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N.R,Opanayaka
10/SL/181
youth Unrest And Welfare
Disadvantage group
Who are the youths?
• The definition of a youth is a young person who has
not yet reached adulthood and refers to the time
period before you become an adult.
(http://www.answers.com)
Definition of Youth Development
• Youth development is a process which
prepares young people to meet the challenges
of adolescence and adulthood through a
coordinated, progressive series of activities
and experiences which help them to become
socially, morally, emotionally, physically, and
cognitively competent.
(encyclopedia Americana)
What is youth unrest?
• Unrest can be defined as a restless mind or
state of mental disturbance caused by the
continued non-achievement of expectations
of youth
(http://www.answers.com)
What is policy
• a course or principle of action adopted or
proposed by an organization or individual.
• action or procedure conforming to or considered
with reference to prudence or expediency
• Policy is used as a principle to make decisions
and achieve rational outcomes. It is a statement
implemented as a procedure, used in
handbooks,law,etc.
(http://www.answers.com)
Youth Today
• They are fiercely individualistic.
• They are media-savvy.
• They are comfortable with - and bombarded by
- the abundance of technologies that exist
today.
• They are extremely stressed in their everyday
lives.
• They also strongly believe that they can make
the world a better place- a perfect springboard
for getting them involved as volunteers.
• Today's young adults are open to finding
several different ways to care.
• Among the issues they find compelling are:
–health
–substance abuse
–children's issues
–the elderly
–violence prevention
–animal rights
–and the environment
Very important
• Sri Lanka is the only country in the region that has not
yet developed a youth policy.
• Although there are many critical issues facing young
people and despite a Presidential Commission on Youth
being established in 1990 to look into the grievances of
young people.
• Sri Lanka has still not formulated a cohesive approach
to addressing the issues faced by young people.
• As a result, there are contradictions and gaps in the
policy environment with regard to fulfilling the needs
and protecting the rights of young people.
Question
• Who is responsible in formulating this Youth
Policy?
You are responsible for formulating the youth
policy!
Youth and major problems
• Unemployment
• Uneducated
• Drug abuse
• Sexual violence
(Source: School-to-work-transition of youth in
Sri Lanka, ILO&IMCAP, 2004)
Unemployment
Workless people can always be dangerous to a country’s
security.
• The frustrated youth of the country is falling a prey to drug-
addiction, violence, theft, and many other social evils.
Smugglers, drug-traffickers and terrorists are engaging
them in heinous activities.
• A Working Definition of Unemployment:
“People able, available and willing to find work and actively
seeking work – but not employ
Major case to youth unemployment
(SRILANKA)
• The causes are endless and countless. But the
major causes of unemployment in srilanka are
as follows:-
1. Economic Causes
2. Social Causes
3. Financial Causes
As a social
problem
Economic Causes
• Low Industrial Growth Rate
Low industrial growth rate is 1.7 % in Srilanka. Number
of industries is not increasing in Srilanka. Lack of
industries means less opportunities of employment.
• Mechanization of Agriculture
Due to mechanization of agriculture there is less use of
labor in agricultural sector. These unemployed persons
move to cities to find jobs at less wage rate.
Accordingly, use of modern techniques in agricultural
sector is also a further cause of unemployment and
under employment
• Reduction in Foreign Employment
Due to illiteracy, ill training and lack of skill &
efficiency demand for our labor in foreign market
is decreasing. It also creates problem of
unemployment.
• Use of Advanced Technology
A poor country uses backward techniques of
production and labor intensive technologies. But
when it uses the advanced technology there
spread more unemployment in the country
Social Causes
• High Population Growth Rate
The population of Srilanka is increasing at a rate of 2.1 %. Due to
this high rate about one million people enter into the labor market
each year.
• Illiteracy & Literacy
Illiteracy and literacy both are the causes of unemployment in
Srilanka. Due to Illiteracy people are not able to work and they
remain unemployed. On the other hand number of educated is
increasing annually but government is unable to create
employment opportunities
e.g., students of B. Com. are increasing at very fast speed but
they cannot find jobs and admissions for higher education. Rate
of illiteracy in Srilanka is 42.3 %.
• Follow New Trend of Education
Students are that whenever there comes a new trend or a new
technology, then everyone follows to study that specific subject
only rather than differentiating themselves they all follow the
same pattern.
Later, when there are only 5-10 vacancies of that specific field the
number of graduates of that field are in thousands.
• Under Govt. Educational Institutions
Around 80% of the educational institutions in Srilanka are under
government. So, our educational and technical institutions do not
equip the students properly to suit international and at times even
local markets.
• Lack of Confidence in Educated Persons
A student may have a master’s degree ,but when he walks into an
office for his interview, he lacks the confidence to carry himself for
a formal conversation and in the end so many students of this type
are rejected and left unemployed
Lack of Technical Education
Today, literacy rate is 57.7 %. Number of students of
every field especially of commerce, are so large but
employment opportunities for them are few.
Rural-Urban Migration
Srilankan agricultural based economy, is currently
undergoing the process of mechanization. Labor is
being replaced by machines, creating unemployment in
rural areas.
Political Instability
There is political instability in Srianka, which creates
less attraction for foreign investment. Due to political
instability investor hesitates to invest.
• Nepotism and Favoritism
It means selection according to relation, language,
caste, sects not according to ability. Here deserving
candidates do not get jobs and remain unemployed
or under employed.
• Re-employment
Re-employment of higher rank civil and especially
armed forces officers has decline the jobs for
qualified young men in Srilanka
Financial Causes
• Lack of Credit Facilities
It is so difficult to manage the personal business
and self-employment due to absence of easy
credit facilities. Accordingly, shortage of credit
facilities is also a main cause of unemployment
• Deficiency of Capital
There is shortage of capital that leads to low level
of saving and investment in Srilanka. It results in
low rate of capital formation and caused in
unemployment
Present situation
World
Pakistan
Unemployment is one of the major issues confronted by
our youth today. Every year many new graduates are
added into the labor force but few of them get very good
jobs; some others get a reasonable one but many keep on
looking for jobs for a long time.
Recently, the unemployment rate of Pakistan increased to
6.5% and so it can be said that one out of every 10 people
of the country are suffering from unemployment.
The unemployment rate in urban areas of Pakistan
increased by 2% to 10.1%, whereas, the unemployment
rate in rural areas increased from 4.3% to 5%.
According to Economic Survey of 2010-11, population
of Pakistan is 177.1 million. Total labor force is about
54.92 million out of which 51.87 million is employed
and remaining 3.05 million is unemployed. Rate of male
unemployment is 5.6 % and female unemployment is
9.3 %.
You will find so many graduates, master students,
engineers and people of every profession being wasted
due to unstable employment system in Pakistan
Not only educated people of Pakistan, but also the
labor class is going through a rough phase and their
daily life has become a living hell for them
India
Countr
y
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
India 8.8 9.5 9.2 8.9 7.8 7.2 6.8 10.7 10.8 9.9
Source- India annual major bank
US(AMARICA)
The increased duration of unemployment is
associated with a historically low job opening
to unemployment ratio. JOLTS Data
Although there is an apparent adverse shift in
the Beverage, the role for mismatch and the
effect of extended UI benefits is small (1-
1.5%).
Youth
Source- us annual major bank
Source- us annual major bank
Policies to reduce Unemployment
• Expending foreign works for all youths(UN)
• Higher education scholarship
• Introducing online jobs
• Introducing youth parliament for take their
decisions
• RIO Ngo programs for under develop country
youths
Present welfare programs
(Commonly)
• UN Youth care programs
• WHO Youth health programs
• Peer to peer youth sex Knowles development
programs(USA)
• Love for youth education program
• Indian program for “rode for youth”
Youth programs for youth
development
SRILANKA
Causes of Unemployment
• Rapid Population Growth
• Economic Inflation
• Economic Recession
• Changing Technology
• Demand for highly skilled labor
• Global Competition
• Illiteracy
Youth
Policies to reduce Unemployment
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was
enacted in 2005 as a job guarantee scheme
 Presidents Employment Generation Programme
 National Food for Work Programme
 Presidents Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication
Program (PIUPEP)
 The Swaran Jayanti youth Yojana
 Youth Samridhi Yojana
 Youth parliament
• “Tharunyata hetak”
• ‘Heta tharunyaya’
• “Angathaya ada dakimu”
• “Adin hetata piyawarak”
Present welfare programs
STEPS OF GOVERNMENT OF S
AGAINST UNEMPLOYMENT
• SMEDA (SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES DEVELOPMENT)
SMEDA provides loans to the deserving persons to
establishment of Small and Medium industries.
• SKILL DEVELOPMENT COUNCILS
Skill Development Council is play vital rule to educate the
people who desired to improved their technical qualification
in industrial and other organizations.
• OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT CORPORATION (OEC)
Overseas Employment Corporation (OEC)was established in
1996 by Govt. of Srilanaka and is only employment promotion
agency operating in public sector
Proposals of new welfare programs
•Give more chance to youth to come parliament
•Expanding to education choice who like to education
•Introducing more chance to improve small youth
business crops
•Fascinate low rate monitory facility for youth high
education
•Expand privet sector
•Open to come new Ngo’s for youth welfare
• introduce programs for develop youth personality
•Give chance to participate decision making
RECOMMENDATIONS
• Establishment of Employment Offices
There is not any single office for the information about
employment opportunities in Srilanka. More and more
employment offices should be established these would cause in
reduction in unemployment.
• Population Control
Fast growth rate of population should be controlled. Due to
population control there will be more employment opportunities
and reduction in unemployment
• Growth of Industrial Sector
Government should provide basic infrastructure to established
industries is rural areas. Growth of industrial sector is needed to
reduce unemployment.
• Reduction in Retirement Period
Retirement age is 60 years in Srilanka. It should be reduce to
55 years to provide more employment opportunities
.
• Subsidies to Private Sector
Stable government is required to subsidize the private sector.
Government should help the private sector to development.
It will create more employment chances.
• Job on Merit
Government should eliminate the nepotism and favoritism.
Employment opportunities should be provided in accordance
to skill and ability.
• Economic Growth
Govt. should make efforts to push economic growth process.
For this purpose Economic Revival Package should announce
for the revival of industries sector, to stimulate production
and investment
• Fiscal and Monitory Policies
Beside this a number of fiscal and monetary measures
should take to attract industrialists and particularly
foreign investment.
• Export more than import
Government needs to motivate people to export more
than import through broadening the tax base and by
lowering down the tariff plans.
• Foreign Investment
The government need to make such policies that
attracts foreign investment in our country which will
lead to more job opportunities.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, another erupting challenge
standing before Srilanka is wide-spread
unemployment.
Thousands of educated graduates are jobless.
Hundreds of thousands of unemployed workers
are forced to lead their lives below their status.
Large scale unemployment has serious effects on
the country’s production also. Moreover, the
country’s population has drastically increased
during recent years.
Therefore, every step taken to improve the living
standard of common man proves to be futile and
ineffective.
We conclude that there are two major elements,
which can reduce the unemployment
i. e., use of labor intensive industries and
adoption of self-reliance policy.
Progress and prosperity is impossible without the
reduction in unemployment
Attachments
(YOUTH MOVMENTS)
Youth
References
Atal, Y. 2005. “Youth in Asia: An Overview.” In
Youth in Transition The Challenges of
Generational Change in Asia,eds. Fay Gale and
Stephanie Fahey. Bangkok,UNESCO.
Bandarage, A. 2000. “The Sri Lankan Conflict:
Broadening the Debate.” Speech given at the Sri
Lanka Symposium held by the Carnegie Council
on Ethics in International Affairs and Asia Society,
New York, June 13, 2000.
Hettige, S. T. 1994. “Impact of Political Violence on
Women in Southern SriLanka.” Colombo: University
of Colombo.
Kemper, Y. 2005. “Youth in War-to-Peace
Transitions Approaches of International
Organisations.” Berghof Research Center for
Constructive Conflict Manage -ment, Berlin.
Mayer, M. 2005. “Reflection on Social Development
in Sri Lanka.” In Perspectivesfor Social Development
in Sri Lanka,ed. S. T. Hettige and M. Mayer.
Colombo:Social Policy Analysis Research Centre.
Youth
Youth

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Youth

  • 1. N.R,Opanayaka 10/SL/181 youth Unrest And Welfare Disadvantage group
  • 2. Who are the youths? • The definition of a youth is a young person who has not yet reached adulthood and refers to the time period before you become an adult. (http://www.answers.com)
  • 3. Definition of Youth Development • Youth development is a process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a coordinated, progressive series of activities and experiences which help them to become socially, morally, emotionally, physically, and cognitively competent. (encyclopedia Americana)
  • 4. What is youth unrest? • Unrest can be defined as a restless mind or state of mental disturbance caused by the continued non-achievement of expectations of youth (http://www.answers.com)
  • 5. What is policy • a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization or individual. • action or procedure conforming to or considered with reference to prudence or expediency • Policy is used as a principle to make decisions and achieve rational outcomes. It is a statement implemented as a procedure, used in handbooks,law,etc. (http://www.answers.com)
  • 6. Youth Today • They are fiercely individualistic. • They are media-savvy. • They are comfortable with - and bombarded by - the abundance of technologies that exist today. • They are extremely stressed in their everyday lives. • They also strongly believe that they can make the world a better place- a perfect springboard for getting them involved as volunteers.
  • 7. • Today's young adults are open to finding several different ways to care. • Among the issues they find compelling are: –health –substance abuse –children's issues –the elderly –violence prevention –animal rights –and the environment
  • 8. Very important • Sri Lanka is the only country in the region that has not yet developed a youth policy. • Although there are many critical issues facing young people and despite a Presidential Commission on Youth being established in 1990 to look into the grievances of young people. • Sri Lanka has still not formulated a cohesive approach to addressing the issues faced by young people. • As a result, there are contradictions and gaps in the policy environment with regard to fulfilling the needs and protecting the rights of young people.
  • 9. Question • Who is responsible in formulating this Youth Policy? You are responsible for formulating the youth policy!
  • 10. Youth and major problems • Unemployment • Uneducated • Drug abuse • Sexual violence
  • 11. (Source: School-to-work-transition of youth in Sri Lanka, ILO&IMCAP, 2004)
  • 12. Unemployment Workless people can always be dangerous to a country’s security. • The frustrated youth of the country is falling a prey to drug- addiction, violence, theft, and many other social evils. Smugglers, drug-traffickers and terrorists are engaging them in heinous activities. • A Working Definition of Unemployment: “People able, available and willing to find work and actively seeking work – but not employ
  • 13. Major case to youth unemployment (SRILANKA) • The causes are endless and countless. But the major causes of unemployment in srilanka are as follows:- 1. Economic Causes 2. Social Causes 3. Financial Causes As a social problem
  • 14. Economic Causes • Low Industrial Growth Rate Low industrial growth rate is 1.7 % in Srilanka. Number of industries is not increasing in Srilanka. Lack of industries means less opportunities of employment. • Mechanization of Agriculture Due to mechanization of agriculture there is less use of labor in agricultural sector. These unemployed persons move to cities to find jobs at less wage rate. Accordingly, use of modern techniques in agricultural sector is also a further cause of unemployment and under employment
  • 15. • Reduction in Foreign Employment Due to illiteracy, ill training and lack of skill & efficiency demand for our labor in foreign market is decreasing. It also creates problem of unemployment. • Use of Advanced Technology A poor country uses backward techniques of production and labor intensive technologies. But when it uses the advanced technology there spread more unemployment in the country
  • 16. Social Causes • High Population Growth Rate The population of Srilanka is increasing at a rate of 2.1 %. Due to this high rate about one million people enter into the labor market each year. • Illiteracy & Literacy Illiteracy and literacy both are the causes of unemployment in Srilanka. Due to Illiteracy people are not able to work and they remain unemployed. On the other hand number of educated is increasing annually but government is unable to create employment opportunities e.g., students of B. Com. are increasing at very fast speed but they cannot find jobs and admissions for higher education. Rate of illiteracy in Srilanka is 42.3 %.
  • 17. • Follow New Trend of Education Students are that whenever there comes a new trend or a new technology, then everyone follows to study that specific subject only rather than differentiating themselves they all follow the same pattern. Later, when there are only 5-10 vacancies of that specific field the number of graduates of that field are in thousands. • Under Govt. Educational Institutions Around 80% of the educational institutions in Srilanka are under government. So, our educational and technical institutions do not equip the students properly to suit international and at times even local markets. • Lack of Confidence in Educated Persons A student may have a master’s degree ,but when he walks into an office for his interview, he lacks the confidence to carry himself for a formal conversation and in the end so many students of this type are rejected and left unemployed
  • 18. Lack of Technical Education Today, literacy rate is 57.7 %. Number of students of every field especially of commerce, are so large but employment opportunities for them are few. Rural-Urban Migration Srilankan agricultural based economy, is currently undergoing the process of mechanization. Labor is being replaced by machines, creating unemployment in rural areas. Political Instability There is political instability in Srianka, which creates less attraction for foreign investment. Due to political instability investor hesitates to invest.
  • 19. • Nepotism and Favoritism It means selection according to relation, language, caste, sects not according to ability. Here deserving candidates do not get jobs and remain unemployed or under employed. • Re-employment Re-employment of higher rank civil and especially armed forces officers has decline the jobs for qualified young men in Srilanka
  • 20. Financial Causes • Lack of Credit Facilities It is so difficult to manage the personal business and self-employment due to absence of easy credit facilities. Accordingly, shortage of credit facilities is also a main cause of unemployment • Deficiency of Capital There is shortage of capital that leads to low level of saving and investment in Srilanka. It results in low rate of capital formation and caused in unemployment
  • 22. Pakistan Unemployment is one of the major issues confronted by our youth today. Every year many new graduates are added into the labor force but few of them get very good jobs; some others get a reasonable one but many keep on looking for jobs for a long time. Recently, the unemployment rate of Pakistan increased to 6.5% and so it can be said that one out of every 10 people of the country are suffering from unemployment. The unemployment rate in urban areas of Pakistan increased by 2% to 10.1%, whereas, the unemployment rate in rural areas increased from 4.3% to 5%.
  • 23. According to Economic Survey of 2010-11, population of Pakistan is 177.1 million. Total labor force is about 54.92 million out of which 51.87 million is employed and remaining 3.05 million is unemployed. Rate of male unemployment is 5.6 % and female unemployment is 9.3 %. You will find so many graduates, master students, engineers and people of every profession being wasted due to unstable employment system in Pakistan Not only educated people of Pakistan, but also the labor class is going through a rough phase and their daily life has become a living hell for them
  • 24. India Countr y 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 India 8.8 9.5 9.2 8.9 7.8 7.2 6.8 10.7 10.8 9.9 Source- India annual major bank
  • 25. US(AMARICA) The increased duration of unemployment is associated with a historically low job opening to unemployment ratio. JOLTS Data Although there is an apparent adverse shift in the Beverage, the role for mismatch and the effect of extended UI benefits is small (1- 1.5%).
  • 27. Source- us annual major bank
  • 28. Source- us annual major bank
  • 29. Policies to reduce Unemployment • Expending foreign works for all youths(UN) • Higher education scholarship • Introducing online jobs • Introducing youth parliament for take their decisions • RIO Ngo programs for under develop country youths
  • 30. Present welfare programs (Commonly) • UN Youth care programs • WHO Youth health programs • Peer to peer youth sex Knowles development programs(USA) • Love for youth education program • Indian program for “rode for youth”
  • 31. Youth programs for youth development
  • 33. Causes of Unemployment • Rapid Population Growth • Economic Inflation • Economic Recession • Changing Technology • Demand for highly skilled labor • Global Competition • Illiteracy
  • 35. Policies to reduce Unemployment National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was enacted in 2005 as a job guarantee scheme  Presidents Employment Generation Programme  National Food for Work Programme  Presidents Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PIUPEP)  The Swaran Jayanti youth Yojana  Youth Samridhi Yojana  Youth parliament
  • 36. • “Tharunyata hetak” • ‘Heta tharunyaya’ • “Angathaya ada dakimu” • “Adin hetata piyawarak” Present welfare programs
  • 37. STEPS OF GOVERNMENT OF S AGAINST UNEMPLOYMENT • SMEDA (SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES DEVELOPMENT) SMEDA provides loans to the deserving persons to establishment of Small and Medium industries. • SKILL DEVELOPMENT COUNCILS Skill Development Council is play vital rule to educate the people who desired to improved their technical qualification in industrial and other organizations. • OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT CORPORATION (OEC) Overseas Employment Corporation (OEC)was established in 1996 by Govt. of Srilanaka and is only employment promotion agency operating in public sector
  • 38. Proposals of new welfare programs •Give more chance to youth to come parliament •Expanding to education choice who like to education •Introducing more chance to improve small youth business crops •Fascinate low rate monitory facility for youth high education •Expand privet sector •Open to come new Ngo’s for youth welfare • introduce programs for develop youth personality •Give chance to participate decision making
  • 39. RECOMMENDATIONS • Establishment of Employment Offices There is not any single office for the information about employment opportunities in Srilanka. More and more employment offices should be established these would cause in reduction in unemployment. • Population Control Fast growth rate of population should be controlled. Due to population control there will be more employment opportunities and reduction in unemployment • Growth of Industrial Sector Government should provide basic infrastructure to established industries is rural areas. Growth of industrial sector is needed to reduce unemployment.
  • 40. • Reduction in Retirement Period Retirement age is 60 years in Srilanka. It should be reduce to 55 years to provide more employment opportunities . • Subsidies to Private Sector Stable government is required to subsidize the private sector. Government should help the private sector to development. It will create more employment chances. • Job on Merit Government should eliminate the nepotism and favoritism. Employment opportunities should be provided in accordance to skill and ability. • Economic Growth Govt. should make efforts to push economic growth process. For this purpose Economic Revival Package should announce for the revival of industries sector, to stimulate production and investment
  • 41. • Fiscal and Monitory Policies Beside this a number of fiscal and monetary measures should take to attract industrialists and particularly foreign investment. • Export more than import Government needs to motivate people to export more than import through broadening the tax base and by lowering down the tariff plans. • Foreign Investment The government need to make such policies that attracts foreign investment in our country which will lead to more job opportunities.
  • 42. CONCLUSION In conclusion, another erupting challenge standing before Srilanka is wide-spread unemployment. Thousands of educated graduates are jobless. Hundreds of thousands of unemployed workers are forced to lead their lives below their status. Large scale unemployment has serious effects on the country’s production also. Moreover, the country’s population has drastically increased during recent years.
  • 43. Therefore, every step taken to improve the living standard of common man proves to be futile and ineffective. We conclude that there are two major elements, which can reduce the unemployment i. e., use of labor intensive industries and adoption of self-reliance policy. Progress and prosperity is impossible without the reduction in unemployment
  • 46. References Atal, Y. 2005. “Youth in Asia: An Overview.” In Youth in Transition The Challenges of Generational Change in Asia,eds. Fay Gale and Stephanie Fahey. Bangkok,UNESCO. Bandarage, A. 2000. “The Sri Lankan Conflict: Broadening the Debate.” Speech given at the Sri Lanka Symposium held by the Carnegie Council on Ethics in International Affairs and Asia Society, New York, June 13, 2000.
  • 47. Hettige, S. T. 1994. “Impact of Political Violence on Women in Southern SriLanka.” Colombo: University of Colombo. Kemper, Y. 2005. “Youth in War-to-Peace Transitions Approaches of International Organisations.” Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Manage -ment, Berlin. Mayer, M. 2005. “Reflection on Social Development in Sri Lanka.” In Perspectivesfor Social Development in Sri Lanka,ed. S. T. Hettige and M. Mayer. Colombo:Social Policy Analysis Research Centre.