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MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TECHNOLOGY
A project report On
Application For Energy Efficiency Technology Study And Design Of
Zero Energy Building - A Case Study
DEGREE OF BACHLOR OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL OF
UNIVESITY OF MUMBAI BY
Mrs. GARAD SAHIL POPAT
Mrs. JADHAV KIRAN DILIP
Ms. KOTE PIYUSHA VIKAS
Mrs. MAHADIK ATHARVA BABAN
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF :- Dr. V. G. SAYAGAVI
CONTENT
• Introduction
• Literature Review
• Methodology
• Case Study
• Alternate Building Materials for Zero Energy Buildings
• Data Collection And Analysis
• Future Scope
• Conclusion
Introduction
• A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy building, net-zero energy
building (NZEB), net zero building or zero-carbon building is a building with
zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the
building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy
created on the site, or in other definitions byrenewable energy sources elsewhere.
• These buildings are consequently contribute less overall greenhouse gas to the
atmosphere than similar Non-Zero Energy buildings.
What is Zero Energy Building?
• A zero-energy building is a building with zero net energy
consumption.
• Generates more energy than it consumes.
• Buildings contribute less overall greenhouse gases to the
atmosphere than a similar non zero-energy building.
• Reduce carbon emissions and dependence on fossil fuels which is
the Zero Net-Energy Consumption Principle.
IMPORTANCE
• Isolation for building owners from future energy price
increases.
• Increased comfort due to more uniform interior temperatures.
• Reduced requirement for energy austerity.
• Reduced total cost of ownership due to improved energy
efficiency.
Advantages of Zero Energy Building:
• Reduced total net monthly cost of living.
• Increased comfort due to more-uniform interior temperatures.
• Reduced total cost of ownership due to improved energy efficiency.
• Higher resale value as potential owners demand more ZEBs than available supply.
• Extra cost is minimized for new construction compared to an afterthought retrofit.
Disadvantages of Zero Energy Building:
1) Very few designers or builders have the necessary skills or
experience to build Zero NetEnergy Buildings.
2) Its initial cost is higher.
3) More efforts is required to understand, apply and qualify for ZEB.
4) Possible declines in future utility company renewable energy costs
may lessen the valueof capital invested in energy efficiency.
Objectives and Scope of the thesis
Objectives
• Do research to discover the most efficient
possible route to attain net zero energy.
• To provide the details, clear definition and fast
uptake of Zero Energy Building.
• To identify possible technical solution of
energy demand and energy produced on site.
• To study the minimize household energy
usage and maximize the use of renewable
energy.
Scope
• Making an energy efficient buildings.
• Adaption of insulation for energy
saving in design.
• People independence of conventional
energy like fuel, coal etc.
• It reduce the impact of energy crisis.
• Change in the design concept.
Literature Review
Review on Research Paper:
• Gandhi Habash (2014), here they studied the design of nearly zero energy buildings facilitated by a smart
microgrid by using one of the emerging milestone in buildings construction. This paper will address the role of
above technologies and solution and discussion the challenges being faced.
• A.J.Marszal (2011), in this paper they focused on the review of the most of the existing ZED definition and
various approaches towards possible ZED methodologies. This study indicated that the metric, the period ,the
types of energy included in the balance together with the renewable energy infrastructure.
• Thomas Boermans, Andreas Hermelink (2011), they focused on the principle challenges and their implications
for setting, sustainable and practical net ZEBs and their proposes principles to be considered when a setting up
practical definitions.
• Anju MS (2017), in this paper they focused on study of comparison between a conventional building and ZEB
using life cycle cost analysis they found the cost of the material, maintenance and energy consumed for a life
span of 20 years is less using zero energy building technique.
Research Gap:
• Based on literature review, study indicates that the period and the renewable energy supply options, connection to
the energy infrastructure and energy efficiency, indoor climates and building gird interaction requirements are the
most important issues. They need to improve the available interdisciplinary skills for design and operation of the
system to realize energy savings, environmental protection and economical operation.
• As we studied from the above research we come to know there is a drawback in its initial cost and also this report
present the framework for the analysis of performance risk in solar panel installation which is also very costly.
Conclusion:
• There are many scholarly Report, and research papers on our topic Zero Energy Building. We have selected some
majority papers which include technologies, which are being used for installation of PV system and solar panels.
So after studying this paper it can be concluded that solar panels and PV system are going to use in our project.
• Some ways of integrating energy efficient approaches into the different stages of construction namely the
designing, construction, and operation of buildings so as to improve and optimize the efficiency of buildings
Methodology
Introduction:
• Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to
a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods
and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. The methodology is
the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is to be
undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it.
These methods, described in the methodology, define the means or modes of
data collection or, sometimes, how a specific result is to be calculated.
Case Study
PL-13 Annexe Building Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd
Location Vikhroli – East Mumbai
Coordinates 19.09° N, 72.92° E
Occupancy Type Multiple Use
Typology Existing/Retrofit
Climate Type Warm and Humid
Project Area 24,443 m2
Date of Completion May 2010
Grid Connectivity Grid-connected
EPI (kWh/m2/yr.) 71.68
Architect Rumy Shroff & Associates Architects
Energy Consultants (EDS)Godrej Green Building Consultancy Services
• Godrej & Boyce- the pioneer of green buildings in India- has achieved the next level of high-
performance design with its 24,443 sq. metre office-cum-convention centre in Mumbai called the
Plant 13 Annexe. This project is the first in the country to be awarded the ‘Net Zero Energy Rating’ by
the IGBC Rating system.
• Built in 2008, Plant 13 serves as the cafeteria for the entire Godrej campus, while housing offices as
well as meeting and conference rooms. The building exemplifies sustainable performance through
thoughtful design right from its inception and was Platinum certified under the IGBC Existing
Building Rating System. While its diverse usage and variable occupancy posed several challenges, the
building went on to accomplish the net-zero energy target in 2019 by further improving its monitoring
systems and controls. In fact, its operational performance exceeds the design goals!
Design and construction
Passive solar building design:
• Walls, floors and windows distribute heat during winter
and reject the solar heat during summer.
Building energy simulation:
• Predicts the performance of ZNE building depending on
the energy usage before it is built.
Energy saving features:
• Includes heating and cooling loads, insulation and
ventilation depending on climate zones.
Design Methods of Zero Energy Building:
Passive Design Methods of ZEB:
1) Start with Smart Design: Cost-effective zero net energy homes begin with smart design. Designers and
architects, as well as builders, should be familiar with all the steps involved in building a net zero home and
should design the home so that builders and subcontractors can implement these steps as cost-effectively as
possible.
2) Use Energy Modelling: During the design phase, the home’s energy use should be estimated using energy
modeling software to ensure that the goal of net zero energy can be achieved while keeping costs down.
3) Use Highly Insulated Windows & Doors: Windows and doors are like big energy holes in a well-insulated,
airtight building envelope and are the third most cost-effective strategy for making a home energy efficient.
Control window and door heat loss and gain by selecting appropriate window and door products, carefully
locating them, and optimizing their size and orientation.
4) Use the Sun for Solar Tempering: Using the sun for heating through south facing windows during
the winter lowers heating costs. Shading those same windows in summer lowers cooling costs. Solar
tempering aims to optimize this passive use of the sun’s heat, without incurring the added cost of
thermal mass needed to achieve maximum passive solar heating.
5) Heat Water Wisely: Water heating is often the largest energy expense in a zero energy home after
heating and cooling. So it is important for designers and builders to select and locate efficient hot
water heating technology, along with other measures, to minimize hot water use.
6) Install Energy Efficient Lighting: Minimizing energy use for lighting, while optimizing light for
residents, is an important feature of zero energy homes. LED lights are the perfect match for these
tasks.
7) Select an Energy Efficient Heating & Cooling System: Highly-efficient, cost-effective, heating
and cooling systems are essential to meeting the net zero energy goal. One good choice is an air
source ductless heat pump, also called a mini-split heat pump.
North Daylighting Solar PV
INTEGRALARCHITECTURAL DESIGN : SOLAR
SYSTEM CUM DAYLIGHTING (Godrej One : Vikhroli)
Passive sustainable design:
• Natural day light system: Natural lighting, also known as day lighting, is a technique that efficiently brings
natural light into your home using exterior glazing (windows, skylights, etc.), thereby reducing artificial lighting
requirements and saving energy. Natural lighting has been proven to increase health and comfort levels for
building occupants.
• Building Geometry: A long narrow floor plan gets benefit over a square form in relation to day
lighting and natural ventilation; although the square form is regarded as the most compact of all forms.
Therefore, certain trade-off occurs between a compact form that minimizes conductive heat transfer through the
envelope and a form that facilitates day lighting, solar gain, and natural ventilation.
Active design methods of ZEB:
• Solar Thermal Energy: Solar thermal energy is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar
energy to generate thermal energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.
• Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. The geothermal
energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of
materials (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions).The geothermal gradient, which is the
difference in temperature between the core of planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal
energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.
Sr.
No.
Building
Components
Conventional “U” value EE
Bldg.
“U” value % Reduction in
Heat Gain
1 External Wall Clay Bricks 2.03
w/sq.m.*k
AAC Blocks 0.79 w/sq.m.*k 61%
2 Roof No Insulation 3.92
w/sq.m.*k
2” XPS/PUC/PIR 0.33 w/sq.m.*k 92%
3 Glazing Single Glazing
SHGC: 0.67
5.7
w/sq.m.*k
Double Glazing
SHGC: 0.3
1.7 w/sq.m.*k 70%
BUILDING ENVELOPE :
76% OF TOTAL LANDSCAPE AREA IS WITH NATIVE/
ADAPTIVE SPECIES
LANDSACAPE AND PASSAGE AREA @4 FLOOR
Alternate Building Materials for Zero Energy
Buildings
• The choices of materials in the home will have a significant impact on reaching a number of the
project goals - low embodied energy, health, comfort, and reduced pollutant emissions both within the
home and the wider environment.
• For example, if a product needs to be replaced every 10 years this may be more energy-intensive than
using a product with higherembodied energy that will last 100+ years.
Glue Laminated Timber
• Zero energy house uses glue laminated timber
(which has low carbon footprint) as the main
structural element in place of concrete and steel
• so reduces the overall weight of the structure
and also less damage in case of any natural
disasters.
Green Roof
• Over the house you have a green roof with
local plants, it’s used as part of insulation as
well as cooling system
• water is stored on roof in small tanks which is
used to water the plants.
• It is extremely watertight it’s even used in
ponds to contain water.
• Joins are heat-welded which eliminates the
need for oil-based lap tapes and primers.
Hollow Blocks with Concrete
• Hollow blocks are used to makewalls that
handles moisture and insulates at the same time
• the blocks are filled with concrete (which is
having 50 % fly ash replacement for the
Portland cement) and smaller rebar.
• A concrete block is one of several precast
concrete products used in construction. The term
precast refers to the fact that the blocks are
formed and hardened before they are brought to
the job site.
Solar Integrated Roof Panels
• The solar panels on the rooftop converts the sunrays to
electrical energy so the electric dept. is amazed to see that the
electric meter starts running backward.
• in fact you can ask tell your utilitycompanies to pay you is
something extraordinary.
• There is inverter installed inside which convertsthe direct
current produced by solar panels.
• Source of hot water is through solar integrated roof panels,
but sometimes when sun shines high, water becomes too hot,
so a system is installed inside all sanitary fixtures which
mixes the cold water with the hot water thus making the
temperature safe for use.
HVAC System in Zero Energy Buildings
• HVAC system air is cooled by a chiller system
that either chills or heat water.
• The water is then sent thru copper tubes not
under a high pressure to the coils which gets
cooled with chilled waterand is connected to the
blowers at various location in house.
• Attach to each compressor is chillersystem. So at
a time when there is a single family the 1.5 tons
or 2 tons compressor is working automatically
depending upon the weather and if there is
requirement of higher chilling like thereis some
function in the house then both compressor starts
working simultaneously in random andchills the
house.
• The design challenge of a zero energy HVAC
system is maximizing energy efficiency.
Green Plaster
• To maintain the comfortable humidity
inside the house the walls are plastered
with a special plaster which is a green
material, and it has the capacity to absorb
the moisture from airgiving a maintained
humidity inside the house.
Rain Water Harvesting
• Rain water harvesting is a technique of
collection and storage of rainwater into natural
reservoirs or tanks, or the infiltration of surface
water into subsurface aquifers (before it is lost
as surface runoff).
• One method of rainwater harvesting is rooftop
harvesting. With rooftop harvesting, most any
surface tiles, metal sheets, plastics, but not grass
or palm leaf can be usedto intercept the flow of
rainwater and provide a household with high-
quality drinking water andyear-round storage.
Photovoltaics
• Photovoltaics system is the conversion of light into
electricity using semi- conducting materials that exhibit
the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon that
studiedin the physics, photochemistry, and
electrochemistry.
• A photovoltaic system employs solar panels, each
comprising a number of solar cells, which generate
electrical power. PV installationsmay be ground-
mounted, roof top mounted or wall mounted. The mount
may be fixed, or use a solar tracker to follow the sun
across the sky.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
Boundaries:
• The definitions require the use of a defined site boundary. The site boundary represents a meaningful boundary that is functionally
part of the building. For a single building on a single property, the site boundary is typically the property boundary.
• The site boundary should include the point of utility interface. The site boundary for a ZEB could be around the building footprint if
the on-site renewable energy is located within the building footprint, or around the building site if some of the on-site renewable energy is
on-site but not within the building footprint. Delivered energy and exported energy are measured at the site boundary.
⦁ Energy Accounting & Measurements:
• A ZEB is typically a grid-connected building that is very energy efficient the premise is that ZEBs use the electric grid or other energy
networks to transfer any surplus of on site renewable energy to other users.
• ZEB energy accounting would include energy used for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, indoor and outdoor lighting,
process energy and transportation within the building. On-site renewable energy may be exported through transmission such as charging of
electric vehicles used outside the building.
Energy Form Source Energy Conversion Factor
Imported Electricity 3.15
Exported Renewable Electricity 3.15
Natural Gas 1.09
Fuel Oil (1,2,4,5,6,Diesel, Kerosene) 1.19
Propane & Liquid Propane 1.15
Steam 1.45
Hot Water 1.35
Chilled Water 1.04
Coal or Other 1.05
Source energy would be calculated using the following formula:
Esource = ∑i (Edel,irdel,i) - ∑i (Eexp,irexp,i)
Where ,
Edel,i is the delivered energy for energy type i;
Eexp,i is the exported on-site renewable energy for energy type i;
rdel,i is the source energy conversion factor for the delivered energy type i;
rexp,i is the source energy conversion factor for the exported energy type i;
Example Calculation for All Electric ZEB :
A building has the following actual annual delivered energy of 300,000 kBtu electricity. The on-site renewable exported energy is
320,000 kBtu electricity from photovoltaics. (Note: The equation is using energy transferred across the site boundary and does not
include on-site renewable energy consumed by the building.)
Using the formula above, the annual source energy balance would be: Esource = (300,000kBtu×3.15) - (320,000kBtu×3.15)
= 945,000kBtu - 1,008,000kBtu
= -63,000kBtu
Since Esource ≤ 0, the building would be a Zero Energy Building.
Since Esource ≤ 0, the building would be a Zero Energy Building.
METHODOLOGY CALCULATING TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF A BUILDING (All
Figs. In 'kWh')
 TOTAL BLDG. ENERGY CONSUMPTION = TOTAL METERED ENERGY (GRID SUPPY) + DG
ENERGY - ONSITE RENEWABLE ENERGY
 THERMAL ENERGY NOT CONSIDERED IN CALCULATIONS
DETAILS CONSUMPTION IN kWh
Total Energy consumption as per ECBC 3,364,834
Actual Energy Consumption 18,25,276
Savings per Annum (ECBC-Actual) 15,39,558
Energy Savings in Percentage 45.75%
 BUILT UP AREA: 24,443 sq. mtrs.
 AC AREA: 16,050 sq. mtrs.
ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX (EPI)
ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX (EPI) = ACTUAL ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX/
DESIGN ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX.
EPI RATIO POINTS
0.95 15
0.90 30
0.85 45
0.80 60
0.75 75
ENERGY SCORE CARD
ALL FIGS.IN ‘kWh’
TATA ENERGY ON-SITE ENERGY OFF-SITE ENERGY
18,25,276 1,48,487 16,76,789
8% 92%
120 kWp
SOLAR
PLANT
SUMMARY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
WORKING DAY ENERGY PROFILE
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
WORKING DAY (7/2/2022) ENERGY PROFILE
ENERGY (kWh) MAX.DEMAND (kVAh)
ENERGY PROFILE (TIME OF THE DAY)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
12:00
AM
2:00
AM
4:00
AM
6:00
AM
8:00
AM
10:00
AM
12:00
PM
2:00
PM
4:00
PM
6:00
PM
8:00
PM
10:00
PM
12:00
AM
ENERGY PROFILE
ENERGY (kWh) MAX.DEMAND (kVAh)
ENERGY PROFILE (TIME OF THE DAY)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
12:00
AM
2:00
AM
4:00
AM
6:00
AM
8:00
AM
10:00
AM
12:00
PM
2:00
PM
4:00
PM
6:00
PM
8:00
PM
10:00
PM
12:00
AM
ENERGY PROFILE
ENERGY (kWh) MAX.DEMAND (kVAh)
SUNDAY ENERGY PROFILE TATA METERING
POINT
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
ENERGY
'kWh'MD
'kVAh'
SUNDAY ENERGY PROFILE TATA METERING POINT
ENERGY MAX. DEMAND SOLAR GEN. GRID
SOLAR ENERGY W.R.T TOTAL ENERGY
PROFILE
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
12:00
AM
2:00
AM
4:00
AM
6:00
AM
8:00
AM
10:00
AM
12:00
PM
2:00
PM
4:00
PM
6:00
PM
8:00
PM
10:00
PM
12:00
AM
SOLAR ENERGY W.R.T. TOTAL ENERGY PROFILE
SOLAR GEN. GRID ENERGY
CONSUMPTION
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
12:00
AM
2:00
AM
4:00
AM
6:00
AM
8:00
AM
10:00
AM
12:00
PM
2:00
PM
4:00
PM
6:00
PM
8:00
PM
10:00
PM
12:00
AM
TOTAL BUILDING ENERGY PROFILE 'BEFORE' INSTALLATION OF VFD AT CANTEEN
BLOWERS
ENERGY USE (kWh) RENEWABLE ENERGY (kWh)
75
KW
75 KW
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
12:00
AM
2:00
AM
4:00
AM
6:00
AM
8:00
AM
10:00
AM
12:00
PM
2:00
PM
4:00
PM
6:00
PM
8:00
PM
10:00
PM
12:00
AM
TOTAL BUILDING ENERGY PROFILE 'AFTER' INSTALLATION OF VFD AT CANTEEN
BLOWERS
ENERGY USE (kWh) RENEWABLE ENERGY (kWh)
55 KW
60 KW
TOTAL VENTILATION
35%
DISH WASHER
5%
EMPP ( GF
CANTEEN
LIGHTING )…
DINING AREA LIGHT + AHU (
MANAGERS+STAFF+WORKMEN)
21%
KITCHEN GF
11%
KITCHEN 4F
15%
% BREAKUP OF ENRGY USE AT CANTEEN
TOTAL VENTILATION DISH WASHER
EMPP ( GF CANTEEN LIGHTING ) DINING AREA LIGHT + AHU ( MANAGERS+STAFF+WORKMEN)
KITCHEN GF KITCHEN 4F
HVAC
33%
4-FLR
2%
3-FLR
9%
INTERIO (2-FLR)
9%
IDC (1-FLR)
2%
HUBBLE (1-FLR)
7%
CANTEEN
31%
MISC
7%
%BREAKUP OF ENERGY USE BY ENTITY
HVAC 4-FLR 3-FLR INTERIO (2-FLR) IDC (1-FLR) HUBBLE (1-FLR) CANTEEN MISC
FUTURE SCOPE
NET ZERO BY 2050
Reaching net-zero emissionsglobally by 2050
Make the 2020s the decade of massive clean energy
expansion
All the technologies needed to achieve the necessary deep cuts in global emissions by 2030already
exist, and the policies that can drive their deployment are already proven.
Prepare for the next phase of the transition by
boosting innovation
Clean energy innovation must accelerate rapidly, with governments putting R&D, demonstrationand
deployment at the core of energy and climate policy.
Clean energy jobs will grow strongly but must
be spread widely
Energy transitions have to take account of the social and economic impacts on individualsand communities, and
treat people as active participants.
Set near-term milestones to get on track for long-term
targets
Take international co-operation to new heights
This is not simply a matter of all governments seeking to bring their national emissions tonet zero – it means tackling
global challenges through co-ordinated actions.
CONCLUSION
 A building cannot only depend on renewable energy generation to become a zero net energy building. It needs to
reduce its energy consumption so that the energy generated can actually meet the demands of the building.
 The two main factors affecting consumption of a building are the passive and active design factors.
 Passive design factors are concerned mostly about the building's design, size, shape and location so as to maximize
daylight use while minimizing heat gain.
 Active design factors on the other had are more concerned with the electrical and mechanical systems.
 Zero Energy Buildings are usually used to demonstrate low carbon technologies.Solar and wind energy are the major
contributor for Zero Energy Buildings owing to their widespread availability.
 Using Renewable energy approaches project from true whole perspective and provide a comprehensive strategy for the
building envelope, heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, ventilation, energy production and more.
 All these were analysed in depth and a case study about the Godrej & Boyce PL-13 Annexe Building, where the
various ways of achieving Zero net energystatus were. discussed. These types of building are therefore becoming more
of a reality nowadays.

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Zero Energy Building - A Case Study

  • 1. MAHATMA GANDHI MISSION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY A project report On Application For Energy Efficiency Technology Study And Design Of Zero Energy Building - A Case Study DEGREE OF BACHLOR OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL OF UNIVESITY OF MUMBAI BY Mrs. GARAD SAHIL POPAT Mrs. JADHAV KIRAN DILIP Ms. KOTE PIYUSHA VIKAS Mrs. MAHADIK ATHARVA BABAN UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF :- Dr. V. G. SAYAGAVI
  • 2. CONTENT • Introduction • Literature Review • Methodology • Case Study • Alternate Building Materials for Zero Energy Buildings • Data Collection And Analysis • Future Scope • Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction • A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy building, net-zero energy building (NZEB), net zero building or zero-carbon building is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site, or in other definitions byrenewable energy sources elsewhere. • These buildings are consequently contribute less overall greenhouse gas to the atmosphere than similar Non-Zero Energy buildings.
  • 4. What is Zero Energy Building? • A zero-energy building is a building with zero net energy consumption. • Generates more energy than it consumes. • Buildings contribute less overall greenhouse gases to the atmosphere than a similar non zero-energy building. • Reduce carbon emissions and dependence on fossil fuels which is the Zero Net-Energy Consumption Principle.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. IMPORTANCE • Isolation for building owners from future energy price increases. • Increased comfort due to more uniform interior temperatures. • Reduced requirement for energy austerity. • Reduced total cost of ownership due to improved energy efficiency.
  • 8. Advantages of Zero Energy Building: • Reduced total net monthly cost of living. • Increased comfort due to more-uniform interior temperatures. • Reduced total cost of ownership due to improved energy efficiency. • Higher resale value as potential owners demand more ZEBs than available supply. • Extra cost is minimized for new construction compared to an afterthought retrofit.
  • 9. Disadvantages of Zero Energy Building: 1) Very few designers or builders have the necessary skills or experience to build Zero NetEnergy Buildings. 2) Its initial cost is higher. 3) More efforts is required to understand, apply and qualify for ZEB. 4) Possible declines in future utility company renewable energy costs may lessen the valueof capital invested in energy efficiency.
  • 10. Objectives and Scope of the thesis Objectives • Do research to discover the most efficient possible route to attain net zero energy. • To provide the details, clear definition and fast uptake of Zero Energy Building. • To identify possible technical solution of energy demand and energy produced on site. • To study the minimize household energy usage and maximize the use of renewable energy. Scope • Making an energy efficient buildings. • Adaption of insulation for energy saving in design. • People independence of conventional energy like fuel, coal etc. • It reduce the impact of energy crisis. • Change in the design concept.
  • 12. Review on Research Paper: • Gandhi Habash (2014), here they studied the design of nearly zero energy buildings facilitated by a smart microgrid by using one of the emerging milestone in buildings construction. This paper will address the role of above technologies and solution and discussion the challenges being faced. • A.J.Marszal (2011), in this paper they focused on the review of the most of the existing ZED definition and various approaches towards possible ZED methodologies. This study indicated that the metric, the period ,the types of energy included in the balance together with the renewable energy infrastructure. • Thomas Boermans, Andreas Hermelink (2011), they focused on the principle challenges and their implications for setting, sustainable and practical net ZEBs and their proposes principles to be considered when a setting up practical definitions. • Anju MS (2017), in this paper they focused on study of comparison between a conventional building and ZEB using life cycle cost analysis they found the cost of the material, maintenance and energy consumed for a life span of 20 years is less using zero energy building technique.
  • 13. Research Gap: • Based on literature review, study indicates that the period and the renewable energy supply options, connection to the energy infrastructure and energy efficiency, indoor climates and building gird interaction requirements are the most important issues. They need to improve the available interdisciplinary skills for design and operation of the system to realize energy savings, environmental protection and economical operation. • As we studied from the above research we come to know there is a drawback in its initial cost and also this report present the framework for the analysis of performance risk in solar panel installation which is also very costly. Conclusion: • There are many scholarly Report, and research papers on our topic Zero Energy Building. We have selected some majority papers which include technologies, which are being used for installation of PV system and solar panels. So after studying this paper it can be concluded that solar panels and PV system are going to use in our project. • Some ways of integrating energy efficient approaches into the different stages of construction namely the designing, construction, and operation of buildings so as to improve and optimize the efficiency of buildings
  • 14. Methodology Introduction: • Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. The methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is to be undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it. These methods, described in the methodology, define the means or modes of data collection or, sometimes, how a specific result is to be calculated.
  • 15. Case Study PL-13 Annexe Building Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd
  • 16. Location Vikhroli – East Mumbai Coordinates 19.09° N, 72.92° E Occupancy Type Multiple Use Typology Existing/Retrofit Climate Type Warm and Humid Project Area 24,443 m2 Date of Completion May 2010 Grid Connectivity Grid-connected EPI (kWh/m2/yr.) 71.68 Architect Rumy Shroff & Associates Architects Energy Consultants (EDS)Godrej Green Building Consultancy Services
  • 17. • Godrej & Boyce- the pioneer of green buildings in India- has achieved the next level of high- performance design with its 24,443 sq. metre office-cum-convention centre in Mumbai called the Plant 13 Annexe. This project is the first in the country to be awarded the ‘Net Zero Energy Rating’ by the IGBC Rating system. • Built in 2008, Plant 13 serves as the cafeteria for the entire Godrej campus, while housing offices as well as meeting and conference rooms. The building exemplifies sustainable performance through thoughtful design right from its inception and was Platinum certified under the IGBC Existing Building Rating System. While its diverse usage and variable occupancy posed several challenges, the building went on to accomplish the net-zero energy target in 2019 by further improving its monitoring systems and controls. In fact, its operational performance exceeds the design goals!
  • 18. Design and construction Passive solar building design: • Walls, floors and windows distribute heat during winter and reject the solar heat during summer. Building energy simulation: • Predicts the performance of ZNE building depending on the energy usage before it is built. Energy saving features: • Includes heating and cooling loads, insulation and ventilation depending on climate zones.
  • 19. Design Methods of Zero Energy Building:
  • 20. Passive Design Methods of ZEB: 1) Start with Smart Design: Cost-effective zero net energy homes begin with smart design. Designers and architects, as well as builders, should be familiar with all the steps involved in building a net zero home and should design the home so that builders and subcontractors can implement these steps as cost-effectively as possible. 2) Use Energy Modelling: During the design phase, the home’s energy use should be estimated using energy modeling software to ensure that the goal of net zero energy can be achieved while keeping costs down. 3) Use Highly Insulated Windows & Doors: Windows and doors are like big energy holes in a well-insulated, airtight building envelope and are the third most cost-effective strategy for making a home energy efficient. Control window and door heat loss and gain by selecting appropriate window and door products, carefully locating them, and optimizing their size and orientation.
  • 21.
  • 22. 4) Use the Sun for Solar Tempering: Using the sun for heating through south facing windows during the winter lowers heating costs. Shading those same windows in summer lowers cooling costs. Solar tempering aims to optimize this passive use of the sun’s heat, without incurring the added cost of thermal mass needed to achieve maximum passive solar heating. 5) Heat Water Wisely: Water heating is often the largest energy expense in a zero energy home after heating and cooling. So it is important for designers and builders to select and locate efficient hot water heating technology, along with other measures, to minimize hot water use. 6) Install Energy Efficient Lighting: Minimizing energy use for lighting, while optimizing light for residents, is an important feature of zero energy homes. LED lights are the perfect match for these tasks. 7) Select an Energy Efficient Heating & Cooling System: Highly-efficient, cost-effective, heating and cooling systems are essential to meeting the net zero energy goal. One good choice is an air source ductless heat pump, also called a mini-split heat pump.
  • 23. North Daylighting Solar PV INTEGRALARCHITECTURAL DESIGN : SOLAR SYSTEM CUM DAYLIGHTING (Godrej One : Vikhroli)
  • 24.
  • 25. Passive sustainable design: • Natural day light system: Natural lighting, also known as day lighting, is a technique that efficiently brings natural light into your home using exterior glazing (windows, skylights, etc.), thereby reducing artificial lighting requirements and saving energy. Natural lighting has been proven to increase health and comfort levels for building occupants. • Building Geometry: A long narrow floor plan gets benefit over a square form in relation to day lighting and natural ventilation; although the square form is regarded as the most compact of all forms. Therefore, certain trade-off occurs between a compact form that minimizes conductive heat transfer through the envelope and a form that facilitates day lighting, solar gain, and natural ventilation.
  • 26. Active design methods of ZEB: • Solar Thermal Energy: Solar thermal energy is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors. • Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions).The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. Sr. No. Building Components Conventional “U” value EE Bldg. “U” value % Reduction in Heat Gain 1 External Wall Clay Bricks 2.03 w/sq.m.*k AAC Blocks 0.79 w/sq.m.*k 61% 2 Roof No Insulation 3.92 w/sq.m.*k 2” XPS/PUC/PIR 0.33 w/sq.m.*k 92% 3 Glazing Single Glazing SHGC: 0.67 5.7 w/sq.m.*k Double Glazing SHGC: 0.3 1.7 w/sq.m.*k 70% BUILDING ENVELOPE :
  • 31.
  • 32. 76% OF TOTAL LANDSCAPE AREA IS WITH NATIVE/ ADAPTIVE SPECIES
  • 33.
  • 34. LANDSACAPE AND PASSAGE AREA @4 FLOOR
  • 35. Alternate Building Materials for Zero Energy Buildings • The choices of materials in the home will have a significant impact on reaching a number of the project goals - low embodied energy, health, comfort, and reduced pollutant emissions both within the home and the wider environment. • For example, if a product needs to be replaced every 10 years this may be more energy-intensive than using a product with higherembodied energy that will last 100+ years.
  • 36. Glue Laminated Timber • Zero energy house uses glue laminated timber (which has low carbon footprint) as the main structural element in place of concrete and steel • so reduces the overall weight of the structure and also less damage in case of any natural disasters.
  • 37. Green Roof • Over the house you have a green roof with local plants, it’s used as part of insulation as well as cooling system • water is stored on roof in small tanks which is used to water the plants. • It is extremely watertight it’s even used in ponds to contain water. • Joins are heat-welded which eliminates the need for oil-based lap tapes and primers.
  • 38. Hollow Blocks with Concrete • Hollow blocks are used to makewalls that handles moisture and insulates at the same time • the blocks are filled with concrete (which is having 50 % fly ash replacement for the Portland cement) and smaller rebar. • A concrete block is one of several precast concrete products used in construction. The term precast refers to the fact that the blocks are formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site.
  • 39. Solar Integrated Roof Panels • The solar panels on the rooftop converts the sunrays to electrical energy so the electric dept. is amazed to see that the electric meter starts running backward. • in fact you can ask tell your utilitycompanies to pay you is something extraordinary. • There is inverter installed inside which convertsthe direct current produced by solar panels. • Source of hot water is through solar integrated roof panels, but sometimes when sun shines high, water becomes too hot, so a system is installed inside all sanitary fixtures which mixes the cold water with the hot water thus making the temperature safe for use.
  • 40. HVAC System in Zero Energy Buildings • HVAC system air is cooled by a chiller system that either chills or heat water. • The water is then sent thru copper tubes not under a high pressure to the coils which gets cooled with chilled waterand is connected to the blowers at various location in house. • Attach to each compressor is chillersystem. So at a time when there is a single family the 1.5 tons or 2 tons compressor is working automatically depending upon the weather and if there is requirement of higher chilling like thereis some function in the house then both compressor starts working simultaneously in random andchills the house. • The design challenge of a zero energy HVAC system is maximizing energy efficiency.
  • 41. Green Plaster • To maintain the comfortable humidity inside the house the walls are plastered with a special plaster which is a green material, and it has the capacity to absorb the moisture from airgiving a maintained humidity inside the house.
  • 42. Rain Water Harvesting • Rain water harvesting is a technique of collection and storage of rainwater into natural reservoirs or tanks, or the infiltration of surface water into subsurface aquifers (before it is lost as surface runoff). • One method of rainwater harvesting is rooftop harvesting. With rooftop harvesting, most any surface tiles, metal sheets, plastics, but not grass or palm leaf can be usedto intercept the flow of rainwater and provide a household with high- quality drinking water andyear-round storage.
  • 43.
  • 44. Photovoltaics • Photovoltaics system is the conversion of light into electricity using semi- conducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon that studiedin the physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. • A photovoltaic system employs solar panels, each comprising a number of solar cells, which generate electrical power. PV installationsmay be ground- mounted, roof top mounted or wall mounted. The mount may be fixed, or use a solar tracker to follow the sun across the sky.
  • 45.
  • 47. Boundaries: • The definitions require the use of a defined site boundary. The site boundary represents a meaningful boundary that is functionally part of the building. For a single building on a single property, the site boundary is typically the property boundary. • The site boundary should include the point of utility interface. The site boundary for a ZEB could be around the building footprint if the on-site renewable energy is located within the building footprint, or around the building site if some of the on-site renewable energy is on-site but not within the building footprint. Delivered energy and exported energy are measured at the site boundary. ⦁ Energy Accounting & Measurements: • A ZEB is typically a grid-connected building that is very energy efficient the premise is that ZEBs use the electric grid or other energy networks to transfer any surplus of on site renewable energy to other users. • ZEB energy accounting would include energy used for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, indoor and outdoor lighting, process energy and transportation within the building. On-site renewable energy may be exported through transmission such as charging of electric vehicles used outside the building.
  • 48. Energy Form Source Energy Conversion Factor Imported Electricity 3.15 Exported Renewable Electricity 3.15 Natural Gas 1.09 Fuel Oil (1,2,4,5,6,Diesel, Kerosene) 1.19 Propane & Liquid Propane 1.15 Steam 1.45 Hot Water 1.35 Chilled Water 1.04 Coal or Other 1.05 Source energy would be calculated using the following formula: Esource = ∑i (Edel,irdel,i) - ∑i (Eexp,irexp,i) Where , Edel,i is the delivered energy for energy type i; Eexp,i is the exported on-site renewable energy for energy type i; rdel,i is the source energy conversion factor for the delivered energy type i; rexp,i is the source energy conversion factor for the exported energy type i;
  • 49. Example Calculation for All Electric ZEB : A building has the following actual annual delivered energy of 300,000 kBtu electricity. The on-site renewable exported energy is 320,000 kBtu electricity from photovoltaics. (Note: The equation is using energy transferred across the site boundary and does not include on-site renewable energy consumed by the building.) Using the formula above, the annual source energy balance would be: Esource = (300,000kBtu×3.15) - (320,000kBtu×3.15) = 945,000kBtu - 1,008,000kBtu = -63,000kBtu Since Esource ≤ 0, the building would be a Zero Energy Building. Since Esource ≤ 0, the building would be a Zero Energy Building.
  • 50. METHODOLOGY CALCULATING TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF A BUILDING (All Figs. In 'kWh')  TOTAL BLDG. ENERGY CONSUMPTION = TOTAL METERED ENERGY (GRID SUPPY) + DG ENERGY - ONSITE RENEWABLE ENERGY  THERMAL ENERGY NOT CONSIDERED IN CALCULATIONS DETAILS CONSUMPTION IN kWh Total Energy consumption as per ECBC 3,364,834 Actual Energy Consumption 18,25,276 Savings per Annum (ECBC-Actual) 15,39,558 Energy Savings in Percentage 45.75%  BUILT UP AREA: 24,443 sq. mtrs.  AC AREA: 16,050 sq. mtrs.
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  • 52.
  • 53. ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX (EPI) ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX (EPI) = ACTUAL ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX/ DESIGN ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX. EPI RATIO POINTS 0.95 15 0.90 30 0.85 45 0.80 60 0.75 75
  • 54. ENERGY SCORE CARD ALL FIGS.IN ‘kWh’ TATA ENERGY ON-SITE ENERGY OFF-SITE ENERGY 18,25,276 1,48,487 16,76,789 8% 92% 120 kWp SOLAR PLANT
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 58. WORKING DAY ENERGY PROFILE 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 WORKING DAY (7/2/2022) ENERGY PROFILE ENERGY (kWh) MAX.DEMAND (kVAh)
  • 59. ENERGY PROFILE (TIME OF THE DAY) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 12:00 AM 2:00 AM 4:00 AM 6:00 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 8:00 PM 10:00 PM 12:00 AM ENERGY PROFILE ENERGY (kWh) MAX.DEMAND (kVAh)
  • 60. ENERGY PROFILE (TIME OF THE DAY) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 12:00 AM 2:00 AM 4:00 AM 6:00 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 8:00 PM 10:00 PM 12:00 AM ENERGY PROFILE ENERGY (kWh) MAX.DEMAND (kVAh)
  • 61. SUNDAY ENERGY PROFILE TATA METERING POINT 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 ENERGY 'kWh'MD 'kVAh' SUNDAY ENERGY PROFILE TATA METERING POINT ENERGY MAX. DEMAND SOLAR GEN. GRID
  • 62. SOLAR ENERGY W.R.T TOTAL ENERGY PROFILE 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 12:00 AM 2:00 AM 4:00 AM 6:00 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 8:00 PM 10:00 PM 12:00 AM SOLAR ENERGY W.R.T. TOTAL ENERGY PROFILE SOLAR GEN. GRID ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • 63. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 12:00 AM 2:00 AM 4:00 AM 6:00 AM 8:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM 8:00 PM 10:00 PM 12:00 AM TOTAL BUILDING ENERGY PROFILE 'BEFORE' INSTALLATION OF VFD AT CANTEEN BLOWERS ENERGY USE (kWh) RENEWABLE ENERGY (kWh) 75 KW 75 KW
  • 65. TOTAL VENTILATION 35% DISH WASHER 5% EMPP ( GF CANTEEN LIGHTING )… DINING AREA LIGHT + AHU ( MANAGERS+STAFF+WORKMEN) 21% KITCHEN GF 11% KITCHEN 4F 15% % BREAKUP OF ENRGY USE AT CANTEEN TOTAL VENTILATION DISH WASHER EMPP ( GF CANTEEN LIGHTING ) DINING AREA LIGHT + AHU ( MANAGERS+STAFF+WORKMEN) KITCHEN GF KITCHEN 4F
  • 66. HVAC 33% 4-FLR 2% 3-FLR 9% INTERIO (2-FLR) 9% IDC (1-FLR) 2% HUBBLE (1-FLR) 7% CANTEEN 31% MISC 7% %BREAKUP OF ENERGY USE BY ENTITY HVAC 4-FLR 3-FLR INTERIO (2-FLR) IDC (1-FLR) HUBBLE (1-FLR) CANTEEN MISC
  • 67.
  • 70. Make the 2020s the decade of massive clean energy expansion All the technologies needed to achieve the necessary deep cuts in global emissions by 2030already exist, and the policies that can drive their deployment are already proven.
  • 71. Prepare for the next phase of the transition by boosting innovation Clean energy innovation must accelerate rapidly, with governments putting R&D, demonstrationand deployment at the core of energy and climate policy.
  • 72. Clean energy jobs will grow strongly but must be spread widely Energy transitions have to take account of the social and economic impacts on individualsand communities, and treat people as active participants.
  • 73. Set near-term milestones to get on track for long-term targets
  • 74. Take international co-operation to new heights This is not simply a matter of all governments seeking to bring their national emissions tonet zero – it means tackling global challenges through co-ordinated actions.
  • 75.
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  • 77.
  • 78. CONCLUSION  A building cannot only depend on renewable energy generation to become a zero net energy building. It needs to reduce its energy consumption so that the energy generated can actually meet the demands of the building.  The two main factors affecting consumption of a building are the passive and active design factors.  Passive design factors are concerned mostly about the building's design, size, shape and location so as to maximize daylight use while minimizing heat gain.  Active design factors on the other had are more concerned with the electrical and mechanical systems.  Zero Energy Buildings are usually used to demonstrate low carbon technologies.Solar and wind energy are the major contributor for Zero Energy Buildings owing to their widespread availability.  Using Renewable energy approaches project from true whole perspective and provide a comprehensive strategy for the building envelope, heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, ventilation, energy production and more.  All these were analysed in depth and a case study about the Godrej & Boyce PL-13 Annexe Building, where the various ways of achieving Zero net energystatus were. discussed. These types of building are therefore becoming more of a reality nowadays.