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Skeletal system.p2


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Skeletal system.p2

  1. 1. General Zoology Class <ul><li>By: Sharnie Faye G. Buctuan </li></ul>Skeletal System
  2. 2. Functions of the Skeletal System <ul><li>Support - framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection - for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain </li></ul><ul><li>Movement - bones act as levers for muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral storage - calcium & phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cell formation - hematopoiesis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bone Classification (e) Sesamoid bone (patella)
  4. 4. Distal epiphysis Proximal epiphysis diaphysis yellow marrow Epiphyseal line periosteum compact bone spongy bone Endosteum hyaline cartilage Anatomy of a Bone Sharpey’s fibers
  5. 5. GENERAL DIVISIONS OF THE SKELETON Skeletal system is divided into two general divisions. Axial & appendicular skeleton.
  6. 6. Axial Skeleton
  7. 7. Appendicular Skeleton
  8. 8. Axial Skeleton
  9. 9. Axial Skeleton
  10. 10. Cervical Vertebrae (7) Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Lumbar Vertberae (5) Sacrum Coccyx The Vertebral Column Axial Skeleton
  11. 11. Cervical Vertebrae
  12. 14. Sternum True Ribs (7) False Ribs (3) Floating Ribs (2) The Thoracic Cage Axial Skeleton
  13. 15. Sacrum & Coccyx Axial Skeleton
  14. 16. Bones of the Pectoral Girdle Appendicular Skeleton
  15. 17. Appendicular Skeleton Humerus Ulna Radius 8 Carpals 14 Phalanges 5 Metacarpals
  16. 18. Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis
  17. 19. Ischium Ilium Acetabulum Pubis Ischium Obturator foramen Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis (lateral view)
  18. 20. Male Pelvic Girdle                                                    Female Pelvic Girdle Male vs Female Pelvis
  19. 21. Patella The Lower Limb (Legs) Appendicular Skeleton Femur Tibia Fibula 5 Metatarsals 14 Phalanges 7 Tarsals
  21. 23. Slightly Movable Joint (amphiarthrosis) Cartilagenous Joints
  22. 24. Immovable Joints (synarthrosis) Fibrous Joints (amphiarthrosis) suture pubis symphisis
  23. 25. Synovial Joints (diarthrosis)- freely movable femur ligaments pelvis
  24. 26. Synovial Joints femur pelvis hyaline cartilage synovial cavity joint capsule
  25. 27. Abduction Extension Rotation Flexion Adduction Synovial Joint Movement
  26. 28. 275 bones 12 weeks (6-9 inches long) Fetal Skeleton
  27. 29. cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyseal plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2 o ossification center Fetus: 1 st 2 months Adult Childhood Just before birth
  28. 30. Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone Builds new bone Mature bone cell Bone cells that aid in remodeling
  29. 31. hematoma callus bony callus Repair of Fractures bone remodeling
  30. 32. VERTEBRATES VS INVERTEBRATES Scientists divided the Animal Kingdom into two main groups: vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and invertebrates (animals without a backbone)
  31. 33. Similarities & d ifferences between Vertebrate & Invertebrate Invertebrate Vertebrate Kingdom: Animalia Animalia Phylum: Chordata Chordata Size: Small and slow moving. Big in size. Number of species: 2 million 57,739 Examples: Insects, flatworms etc. Parrots, Humans, snakes etc About: Animals without a backbone Animals with an internal skeleton made of bone are called vertebrates. Physical Characteristics: Multicellular; no back bone; no cell walls; reproduce sexually; heterotrophic. Well-developed internal skeleton; highly developed brain; have advanced nervous system; outer covering of protective cellular skin. Species: 98% of animal species areinvertebrates. 2% of the animal species are vertebrates. Classification: 30 phyla Classified into five groups: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Subphylum: Vertebrata
  32. 34. Vertebrates Animals with backbones can be divided into five more groups: Mammals Birds Amphibians Fish Reptiles
  33. 35. Invertebrates Invertebrates don't have an internal skeleton made of bone. Many invertebrates have a fluid-filled, hydrostatic skeleton, like the jelly fish or worm. Others have a hard outer shell, like insects and crustaceans. There are many types of invertebrates. The most common invertebrates includes the following: Coelenterates Echinoderms  Arthropods Worms Mollusks