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Yellow fever
What is Yellow Fever?
• An acute viral hemorrhagic disease
• Family: Flaviviridae
• Genus: Flavivirus
• It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes and ticks
Transmission Cycles
There are 3 types of transmission cycles
• Sylvatic (or jungle) Transmission
• Intermediate Transmission
• Urban Transmission
Signs and symptoms
The incubation period is 3–6 days.
• Yellow eyes
• Headache
• Backache
• Vomiting
• Bleeding
• Death occurs on day 7–10 of illness.
• About 15% of cases, the disease progresses to a more severe form, with fever, jaundice,
renal failure, and hemorrhagic manifestations.
Viral Structure
• Positive-sense, single-stranded, RNA enveloped flavivirus
• 50-60 nm diameter.
• Capsid protein C
• Membrane protein M
• E proteins
• Nonstructural protein 1
• NS2A protein
• NS2B and NS3
• NS5
Diagnosis
• Virus Detection or Isolation - Blood tests (RT-PCR) can sometimes detect the virus in the
early stages of the disease. In later stages of the disease, testing to identify antibodies is
needed (ELISA and PRNT).
• Serological test - The detection of IgM antibody by ELISA capture in a single sample
provides a presumptive diagnosis, with confirmation by a fourfold or greater rise in titer of
neutralizing antibody between acute phase and convalescent phase serum samples.
Treatment
• Patients should be hospitalized for supportive care and close observation.
• Rest, fluids, and use of pain relievers and medication to reduce fever may relieve
symptoms of aching and fever.
• Care should be taken to avoid certain medications, such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs, which may increase the risk of bleeding.
• Yellow fever patients should be protected from further mosquito exposure for up to 5 days
after the onset of fever.
Prevention
• Yellow Fever Vaccine (YF-Vax)
• STAMARIL

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Yellow fever

  • 1. Yellow fever What is Yellow Fever? • An acute viral hemorrhagic disease • Family: Flaviviridae • Genus: Flavivirus • It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes and ticks Transmission Cycles There are 3 types of transmission cycles • Sylvatic (or jungle) Transmission • Intermediate Transmission • Urban Transmission Signs and symptoms The incubation period is 3–6 days. • Yellow eyes • Headache • Backache • Vomiting • Bleeding • Death occurs on day 7–10 of illness. • About 15% of cases, the disease progresses to a more severe form, with fever, jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhagic manifestations. Viral Structure • Positive-sense, single-stranded, RNA enveloped flavivirus • 50-60 nm diameter. • Capsid protein C • Membrane protein M • E proteins • Nonstructural protein 1 • NS2A protein • NS2B and NS3 • NS5 Diagnosis • Virus Detection or Isolation - Blood tests (RT-PCR) can sometimes detect the virus in the early stages of the disease. In later stages of the disease, testing to identify antibodies is needed (ELISA and PRNT).
  • 2. • Serological test - The detection of IgM antibody by ELISA capture in a single sample provides a presumptive diagnosis, with confirmation by a fourfold or greater rise in titer of neutralizing antibody between acute phase and convalescent phase serum samples. Treatment • Patients should be hospitalized for supportive care and close observation. • Rest, fluids, and use of pain relievers and medication to reduce fever may relieve symptoms of aching and fever. • Care should be taken to avoid certain medications, such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which may increase the risk of bleeding. • Yellow fever patients should be protected from further mosquito exposure for up to 5 days after the onset of fever. Prevention • Yellow Fever Vaccine (YF-Vax) • STAMARIL