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YOUTH	MOBILIZATION,	PROTEST	AND	
RESISTANCE	ON	THE	PAK-AFGHAN	
BORDER	and	Beyond	
PASHTUN	TAHAFUZ	MOVEMENT	
(PTM)	
Husnul	Amin,	PhD	
Fulbright	Fellow,	Stockton	&	UPenn	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
1
PAKISTAN:	basic	facts	
•  Partition	in	1947	(British	India)	
•  Population	(APPROX.	210	million)	
•  Administrative	Divisions	(federation;	Center-
Provinces)	
•  Province	
•  FATA/Ex-FATA	now	merged	in	KP	Province	
•  Ethnicity,	Ethnic	Question	and	Pakistani	
Nationhood	
•  Neighboring	countries:	East	(India),	
North(China),	West	(Iran	and	Afghanistan),	
South	(Arabian	sea)	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
2
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
3
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
4
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
5
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
6
Pashtuns	and	their	territory	in	
Pakistan	
•  Background	information	about	Pashtuns	
across	the	Pak-Afghan	border	
•  How	many;	history;	politics;		
•  Pashtuns	and	Afghan	war;	and	war	on	terror	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
7
(mis)Representing	Pashtuns	
•  subjected	to	media	
stereotypfication/”Other”	of	Pakistani	nation	
state	project	
•  Violent	representations	of	Pashtuns	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
8
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
9
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
10
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
11
Manzoor	Pashteen:	The	story	teller	
and	his	Story	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
12
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
13
Reference	to	Gandhi/Bacha	Khan	
and	non-violent	struggle	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
14
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
15
•  Manzoor	Pashteen	(24	years	old…)	
•  Challenging	the	regime	of	fear	
•  The	story	teller?	
•  Play	video	(#1)	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
16
Pre-genesis/social	non-movement	
phase	
•  Reporting	humiliations	on	military	check	
posts	
•  Pashto	poetry	
•  Pashto	music	
•  Story	telling	
•  IDPs	in	camps	
•  University	campus	and	public	sphere	
•  Missing	persons	
•  Images/videos	of	bomb	blasts/casualties	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
17
Resistance	in	hiding,	music	and	
poetry	
•  Pa	Pekhawar	ke	parhar	me	jorawa	…	
resistance	in	hiding,	music	and	poets		(#9)	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
18
Play	Music		
•  Pakhtoon	ta	Jwandoon	Ghwaaroo:	The	
Beginning	(#2)	
•  PAASOON	SONG/Call	for	Action/Breaking	
silence	call	(#	3)	
•  Poetry	before	Wranga	speech	(#8)	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
19
PTM	and	its	list	of	demands	
•  Right	to	life	and	protection	of	Pashtuns	all	
across	Pakistan	
•  Missing	persons	
•  Judicial	enquiry	of	extra	judicial	police	killings/
Rao	Anwar	
•  Truth	Commission	under	UN	to	investigate	
Pashtun	genocide	during	War	on	Terror	
•  Land	mines	
•  Resources,	forests		
•  Check	posts?	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
20
Symbols	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
21
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
22
Pashteen	Cap;	Emblem	of	resistance	
Play	video	(#7)	
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=N3brFO3IEEU	
	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
23
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
24
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
25
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
26
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
27
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
28
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
29
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
30
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
31
Who	participates?	
•  Youth?	
•  IDPs	(and	others)	
•  Middle	classes	in	the	forefront	
•  Women,	children,	different	ideological	
orientations	(transcendence)	
•  Relatives	of	missing	persons	
•  Victims	
•  Disgruntled	Pashtun	nationalists	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
32
Media	Blackout/Role	of	Social	Media	
•  Mobile	smartphones	
•  Facebook	
•  YouTube	
•  Twitter	(trending)	
•  Face	to	face	interaction/hujra	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
33
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
34
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
35
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
36
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
37
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
38
Slogans?	
•  Ye	Jo	Dehshatgerdee	hai	ess	kay	peechay	
wardee	hai	
•  Ye	jo	Naa	maloom	hai,	ye	hamain	maloom	hay	
•  Pakhtoon	ta	jwandoon	ghwaroo	
•  Ye	Colonel,	General,	be	ghairat	
•  Da	senga	azaadee	da	
•  Pakhtoon	pake	mer	keegee	
•  Zwanan	mw	qatal	keegee	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
39
Why	now?	
•  No	definite	answer	… why now?	
•  Global	designs,	5th	Generation	Warfare,	
creating	conditions	for	civil	war	(The	State	
Narrative)	
•  Immediate	triggers:	Naqeeb	murder,	Rao	
Anwar,	return	of	IDPs,	post-trauma	(popular	
narrative)	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
40
Policing?		
Police	killings	as	main	cause	
	
•  Military	policing?		
•  Missing	persons?	
•  Arrests	and	abductions?	
•  Charges	of	sedition?	(b/c	Pak	const	guarantees	
freedom	of	expression	and	the	right	to	protest)	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
41
Police	Officer	Rao	Anwar’s	Extra-
judicial	killings	and	fake	
encounters	
	
Mostly	Pashtuns?	
	
	Naqeeb	Ullah	Mehsud	killing?	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
42
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
43
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
44
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
45
From	Adolf	Eichmann	to	Rao	Anwar?	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
46
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
47
Competing	explanations	
•  The	official	narrative/military	establishment	
Arab	Spring?	
•  Spontaneous,	reactive,	sudden	outburst	of	
angry	youth	
•  India-and-Afghan-intelligence	backing	
•  Breaking	Pakistani	state,	New	Pashtun	
Nation	State	
•  Civil	Rights	Movement	?	
24/02/20	
Presentation	slides,	Dr	Husnul	Amin,	
Fulbright	Fellow,	use	or	further	distribution	
without	permission	is	not	allowed	and	
violation	of	copyrights.	Dr	Amin	can	be	
contacted	at:	husnulamin@gmail.com	
48

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