever, only two third of the reserved places in secondary andhigher education have been occupied by students. According to thehigher education have been occupied by students. According to the2012-2020 Governmental Strategy on Roma Inclusion, the annual2012-2020 Governmental Strategy on Roma Inclusion, the annualstate budget allocates about 3000 special places for admission ofstate budget allocates about 3000 special places for admission ofRoma to high schools and 500 places for their admission toRoma to high schools and 500 places for their admission touniversity.university.
  25. 25.  The National Agency for Roma conducts structural projects, such asThe National Agency for Roma conducts structural projects, such as«The School-a chance for everybody», developed from 2007 to«The School-a chance for everybody», developed from 2007 to2013. The target group includes non-Roma teachers who are2013. The target group includes non-Roma teachers who areprepared to work with Roma and facilitate their social inclusion. Aprepared to work with Roma and facilitate their social inclusion. Arecent study which analyses the results obtained by therecent study which analyses the results obtained by theimplementation of The National Strategy to Improve the condition ofimplementation of The National Strategy to Improve the condition ofRoma People in a critical manner, concludes that there has beenRoma People in a critical manner, concludes that there has beencreated an elite of Roma, employed on important positions atcreated an elite of Roma, employed on important positions atcentral, county or local levels.central, county or local levels. Additionally, we have to take into consideration that education worksAdditionally, we have to take into consideration that education worksonly if other forms of emancipation are provided for the Roma byonly if other forms of emancipation are provided for the Roma bysociety al large. Connections between living conditions, values,society al large. Connections between living conditions, values,expectations and school activity are more complex. The significanceexpectations and school activity are more complex. The significanceof school, its achievements and failures are influenced byof school, its achievements and failures are influenced bymentalities and by the realities of everyday life.mentalities and by the realities of everyday life. Some important gaps related to Roma minority education are stillSome important gaps related to Roma minority education are stillpersisting, being determined by internal and external factors. Somepersisting, being determined by internal and external factors. Someof the Roma tradition and family related customs are slowing downof the Roma tradition and family related customs are slowing downthe process of school inclusion and prohibiting the access tothe process of school inclusion and prohibiting the access toeducation for Roma children.education for Roma children.
  26. 26.  After 1989 Romania has been a kind of laboratory for introducing and experimenting variousAfter 1989 Romania has been a kind of laboratory for introducing and experimenting varioussystems and strategies to deal with children in schools and other learning environments. Manysystems and strategies to deal with children in schools and other learning environments. Manyorganisations – including UNESCO and UNICEF – have contributed to these pilot andorganisations – including UNESCO and UNICEF – have contributed to these pilot andexperimental activities.experimental activities. Since 1995 until present there was a complex process of shifting from the integration perspectiveSince 1995 until present there was a complex process of shifting from the integration perspectiveto the inclusion one in special needs education. Gradually other marginalised groups in educationto the inclusion one in special needs education. Gradually other marginalised groups in educationhave started to embark on the inclusive education principles.have started to embark on the inclusive education principles. The Education Law from 1995 has an implicit inclusive approach:The Education Law from 1995 has an implicit inclusive approach: -All Romanian citizens have an equal right to education, at all levels and in all forms, regardless-All Romanian citizens have an equal right to education, at all levels and in all forms, regardlessof gender, race, nationality, religious, or political affiliation and social or economical status;of gender, race, nationality, religious, or political affiliation and social or economical status; -The State is ensuring the principles of democratically education, and guarantees the right to-The State is ensuring the principles of democratically education, and guarantees the right todifferentiated education, on the basis of educational pluralism.differentiated education, on the basis of educational pluralism.Legislative and administrative measures fostering inclusion in educationLegislative and administrative measures fostering inclusion in education * Free services, studies, assistance, use of logistical base:* Free services, studies, assistance, use of logistical base: -free state education;-free state education; -free school books for primary an lower secondary education-free school books for primary an lower secondary education -free medical and psychological aid for children in kindergartens, schools pupils and students;-free medical and psychological aid for children in kindergartens, schools pupils and students; -free snack during school time for preschool and school age children-free snack during school time for preschool and school age children * Educational support for children in disadvantaged areas:* Educational support for children in disadvantaged areas: -school units with reduced number of pupils in isolated zones, areas with low population levels-school units with reduced number of pupils in isolated zones, areas with low population levelsand those with difficult access;and those with difficult access; -school buses for the above mentioned;-school buses for the above mentioned; -salary benefits for teaching staff working in isolated areas;-salary benefits for teaching staff working in isolated areas; -free school materials (notebooks, pencils etc) for poor children.-free school materials (notebooks, pencils etc) for poor children.
  27. 27.  Support for minority pupils and students (OECD, 2006)Support for minority pupils and students (OECD, 2006) The education law envisages that the state will ensure teaching inThe education law envisages that the state will ensure teaching intheir mother tongue whenever possible. For larger minorities, suchtheir mother tongue whenever possible. For larger minorities, suchas the Hungarian one an important network of schools is organizedas the Hungarian one an important network of schools is organizedat all levels of education, with full instruction in their mother tongue.at all levels of education, with full instruction in their mother tongue.For smaller minorities, where full instruction in their mother tongue isFor smaller minorities, where full instruction in their mother tongue isnot possible, due to insufficient human resources, some subjectsnot possible, due to insufficient human resources, some subjectsare taught in the maternal language and some in Romanian. Forare taught in the maternal language and some in Romanian. Forvery small minorities the study of the mother tongue is at leastvery small minorities the study of the mother tongue is at leastensured (for example Romany language). Important efforts haveensured (for example Romany language). Important efforts havebeen made by the Education Ministry in the last years on promotingbeen made by the Education Ministry in the last years on promotingRomany Language and Roma culture in the schools were they earn.Romany Language and Roma culture in the schools were they earn. The Common Memorandum on Inclusion signed by the RomanianThe Common Memorandum on Inclusion signed by the RomanianGovernment with the European Commission in 2004 is an importantGovernment with the European Commission in 2004 is an importantnormative document, focused on social inclusion, but also coveringnormative document, focused on social inclusion, but also coveringeducational inclusion.educational inclusion.
  28. 28.  An important source of the weak social inclusion is the traditional school segregation of personsAn important source of the weak social inclusion is the traditional school segregation of personswith disabilities. The isolation in special schools has been slightly stopped in 2001, when 18.000with disabilities. The isolation in special schools has been slightly stopped in 2001, when 18.000children with disabilities from special schools were transferred to ordinary schools. The conditionschildren with disabilities from special schools were transferred to ordinary schools. The conditionsneeded here were not realized: adapted curriculum, training of teachers and the development ofneeded here were not realized: adapted curriculum, training of teachers and the development ofa supportive attitude.a supportive attitude.Key challenges - some positive measures needed:Key challenges - some positive measures needed: -the rapid development of the social inclusion function in education; education for the integration-the rapid development of the social inclusion function in education; education for the integrationin a cohesive society;in a cohesive society; - the increase of school participation and of the quality of education.- the increase of school participation and of the quality of education. A Government Decree, 1251 from 2005 has introduced a new concept – integrated specialA Government Decree, 1251 from 2005 has introduced a new concept – integrated specialeducation – not clearly defined.education – not clearly defined. Children with disabilities are now part of the national policies for all children. This is quite obviousChildren with disabilities are now part of the national policies for all children. This is quite obviousin the current law for the protection and the promotion of the children rights in Romania (2004) –in the current law for the protection and the promotion of the children rights in Romania (2004) –which is for all children. The children with disabilities are also part of the law on persons withwhich is for all children. The children with disabilities are also part of the law on persons withdisabilities (No.448 from December 2006).disabilities (No.448 from December 2006). The Romanian special educational policies began to evolve towards integration and inclusion.The Romanian special educational policies began to evolve towards integration and inclusion.Today, Romanian special education functions according to democratic principles and RomanianToday, Romanian special education functions according to democratic principles and Romanianspecialists are currently working for solutions to inclusion by adapting regular school services tospecialists are currently working for solutions to inclusion by adapting regular school services tothe needs of the students and the specifics of the current educational system. Today there is stillthe needs of the students and the specifics of the current educational system. Today there is stilla series of obstacles to the development of special education to the standards of developeda series of obstacles to the development of special education to the standards of developedcountries with a tradition in educating learners with unique abilities.countries with a tradition in educating learners with unique abilities. The following barriers were identified in the process of inclusion: an insufficient budget allocation,The following barriers were identified in the process of inclusion: an insufficient budget allocation,difficulties of cooperation between educational support services in schools and amongdifficulties of cooperation between educational support services in schools and amongDepartment of Child Protection DCP and inclusive schools, inappropriate attitudes from teachers,Department of Child Protection DCP and inclusive schools, inappropriate attitudes from teachers,difficulties of collaboration between teachers or other professionals with parents.difficulties of collaboration between teachers or other professionals with parents.
  29. 29.  Lifelong learning is the key element to ensure goodLifelong learning is the key element to ensure goodtransition between jobs and occupations and in avoidingtransition between jobs and occupations and in avoidinglong-term unemployment leading to loss of humanlong-term unemployment leading to loss of humancapital.capital. At the same time, lifelong learning is regarded as theAt the same time, lifelong learning is regarded as thefundamental principle which is designed to coverfundamental principle which is designed to coverlearning in all contexts, formal, non-formal or informal,learning in all contexts, formal, non-formal or informal,and at all levels, from early childhood education andand at all levels, from early childhood education andschools through to higher education, vocationalschools through to higher education, vocationaleducation and training and adult learning. The aim ofeducation and training and adult learning. The aim oflifelong learning is to provide educational guidance andlifelong learning is to provide educational guidance andopportunities to Europeans of all ages and backgrounds.opportunities to Europeans of all ages and backgrounds.It seeks to create equal and open access to high qualityIt seeks to create equal and open access to high qualitylearning and encourage more flexible learning outside oflearning and encourage more flexible learning outside ofthe traditional formal structure of education.the traditional formal structure of education.

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