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The training of young players must be more than a mere copy of the training programs
                                                                         must
                                    applied to professional players, the objectives have to be clearly differentiated. Thus arises in
                                                                     the
                                    many texts the question: Does the Tactical Periodization applies to youth levels of training?
                                    This article does not intend to give this answer because it can only be given by each coach
                                          article
                                    based on their ideas, values and beliefs. It seems, however, important to clarify some concepts
                                    / ideas that might exercise some influence on this response!

Currently:

2012/13
2012/13 – Youth
                                    INTRODUCTION
                 Coach
Academy Football Coach
at Al Nasr Sc – Dubai               The concepts of football and training are as varied as the number of coaches and players
(UAE)
                             that exist. In my opinion, neither is right or wrong, simply, they are good or bad applied to the
                             context in which they operate.
                                    Regardless of individual freedom to conceptualize the game and training are a number of
                             myths and misconceptions that persist in football and are in urgent need to further clarify and
Diplomas:                    analyze. Theories are never definitive serve only to explain issues until a better answer to it
Masters Degree in Sports     appears, and it is with this objective that I throw in this little text review.
Sciences – Team Sports              The immensity of the terms in football can create confusion and lead to many perspectives
by UTAD
                             being misunderstood, and even worse, poorly applied. Sometimes, it creates a true
                             "methodological abyss" between what is intended in the theoretical formulation and what is done
                             effectively. This article is not intended to be full of technical terms and complicated theories,
Graduation in Physical       because deep down football is a simple game, and the only ones who feel the need to complicate it
Education and Sports –
Specialization in Football   is the one who want to cover their doubts, errors and incapacities.
by UTAD                             On the walk up to professional status the young football player goes through a series of
                             tests and difficulties. It will be important that clubs and coaches, in particular, are no longer a
                             stumbling block... The coach will be better, the more he helps the youth in their training, but even
                             more decisive than it, will, actually, not be an obstacle to its development. Developing players it’s
 “UEFA B” licenced
         coach
football coach by FPF        not
                             not the same as Formatting them!
search
A quick "online" search allows us to quickly find a great deal of training plans, development
plans, learning steps, among other documents that refer to youth football and the process of
formation of high level players.
So the fundamental question is: how to separate the "wheat from the chaff"? Admittedly, this
process carries with it natural social and cultural dimensions. That’s why there are so many
         "school",
training "school", training in football will always be associated with experiences of success
and failure of each club, country, etc...




                     "10 years olds are the same anywhere in the world," recently heard about the implementation of a new training
              program in a club ... Allow me to disagree with this statement completely, since there are a number of constraints
              surrounding the social and sports environment who make everything different... the abstraction from these factors is
              impossible to be done because, simply, no one is born wanting to be a footballer, this desire is a process that develops
              in osmosis with society and with the interests who will be awakened by surrounding activities, nobody misses
              something that they do not know or met...
                     The need for specific programs tailored to each situation is absolutely critical, copying successful formation
              models of "other worlds" usually results in frustrating attempts ending, mostly in failure.
                     Regardless of the existence of constraints it is possible to generalize some reflections on the methodological
              application of the learning process in football.




                                                                                         TACTICAL
                                                                 TRAINING OF TACTICS vs. TACTICAL TRAINING




                     The Tactical dimension of football seen as a structural organization and/or dynamics of the players during a
              football game is often associated with stereotypical situations of individual, sectarian and collective movements that
              result, ultimately, in building a tactical movement or strategic game situation.
wrongly
                                                              TACTICAL PERIODIZATION is a concept wrongly associated to
                                                              excessive                                               castrating
                                                              excessive complexity training harmful for young people, castrating its
                                                              technical development and its creative freedom.
                                                              The true essence of this methodology relates to the simple ability to
                                                              THINK, without thinking there's no real challenge and challenge
                                                              evolution is limited...
                                                              evolution



       Training this kind of tactic is regularly considered an error for the primary steps of the process of youth players training.
Despite this, the insistence on the use of 11 a side football since the lower ages, leads it to happen with some frequency and to be
encouraged as it tries to bring the kids game closer to the game of adults. In these cases it is almost impossible to combat copy of
stereotyped organizational models, as the call for models of success is almost every time too attractive to resist. In this context, the
tactic is crafted as a simple part of the construction of a tactical system, players and game positional
specialization or situations where there is not a strong connection with training objectives or
player development.
       The Tactical Training accelerates the delivery of results and improves playmaking
but applied in this way, particularly in the lower ages, it will function as undesired substitute for the
essential contents of the training. It is based on this kind of idea that there is some resistance to the
introduction of the Tactical Periodization basic stages of youth football.
Previous experiences have led many to associate this methodology
a comprehensive tactical training, complex fixed and/or conditioned
situations, stiffness of movement, lack of creativity and spontaneity.
       These are legitimate concerns because the observation of several workouts of top
professional teams in football led to design tactical training work as a more stationary work
with pre-defined tasks and very specific missions. So the temptation to copy these models
is appealing to some and this phenomenon may be limiting for the development of the player.
      Considering these facts it urgent to clarify some of the doubts that the "tactical" may cause
in many coaches and trainers. So what is ultimately a tactical training in accordance with
the basic principles Tactical Periodization?
single
The reduction of exercises to the domain of a single dimension of the game (whatever it is…) or
the attempt to add disintegrated parts offset from game reality, can not be recognizable as
               actical
principles of Tactical Periodization.

                                                                               psychological,
A good practice is not without objectives of learning techniques, physical and psychological,
on the contrary, tries to integrate them. Each exercise has a specific impact
perfectly assimilated by the young player, who should not be seen as
only an information receiver ...




                       In fact the traditional "training of tactics," as previously stated, in very little resembles the idea of a "tactical
                training". This type of training is essentially based on a fundamental assumption: The ability to think the game, to act
                on specific game decision making and, more specifically, "our football" decision making ... Without this aspect you can
                actually be training many skills but you are not training football but something else!
                       The design of a training oriented towards the tactical objectives brings motivation, creativity, challenge and
                competitiveness. Aren’t these fundamental ingredients in training young? Training is so much more to work out and
                do exercises; training is to challenge limits and knowledge!
                       The ability to associate dimensions of the game in simple exercises that promote not only the learning parts of
                "game pieces" but they do so in an integrated way, not offset from fundamental nature of the game, is an essential skill
                that separates the best coaches from the coaches less prepared. This if he wishes to use the tactical training as a
                training tool for football player’s development.
                       If we believe that football is a game in which the correct decision-making is as much, or even more decisive than
                the simple mastery of technical movements, abilities and skills engines, so when should we introduce this aspect in the
                training planning?
                       Good tactical training not even needs to be, necessarily, connected to a tactical system, complex tactics or a
                combination play (especially in the lower ranks). The fundamental is the respect for a game principle (principles of
                play), a reference that serves to give a correct direction to individual and / or collective actions, basically it is to put
                players in a situation where they have to make choices / options respecting the essence of the football we want to
                "create and developed "in conjunction with our players.
I recognize that not all coaches are properly prepared for a type of
                                                                training with the complexity inherent to control various aspects of the
                                                                game. Sometimes separating dimensions makes easier the coach work,
                                                                however, these exercises are clearly less stimulating for the player.
                                                                Anyway, who said being GOOD COACH was an easy task?




                                                           Tactical
                                           It should be understood not only as a formal
                                           organization or structure but as a common
                                                                 ootball
                                           language between football players and
                                                   (team).
                                           coaches (team).


                       Principles of play
               Game guidelines that can be individual or
               collective (elementary and complex).. These
                                           complex)
               are fundamental objectives of training.



   Integration of other                        Adjust the complexity to                         Sagacious management
       dimensions                                 the player’s level                                  of training
• Never neglect the Technical, Physical, Psychological, Social, Playful dimensions... All of them are important in the training of
          footballers;
  young footballers; the idea is to shape them under "coordination" of a principle of play and necessarily within a stimulating and
                                       exercise).
  educational context (the training exercise).
• Having a plan for gradual integration of objectives and contents, not burning stages of formation and enhancing the fullest
                                                                contents,
  development of each player in the short, medium and especially long term. Be aware that jjust as the excessive complexity makes
                                                                                                  ust the
            learning,
  difficult learning, the lack of it creates stagnation and demotivation.
• Follow a clear line of individual and collective development of the players and the team, encouraging the individual in a
                                                         development                            team,
  comfortable supportive collective environment.
  comfortable and supportive collective environment. The consistency in the application of training exercises with complementary
  and evolutionary objectives will have effects in facilitating the learning of the player. The intelligence with which training is built
                           cancelled                                                      training
  / rebuilt / upgraded / cancelled if necessary, is the fundamental difference between training well and less well, not always what is
                                  field…
  good on paper results in the field…
Factors such as alternation of attention to different stimuli and anticipation development are
fundamental
fundamental for correct decision making, which assumes that these activities are mandatory
behavioral requirements in the teaching-learning and training processes.
                               teaching-                      processes.

Assuming the possible use of decontextualized exercises and separated forms, these ones
must be a small percentage of total training time and always as a complement
      be
                                                       training
to introduce or reinforce content. The central core of training has
to develop the intellect putting it to work...
                                       work...




                Given that the tactical component of the training is closely connected with the interpretation and understanding of
       the game it’s important to continue this text making a reflection on the processes of teaching and learning the game.




                                                                                 TEACHING vs. HELPING TO LEARN



                In this specific aspect it is important to realize that one of the primary functions of football coach is to promote
       autonomy and self-regulation of players and teams. The search for solutions in football teams can not depend on the
       permanent coach instructions because currently decision and execution speed makes all the difference, especially if we are
       looking to reach a high sports level.
A team capable of autonomously adapt to the changing conditions,
                                                                       react                 and,
                                                              able to react to adversity and, above all, the ability to enhance
                                                              'thinking"                                        always
                                                              'thinking", creative and innovative players will always be targets of the
                                                                                                    complex,
                                                              training process. In fact, this is a complex, and not always with the
                                                                        results,
                                                              expected results, process but how can we, coaches, exercise some
                                                              influence (positively or negatively) in this process?




         There is a common confusion between teaching the game of football and teaching individual techniques or skills
engines, not that they are not absolutely crucial, however, the football game goes far beyond simple mastery of technique. The
"teaching" often shows up as an obsession by several coaches (also due to the lack of ability from the leaders to tell the
difference between a didactic strategy well or poorly applied) as a way to "show some work done" or to withdraw sporting or
social benefits from it.
         Its not possible to say that a good transmission of knowledge and experience can not result in successful cases,
however, I have an enormous difficulty accepting anyone who addresses me and says "this is how you must do it"... Once
again we (as I mentioned early in this text) are neglecting the individuality and the ability of every young player and trying to
format him according to our experience and knowledge (or lack of it)!
         I may be terribly wrong but does a coach truly "teach" a young talent to make a pass or a shot... and in this
particular case I am referring here to young players who immediately show that they have a superior potential to others. If so,
why are the clubs increasingly investing in discovering talents in earlier and earlier stages? The clubs look for those who are
already capable of performing these techniques, many of them by self-learning, observation, attempt-error, reflection and
finally adapting it to their capacities and potentialities.
         Do not want to call into question the importance of the coach work, as would be putting into question my own
work, it can absolutely fundamental in the development of the player. This role is all the more relevant as the lower the age of
the players because the coach message in these cases is more accepted by youngsters, because due to their own maturity and
personality construction, this is somehow lost with the years passing. In these stages the fundamental is not to create vices,
not specialize wrong, not create obstacles for the future ... For some reason everyone refers to "street football" as essential and
unfortunately something that is increasingly lacking.
The increasingly abundant quantity and variety of information that young people have access to
leads that they do not accept what they are told by the mere authority of who says it. The answer
                      practice,
will be given by practice, by experimenting success factors associated with consistency of
principles, attitudes and feedback from the coach.

Giving answers improves immediate performance but giving clues influence in seeking solutions
                                                                         influence
to medium and long term. The answers are much more durable when they are experienced
and obtained by the player himself. Giving meat will kill hunger for a day but teach
someone to hunt and you will kill is hunger for life, even if it at first
             little            resume,
this costs a little more... In resume, what the player needs
is a GUIDED DISCOVERY!




                  Generally the indirect methods of teaching and learning by discovery are based on the idea that students learn best
         when they are active during the teaching process. He will discover facts, relationships and new concepts from his experience
         and prior knowledge. The discovery encourages players to ask questions, formulate hypotheses and conduct experiments.
         Proponents of this teaching methodology believe that students will find it easier to recall learning acquired in this way than
         through direct teaching models, it is worth noting, however, that the adoption of this method of teaching requires the active
         participation of the player himself in the learning process. Therefore the coach must:

                  • Adjust the volume of contents to the capabilities of the players;

                  • Structure the contents so that they can facilitate internalization;

                  • Work the contents in spiral, in other word they must be worked regularly with increasing depth, so that students
                    continually modify the mental representations that they are building.

                  It is important to realize that pure discovery learning does not work, creates chaos and anarchy, learning by
         discovery can be made but using a guided discovery which is the best method of promoting learning in constructivist
         environments. The challenge of teaching by guided discovery is how much and what kind of guidance to give and provide
         and still know which are the desired results. The guidance from the coach is required to maintain the focus of attention on
         the skills to be acquired. In learning through guided discovery the structure, the goals to achieve and orientation gain
         increasing importance.
Building and coach exercises that enable differentiated decision
                                                              making. avoid relaxation and turning exercises in "challenges" for
                                                                       answer
                                                              players, answer questions with more questions, stop the training and
                                                                                                                    choices,
                                                              bring the player to analyze and evaluate their own choices, demand
                                                                                            failure,
                                                              better but be sympathetic to failure, giving clues to solving problems
                                                              and creating inducing conditions in exercises are some of the strategies
                                                              that we can and should use!



         I believe the highest level player is the one who, in game situation, between the 3 options that everyone identifies,
chooses option number 4 and make it a better option than all others .... How will young players develop this ability if the
coach is constantly trying to "teach him" to do "this here" and "that there" ...
         Create the environment enhancer (specific exercise), give directions and objectives, reinforce the principles inherent
in the exercise, opening a space for attempt - error, give some ideas that might help in solving the problems raised, promote
discussion among players about strategies to overcome difficulties, give playing options, if necessary, and only as a last resort
in the event of nothing else works out, give our solutions for solving a given problem / game situation.
         The question that arises now is: if players should decide for themselves, where is the power of the coach? It seems
clear that it is important that the player (specially with ball) can decide according to their own understanding
of the game but that does not change the fact that the coach can subconsciously "shape" the team playing
style and induce players to take a certain type of options. Why should the exercises be conducted according
to principles of play and have a tactical context and intent?
         If it is true that the social context influences the construction of the Man, it is also true that
the training context influences the construction of the Player. In the end its all about putting the player in
the right direction, give him certain intructions but let him be the finder of the path that suits and benefits him
the best, in this path the coach has the obligation not to let the player cross the wrong lines!
freedom            (within
The important thing is to have a proper line between what is freedom of choice (within the
                      play)
defined principles of play) and what is the resolution of stereotyped game situations that are also
central to a Model of Play because they reduce the time of decision making and increase the
                                        happen
"speed of the game." What must not happen is to have a single solution for every situation, what
happens if this solution is not available, what I do next?!
                                                     next?!

Necessity is the greatest motivation for learning; the coach has to be smart
and intelligent enough to make possible that the players seek solutions
to proposed problems in a playful and motivating environment.
WANTING
WANTING IS (the first step) TO DO IT!   IT!




                  CONCLUSIONS

                  This text is a simple personal reflection, based on my life and training experiences, I am just trying to show that the
         tactical training is much deeper than the construction of "set pieces", movments and structural disposition of players on the
         pitch. The tactical training relates to the analysis, reflection and understanding of the game of football; Relates with a
         common language to players and coaches that enables the coordination of all seeking the same objective with the integration
         of the individual within a collective .
                  With this considerations about the game, this analysis must necessarily jump to the learning of it. Yes, learning, not
         teaching, because the focus should always be on the player and his performance as a key element of football.
                  The coach-player relationship can not be based on a process of transmission-reception but rather a process of trial-
         assimilation. It is up to the coach to prepare the "ground", to create optimal conditions for experimentation and direct the
         player towards experiencing problems, doubts and consequently find the answers he wants and needs. The coach has the role
         of "help him learn", ask questions, solve doubts, reinforcing stimulus, in a way to indicate the right path... the long and
         difficult journey to the destination the coach can not do, this one only the player can do but, whoever gets there will certainly
         be well prepared ...

         There is much left to say but with miraculous theories is the world is already filled
                                                               work,
         the important thing is to be consistent in the daily work, because in football
                                                       results...
         there are no truths or lies, just good or bad results...

         The is a small gap between being crazy and genius!!
http://www.linkedin.com/in/oliveiraul

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Youth Tactical Training

  • 1. The training of young players must be more than a mere copy of the training programs must applied to professional players, the objectives have to be clearly differentiated. Thus arises in the many texts the question: Does the Tactical Periodization applies to youth levels of training? This article does not intend to give this answer because it can only be given by each coach article based on their ideas, values and beliefs. It seems, however, important to clarify some concepts / ideas that might exercise some influence on this response! Currently: 2012/13 2012/13 – Youth INTRODUCTION Coach Academy Football Coach at Al Nasr Sc – Dubai The concepts of football and training are as varied as the number of coaches and players (UAE) that exist. In my opinion, neither is right or wrong, simply, they are good or bad applied to the context in which they operate. Regardless of individual freedom to conceptualize the game and training are a number of myths and misconceptions that persist in football and are in urgent need to further clarify and Diplomas: analyze. Theories are never definitive serve only to explain issues until a better answer to it Masters Degree in Sports appears, and it is with this objective that I throw in this little text review. Sciences – Team Sports The immensity of the terms in football can create confusion and lead to many perspectives by UTAD being misunderstood, and even worse, poorly applied. Sometimes, it creates a true "methodological abyss" between what is intended in the theoretical formulation and what is done effectively. This article is not intended to be full of technical terms and complicated theories, Graduation in Physical because deep down football is a simple game, and the only ones who feel the need to complicate it Education and Sports – Specialization in Football is the one who want to cover their doubts, errors and incapacities. by UTAD On the walk up to professional status the young football player goes through a series of tests and difficulties. It will be important that clubs and coaches, in particular, are no longer a stumbling block... The coach will be better, the more he helps the youth in their training, but even more decisive than it, will, actually, not be an obstacle to its development. Developing players it’s “UEFA B” licenced coach football coach by FPF not not the same as Formatting them!
  • 2. search A quick "online" search allows us to quickly find a great deal of training plans, development plans, learning steps, among other documents that refer to youth football and the process of formation of high level players. So the fundamental question is: how to separate the "wheat from the chaff"? Admittedly, this process carries with it natural social and cultural dimensions. That’s why there are so many "school", training "school", training in football will always be associated with experiences of success and failure of each club, country, etc... "10 years olds are the same anywhere in the world," recently heard about the implementation of a new training program in a club ... Allow me to disagree with this statement completely, since there are a number of constraints surrounding the social and sports environment who make everything different... the abstraction from these factors is impossible to be done because, simply, no one is born wanting to be a footballer, this desire is a process that develops in osmosis with society and with the interests who will be awakened by surrounding activities, nobody misses something that they do not know or met... The need for specific programs tailored to each situation is absolutely critical, copying successful formation models of "other worlds" usually results in frustrating attempts ending, mostly in failure. Regardless of the existence of constraints it is possible to generalize some reflections on the methodological application of the learning process in football. TACTICAL TRAINING OF TACTICS vs. TACTICAL TRAINING The Tactical dimension of football seen as a structural organization and/or dynamics of the players during a football game is often associated with stereotypical situations of individual, sectarian and collective movements that result, ultimately, in building a tactical movement or strategic game situation.
  • 3. wrongly TACTICAL PERIODIZATION is a concept wrongly associated to excessive castrating excessive complexity training harmful for young people, castrating its technical development and its creative freedom. The true essence of this methodology relates to the simple ability to THINK, without thinking there's no real challenge and challenge evolution is limited... evolution Training this kind of tactic is regularly considered an error for the primary steps of the process of youth players training. Despite this, the insistence on the use of 11 a side football since the lower ages, leads it to happen with some frequency and to be encouraged as it tries to bring the kids game closer to the game of adults. In these cases it is almost impossible to combat copy of stereotyped organizational models, as the call for models of success is almost every time too attractive to resist. In this context, the tactic is crafted as a simple part of the construction of a tactical system, players and game positional specialization or situations where there is not a strong connection with training objectives or player development. The Tactical Training accelerates the delivery of results and improves playmaking but applied in this way, particularly in the lower ages, it will function as undesired substitute for the essential contents of the training. It is based on this kind of idea that there is some resistance to the introduction of the Tactical Periodization basic stages of youth football. Previous experiences have led many to associate this methodology a comprehensive tactical training, complex fixed and/or conditioned situations, stiffness of movement, lack of creativity and spontaneity. These are legitimate concerns because the observation of several workouts of top professional teams in football led to design tactical training work as a more stationary work with pre-defined tasks and very specific missions. So the temptation to copy these models is appealing to some and this phenomenon may be limiting for the development of the player. Considering these facts it urgent to clarify some of the doubts that the "tactical" may cause in many coaches and trainers. So what is ultimately a tactical training in accordance with the basic principles Tactical Periodization?
  • 4. single The reduction of exercises to the domain of a single dimension of the game (whatever it is…) or the attempt to add disintegrated parts offset from game reality, can not be recognizable as actical principles of Tactical Periodization. psychological, A good practice is not without objectives of learning techniques, physical and psychological, on the contrary, tries to integrate them. Each exercise has a specific impact perfectly assimilated by the young player, who should not be seen as only an information receiver ... In fact the traditional "training of tactics," as previously stated, in very little resembles the idea of a "tactical training". This type of training is essentially based on a fundamental assumption: The ability to think the game, to act on specific game decision making and, more specifically, "our football" decision making ... Without this aspect you can actually be training many skills but you are not training football but something else! The design of a training oriented towards the tactical objectives brings motivation, creativity, challenge and competitiveness. Aren’t these fundamental ingredients in training young? Training is so much more to work out and do exercises; training is to challenge limits and knowledge! The ability to associate dimensions of the game in simple exercises that promote not only the learning parts of "game pieces" but they do so in an integrated way, not offset from fundamental nature of the game, is an essential skill that separates the best coaches from the coaches less prepared. This if he wishes to use the tactical training as a training tool for football player’s development. If we believe that football is a game in which the correct decision-making is as much, or even more decisive than the simple mastery of technical movements, abilities and skills engines, so when should we introduce this aspect in the training planning? Good tactical training not even needs to be, necessarily, connected to a tactical system, complex tactics or a combination play (especially in the lower ranks). The fundamental is the respect for a game principle (principles of play), a reference that serves to give a correct direction to individual and / or collective actions, basically it is to put players in a situation where they have to make choices / options respecting the essence of the football we want to "create and developed "in conjunction with our players.
  • 5. I recognize that not all coaches are properly prepared for a type of training with the complexity inherent to control various aspects of the game. Sometimes separating dimensions makes easier the coach work, however, these exercises are clearly less stimulating for the player. Anyway, who said being GOOD COACH was an easy task? Tactical It should be understood not only as a formal organization or structure but as a common ootball language between football players and (team). coaches (team). Principles of play Game guidelines that can be individual or collective (elementary and complex).. These complex) are fundamental objectives of training. Integration of other Adjust the complexity to Sagacious management dimensions the player’s level of training • Never neglect the Technical, Physical, Psychological, Social, Playful dimensions... All of them are important in the training of footballers; young footballers; the idea is to shape them under "coordination" of a principle of play and necessarily within a stimulating and exercise). educational context (the training exercise). • Having a plan for gradual integration of objectives and contents, not burning stages of formation and enhancing the fullest contents, development of each player in the short, medium and especially long term. Be aware that jjust as the excessive complexity makes ust the learning, difficult learning, the lack of it creates stagnation and demotivation. • Follow a clear line of individual and collective development of the players and the team, encouraging the individual in a development team, comfortable supportive collective environment. comfortable and supportive collective environment. The consistency in the application of training exercises with complementary and evolutionary objectives will have effects in facilitating the learning of the player. The intelligence with which training is built cancelled training / rebuilt / upgraded / cancelled if necessary, is the fundamental difference between training well and less well, not always what is field… good on paper results in the field…
  • 6. Factors such as alternation of attention to different stimuli and anticipation development are fundamental fundamental for correct decision making, which assumes that these activities are mandatory behavioral requirements in the teaching-learning and training processes. teaching- processes. Assuming the possible use of decontextualized exercises and separated forms, these ones must be a small percentage of total training time and always as a complement be training to introduce or reinforce content. The central core of training has to develop the intellect putting it to work... work... Given that the tactical component of the training is closely connected with the interpretation and understanding of the game it’s important to continue this text making a reflection on the processes of teaching and learning the game. TEACHING vs. HELPING TO LEARN In this specific aspect it is important to realize that one of the primary functions of football coach is to promote autonomy and self-regulation of players and teams. The search for solutions in football teams can not depend on the permanent coach instructions because currently decision and execution speed makes all the difference, especially if we are looking to reach a high sports level.
  • 7. A team capable of autonomously adapt to the changing conditions, react and, able to react to adversity and, above all, the ability to enhance 'thinking" always 'thinking", creative and innovative players will always be targets of the complex, training process. In fact, this is a complex, and not always with the results, expected results, process but how can we, coaches, exercise some influence (positively or negatively) in this process? There is a common confusion between teaching the game of football and teaching individual techniques or skills engines, not that they are not absolutely crucial, however, the football game goes far beyond simple mastery of technique. The "teaching" often shows up as an obsession by several coaches (also due to the lack of ability from the leaders to tell the difference between a didactic strategy well or poorly applied) as a way to "show some work done" or to withdraw sporting or social benefits from it. Its not possible to say that a good transmission of knowledge and experience can not result in successful cases, however, I have an enormous difficulty accepting anyone who addresses me and says "this is how you must do it"... Once again we (as I mentioned early in this text) are neglecting the individuality and the ability of every young player and trying to format him according to our experience and knowledge (or lack of it)! I may be terribly wrong but does a coach truly "teach" a young talent to make a pass or a shot... and in this particular case I am referring here to young players who immediately show that they have a superior potential to others. If so, why are the clubs increasingly investing in discovering talents in earlier and earlier stages? The clubs look for those who are already capable of performing these techniques, many of them by self-learning, observation, attempt-error, reflection and finally adapting it to their capacities and potentialities. Do not want to call into question the importance of the coach work, as would be putting into question my own work, it can absolutely fundamental in the development of the player. This role is all the more relevant as the lower the age of the players because the coach message in these cases is more accepted by youngsters, because due to their own maturity and personality construction, this is somehow lost with the years passing. In these stages the fundamental is not to create vices, not specialize wrong, not create obstacles for the future ... For some reason everyone refers to "street football" as essential and unfortunately something that is increasingly lacking.
  • 8. The increasingly abundant quantity and variety of information that young people have access to leads that they do not accept what they are told by the mere authority of who says it. The answer practice, will be given by practice, by experimenting success factors associated with consistency of principles, attitudes and feedback from the coach. Giving answers improves immediate performance but giving clues influence in seeking solutions influence to medium and long term. The answers are much more durable when they are experienced and obtained by the player himself. Giving meat will kill hunger for a day but teach someone to hunt and you will kill is hunger for life, even if it at first little resume, this costs a little more... In resume, what the player needs is a GUIDED DISCOVERY! Generally the indirect methods of teaching and learning by discovery are based on the idea that students learn best when they are active during the teaching process. He will discover facts, relationships and new concepts from his experience and prior knowledge. The discovery encourages players to ask questions, formulate hypotheses and conduct experiments. Proponents of this teaching methodology believe that students will find it easier to recall learning acquired in this way than through direct teaching models, it is worth noting, however, that the adoption of this method of teaching requires the active participation of the player himself in the learning process. Therefore the coach must: • Adjust the volume of contents to the capabilities of the players; • Structure the contents so that they can facilitate internalization; • Work the contents in spiral, in other word they must be worked regularly with increasing depth, so that students continually modify the mental representations that they are building. It is important to realize that pure discovery learning does not work, creates chaos and anarchy, learning by discovery can be made but using a guided discovery which is the best method of promoting learning in constructivist environments. The challenge of teaching by guided discovery is how much and what kind of guidance to give and provide and still know which are the desired results. The guidance from the coach is required to maintain the focus of attention on the skills to be acquired. In learning through guided discovery the structure, the goals to achieve and orientation gain increasing importance.
  • 9. Building and coach exercises that enable differentiated decision making. avoid relaxation and turning exercises in "challenges" for answer players, answer questions with more questions, stop the training and choices, bring the player to analyze and evaluate their own choices, demand failure, better but be sympathetic to failure, giving clues to solving problems and creating inducing conditions in exercises are some of the strategies that we can and should use! I believe the highest level player is the one who, in game situation, between the 3 options that everyone identifies, chooses option number 4 and make it a better option than all others .... How will young players develop this ability if the coach is constantly trying to "teach him" to do "this here" and "that there" ... Create the environment enhancer (specific exercise), give directions and objectives, reinforce the principles inherent in the exercise, opening a space for attempt - error, give some ideas that might help in solving the problems raised, promote discussion among players about strategies to overcome difficulties, give playing options, if necessary, and only as a last resort in the event of nothing else works out, give our solutions for solving a given problem / game situation. The question that arises now is: if players should decide for themselves, where is the power of the coach? It seems clear that it is important that the player (specially with ball) can decide according to their own understanding of the game but that does not change the fact that the coach can subconsciously "shape" the team playing style and induce players to take a certain type of options. Why should the exercises be conducted according to principles of play and have a tactical context and intent? If it is true that the social context influences the construction of the Man, it is also true that the training context influences the construction of the Player. In the end its all about putting the player in the right direction, give him certain intructions but let him be the finder of the path that suits and benefits him the best, in this path the coach has the obligation not to let the player cross the wrong lines!
  • 10. freedom (within The important thing is to have a proper line between what is freedom of choice (within the play) defined principles of play) and what is the resolution of stereotyped game situations that are also central to a Model of Play because they reduce the time of decision making and increase the happen "speed of the game." What must not happen is to have a single solution for every situation, what happens if this solution is not available, what I do next?! next?! Necessity is the greatest motivation for learning; the coach has to be smart and intelligent enough to make possible that the players seek solutions to proposed problems in a playful and motivating environment. WANTING WANTING IS (the first step) TO DO IT! IT! CONCLUSIONS This text is a simple personal reflection, based on my life and training experiences, I am just trying to show that the tactical training is much deeper than the construction of "set pieces", movments and structural disposition of players on the pitch. The tactical training relates to the analysis, reflection and understanding of the game of football; Relates with a common language to players and coaches that enables the coordination of all seeking the same objective with the integration of the individual within a collective . With this considerations about the game, this analysis must necessarily jump to the learning of it. Yes, learning, not teaching, because the focus should always be on the player and his performance as a key element of football. The coach-player relationship can not be based on a process of transmission-reception but rather a process of trial- assimilation. It is up to the coach to prepare the "ground", to create optimal conditions for experimentation and direct the player towards experiencing problems, doubts and consequently find the answers he wants and needs. The coach has the role of "help him learn", ask questions, solve doubts, reinforcing stimulus, in a way to indicate the right path... the long and difficult journey to the destination the coach can not do, this one only the player can do but, whoever gets there will certainly be well prepared ... There is much left to say but with miraculous theories is the world is already filled work, the important thing is to be consistent in the daily work, because in football results... there are no truths or lies, just good or bad results... The is a small gap between being crazy and genius!!