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RED TEMÁTICA –ELECTRICIDAD:
REDES ELÉCTRICAS INTELIGENTES
Ph.D. Juan Manuel Gers
PRESIDENTE
Cuidad de Panamá , Panamá
Septiembre, 2016
Table of Contents
• Introduction
• Smart Grid Fundamentals
• Integration of Renewable Energy using Smart Grids
• Information and Communication in Smart Grids
• Smart Grid around the world
• Challenges and recommendation for Latin American
• Conclusions
Smart Grid Fundamentals
WHAT IS THE SMART GRID?
Defining the Smart Grid is in itself tricky business.
Select six stakeholders and you will likely get at least six
definitions.
"is an electrical grid that uses computers and other technology to
gather and act on information, such as information about the
behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion
to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability
of the production and distribution of electricity.”.
Smart grid,
as defined
by the
Department
of Energy
Smart Meters
Smart Generation Smart Feeders
Smart SubstationSmart Transmission
Some advantages:
• Enhancing Reliability
• Improving System Efficiency
• Allow the integration of Distributed Energy
Resources
• Possibility of two-way communication with
customers
• Optimizing Asset Utilization and Efficient
Operation
• Encourage Energy Demand Management
Smart Grid Fundamentals
Some barriers:
• Costs
• Regulatory Barriers
• Lack of Open Standards
Modernization of the electrical grid
Communication
Architecture
Power System
Architecture
Asset
management
Application
AMI
Application
FLISR
Application
IT
Architecture
… N
Application
Articulation here is required!
Smart Grid Methodology
Integration tool:
Utility components
Project 1
Project 2
Project 3
… Project N
Time
Smart Grid Fundamentals
Maturity
Model
Smart Grid Fundamentals
Smart Grid Maturity Model – Levels
Strategy, Mgmt & Regulatory
SMR
Vision, planning, governance,
stakeholder collaboration
Organization and Structure
OS
Culture, structure, training,
communications, knowledge mgmt
Grid Operations
GO
Reliability, efficiency, security, safety,
observability, control
Work & Asset Management
WAM
Asset monitoring, tracking &
maintenance, mobile workforce
Technology
TECH
IT architecture, standards,
infrastructure, integration, tools
Customer
CUST
Pricing, customer participation &
experience, advanced services
Value Chain Integration
VCI
Demand & supply management,
leveraging market opportunities
Societal & Environmental
SE
Responsibility, sustainability, critical
infrastructure, efficiency
Smart Grid Maturity Model – Levels
PIONEERING
Breaking new ground; industry-leading innovation
Optimizing smart grid to benefit entire organization; may
reach beyond organization; increased automation
Investing based on clear strategy, implementing first
projects to enable smart grid (may be compartmentalized)
Taking the first steps, exploring options, conducting
experiments, developing smart grid vision
Default level (status quo)
Integrating smart grid deployments across the
organization, realizing measurably improved performance
SGMM at a Glance
5
4
3
2
1
0 SMR
Strategy,
Management, &
Regulatory
OS
Organization &
Structure
GO
Grid Operations
WAM
Work & Asset
Management
TECH
Technology
CUST
Customer
VCI
Value Chain
Integration
SE
Societal &
Environmental
8 Domains: Logical groupings of smart grid related characteristics
6 Maturity Levels: Defined sets of characteristics and outcomes
175 Characteristics: Features you would expect to see at
each stage of the smart grid journey
Point Range Meaning
≥ 0.70 Green reflects level compliance within the domain
≥ 0.40 and < 0.70 Yellow reflects significant progress
< 0.40 Red reflects initial progress
= 0 Grey reflects has not started
Compass results: dashboard
Level
5 0,20 0,47 0,15 0,00 0,60 0,20 0,37 0,30
4 0,23 0,00 0,20 0,15 0,45 0,37 0,23 0,40
3 0,28 0,65 0,53 0,39 0,70 0,49 0,53 0,33
2 0,55 0,68 0,93 1,00 0,80 0,82 0,73 0,76
1 0,90 0,80 0,94 0,77 0,88 0,60 0,72 0,38
0 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
North South Electric Power Current
Work & Asset
Management
Societal &
Environmental
Customer
Organization &
Structure
Strategy,
Management &
Regulatory
Grid
Operations
Technology
Value Chain
Integration
1 1
2 2
3
0
2
0
NSEP today
Compass results: maturity profile
Case Study Compass results
Methodology to define the Road map
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6 Step 7 Step 8
Step 9
Utility’s current
status
Vision-Goals
Strategic Roadmap
State-of-
the-Art
Smart Grid
Topics
Utility’s
future
status
Maturity Model
Maturity Model
Evaluation of
current status
Evaluation of
future status
Gap
Analysis
List of
requirements
Selection of
solutions Cost/Benefit
Analysis
Revision of requirements
and solutions
Identified
solutions
List of
Business
Needs
Business
Cases
Use Cases
Detailed user’s
requirements
Technical
specifications
Final Report
Description of user’s
requirements
Development of
user’s requirements
Evaluation of
standards,
technologies and
best practices
Development of technical
specifications
IntelliGrid
Methodology
Smart Grid Fundamentals
Source: http://www.renesas.eu/ecology/eco_society/smart_grid/
Maturity Model
Maturity Level
Characteristics
Integration Challenges
Technical
Physical
•Distributed Generation Integration
•Microgrids Integration
•Short Circuit Current and Protection
•Energy Storage Integration
•Energy Vehicle Integration
System Challenges
•Security of Energy Supply
•Frequency Control
•Voltage Control
Market and Regulatory
Challenges
System integration – IEEE Std 1547
System integration – IEEE Std 1547
IEEE Std 1547™-2003 - IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric
Power Systems
•IEEE Std 1547a™-2014 (Amendment to IEEE Std 1547™-2003)
IEEE Std 1547.1™-2005 - IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment
Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
•IEEE Std 1547.1a™-2015 (Amendment to IEEE Std 1547.1™-2005)
IEEE Std 1547.2™-2008 - IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547™, IEEE Standard for
Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
IEEE Std 1547.3™-2007 - IEEE Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange, and Control of
Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems
IEEE Std 1547.4™-2011 - IEEE Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed
Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems
IEEE Std 1547.6™-2011 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Interconnecting Distributed
Resources with Electric Power Systems Distribution Secondary Networks
IEEE Std 1547.7™-2013 - IEEE Guide for Conducting Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed
Resource Interconnection
P1547.8/D8, Jul 2014 - IEEE Draft Recommended Practice for Establishing Methods and
Procedures that Provide Supplemental Support for Implementation Strategies for Expanded Use
of IEEE Standard 1547
What is Interoperability?
IEEE 2030 – 2011: “Interoperability is the capability of two or more
networks, systems, devices, applications, or components to
externally exchange and readily use information securely and
effectively.”
Smart Grid interoperability provides the ability to communicate
effectively and transfer meaningful data, even though they may be
using a variety of different information systems over widely different
infrastructures, sometimes across different geographic regions and
cultures.
IT on Smart Grid
The Problem
“Everyone speaks his own
language”
There is a lot of Information
exchange formats. This makes hard
the sharing data between different
companies, and very costly the
software maintenance and upgrade.
It’s necessary to unify the way that
companies represent the data for
different applications.
IT on Smart Grid
IT on Smart Grid
 
2
1 nn
Converters
n Converters
PSSEEMTP
SCADA
GIS
Asset
Management
Event Log
Enterprise Bus + Exchange Format CIM
EMTP
SCADA
GIS
Asset
Management
Event Log
PSSE
IT on Smart Grid
Renewable Energy Policy Status in Latin America
COUNTRY
Renewableenergytargets
REGULATORY POLICIES
FISCAL INCENTIVES
AND PUBLIC FINANCING
Feed-intariff/premium
payment
Electricutilityquota
obligation/RPS
Netmetering
Biofuelsobligation/mandate
Heatobligation/mandate
TradableREC
Tendering
Capitalsubsidy,grant,or
rebate
Investmentorproductiontax
credits
Reductionsinsales,energy,
CO2,VAT,orothertaxes
Energyproductionpayment
Publicinvestment,loans,or
grants
Argentina O O O R O O
Barbados O O N O N O O
Belize O O O
Brazil O O R ON O O O O O
Chile O O O N O O O O O
Colombia O N O O
Costa Rica O R N O N O O O
Dominican Republic O O O N R N
Ecuador O O O O O
El Salvador O O O O O
Guatemala O O O O O O
Guyana O O O O
Haiti O O O O
Honduras O O N O O O O
Jamaica O O O O O O
Mexico O O O O O O
Nicaragua O O O O O
Panama O O O O O
Paraguay O O O O
Peru O O O O O
Trinidad y Tobago O O
Uruguay O O O O O O
O - Existing national (could also include state/provincial)
ON - Existing state/provincial (but no national)
R - Revised
N - New
Source: REN21. Annual Reporting on Renewables: Ten years of excellence. (2015).
Opportunities in Latin America
Country Description
Argentina Energía Argentina S.A. (ENARSA) are implementing for several years actions to obtain an active
monitoring of equipment associated with the transmission system. They have implemented the
Distributed Generation Program created to respond to the challenge of the development of
Smart Grids in the Argentine country. Moreover, the largest distribution of electricity called
EDENOR has implemented a number of technologies to achieve an intelligent management of
the power grid.
Brazil Smart Grid has become in one of the most important concepts in the Brazilian energy sector,
since the topic drive many policies that are aligned with the economic growth of the country. In
2010, many Brazilian utilities started a deep study in Smart Grids, in order to prepare and
manage their investment in new infrastructures, research and development and the grid
modernization. In 2020, Brazil government want to expand the Smart Grid concept in their
electrical grid. Companies like Companhia Energética do Ceará (COELCE) or Centrais Elétricas
de Santa Catarina S.A. (CELESC) have been focused on Smart Metering.
Chile Chilean Energy system was one of the first in Latin America that regulated the participation of
Smart Grids and the integration of Renewable Energy Technologies. The Chilean government
has defined an energy strategy stated in the “Estrategia Nacional de Energía 2012-2030”
published by the Ministerio de Energía on February 2012, which indicates the development of
distributed generation, smart metering technologies (focusing on Net Metering) and smart
grids as a target. The company Chilectra has started in 2011 the first project of smart metering
in Santiago. Santiago is actually one of the first cities in Latin America supporting the diffusion
of smart grid technologies, which are key to the development of more sustainable energy
systems. The Smart City Santiago project consists in providing state of the art technologies.
Opportunities in Latin America
Country Description
Colombia The definition of Smart Grids Vision 2030 Colombia was structured, a document which was
done by the Mining-Energy Planning Unit (UPME) that includes not only the challenges that
must be faced by the country in order to implement this Smart Grid vision, but also the tasks
and requirements that must be carried out. There are AMI projects developed by EPSA, Emcali
and Electricaribe using the PLC technology. Law 1715 was implemented in 2014, which
establishes the legal framework and instruments for the use of non-conventional energy
sources (especially those from renewable sources). At the end of 2010, XM, CNO, CAC, COCIER,
CIDET and CINTEL promoted the creation of COLOMBIA INTELIGENTE in order to promote the
development of the electrical sector under the concept of Smart Grids.
Costa Rica The eight biggest distribution local companies applied the Maturity Model of the Software
Engineering Institute. The application of the methodology helps to evaluate and diagnose the
current situation of electricity companies, as well as the aspiration for the future and the
development of a roadmap for the implementation of intelligent solutions in electrical service.
These was done with the support of the CECACIER and CRUSA.
Mexico The Smart Grids development in the Mexico incorporates digital technology in each part of the
energy system chain. They have facilitated the incorporation of renewable energy to the
Mexican energy matrix. The biggest energy company in the country called Federal Electricity
Commission (CFE) is carrying out a project to improve the exchange of data in order to monitor
and control electrical parameters of the power grid by using wireless technology. The CFE in
conjunction with ELSTER Group have invested in an AMI solution to install it into their grid.
Panama The Secretaria Nacional de Energia de Panama (SNE) has acknowledged the importance of the
potential of smart grids as an enabler for the National Energy Strategy. The, SNE must conduct a
study on the legislative, regulatory and operational actions to progressively adopt smart grids
concepts and technologies in the distribution system of Panama.
Challenges and recommendation for Latin American
• Smart Grid vision is already started to be considered in many regulatory and
technological aspects in the different countries of Latin America and around
the world.
• After the definition of the Smart Grid Road Map, a suitable policy and
legislative framework can be developed at the different responsibilities level.
• Smart Grids will allow an easy participation of the new technologies, including
all the components associated with distributed generation. Latin American
countries have an interesting opportunity to use non-conventional energy
resources because the good availability in comparisons with other countries.
• Specific cost-benefits scenarios must be analyzed in the various Latin
American situations by the different stakeholders and implemented
considering the potential of policy and regulation adaptation.
• The development of smart grids technologies relies on technology
interoperability, which is achieved through an adequate standardization.
Conclusions
• Smart Grid implementation process is still an ongoing effort in the
whole world. State of arts showed that nothing have been developed
completely regarding this topic.
• There are still some open questions about standardization process,
selection of smart grid applications and regulatory aspects.
• Latin-American governments must invest in the effort to ease the
definition of the energy modernization goals.
• Latin-American countries are already aware about the importance of
the Smart Grid implementation in their electric grids. Then, for 2030
it is expected that Latin-American countries at least have defined a
Smart Grid vision and a road map developed.
jmgers@gersusa.com

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V-ELEC 12 Redes Inteligentes en la Region LAC, vision 2030

  • 1. RED TEMÁTICA –ELECTRICIDAD: REDES ELÉCTRICAS INTELIGENTES Ph.D. Juan Manuel Gers PRESIDENTE Cuidad de Panamá , Panamá Septiembre, 2016
  • 2. Table of Contents • Introduction • Smart Grid Fundamentals • Integration of Renewable Energy using Smart Grids • Information and Communication in Smart Grids • Smart Grid around the world • Challenges and recommendation for Latin American • Conclusions
  • 3. Smart Grid Fundamentals WHAT IS THE SMART GRID? Defining the Smart Grid is in itself tricky business. Select six stakeholders and you will likely get at least six definitions. "is an electrical grid that uses computers and other technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.”. Smart grid, as defined by the Department of Energy
  • 4. Smart Meters Smart Generation Smart Feeders Smart SubstationSmart Transmission Some advantages: • Enhancing Reliability • Improving System Efficiency • Allow the integration of Distributed Energy Resources • Possibility of two-way communication with customers • Optimizing Asset Utilization and Efficient Operation • Encourage Energy Demand Management Smart Grid Fundamentals Some barriers: • Costs • Regulatory Barriers • Lack of Open Standards
  • 5. Modernization of the electrical grid Communication Architecture Power System Architecture Asset management Application AMI Application FLISR Application IT Architecture … N Application Articulation here is required! Smart Grid Methodology Integration tool: Utility components Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 … Project N Time Smart Grid Fundamentals
  • 7. Smart Grid Maturity Model – Levels Strategy, Mgmt & Regulatory SMR Vision, planning, governance, stakeholder collaboration Organization and Structure OS Culture, structure, training, communications, knowledge mgmt Grid Operations GO Reliability, efficiency, security, safety, observability, control Work & Asset Management WAM Asset monitoring, tracking & maintenance, mobile workforce Technology TECH IT architecture, standards, infrastructure, integration, tools Customer CUST Pricing, customer participation & experience, advanced services Value Chain Integration VCI Demand & supply management, leveraging market opportunities Societal & Environmental SE Responsibility, sustainability, critical infrastructure, efficiency
  • 8. Smart Grid Maturity Model – Levels PIONEERING Breaking new ground; industry-leading innovation Optimizing smart grid to benefit entire organization; may reach beyond organization; increased automation Investing based on clear strategy, implementing first projects to enable smart grid (may be compartmentalized) Taking the first steps, exploring options, conducting experiments, developing smart grid vision Default level (status quo) Integrating smart grid deployments across the organization, realizing measurably improved performance
  • 9. SGMM at a Glance 5 4 3 2 1 0 SMR Strategy, Management, & Regulatory OS Organization & Structure GO Grid Operations WAM Work & Asset Management TECH Technology CUST Customer VCI Value Chain Integration SE Societal & Environmental 8 Domains: Logical groupings of smart grid related characteristics 6 Maturity Levels: Defined sets of characteristics and outcomes 175 Characteristics: Features you would expect to see at each stage of the smart grid journey
  • 10. Point Range Meaning ≥ 0.70 Green reflects level compliance within the domain ≥ 0.40 and < 0.70 Yellow reflects significant progress < 0.40 Red reflects initial progress = 0 Grey reflects has not started Compass results: dashboard Level 5 0,20 0,47 0,15 0,00 0,60 0,20 0,37 0,30 4 0,23 0,00 0,20 0,15 0,45 0,37 0,23 0,40 3 0,28 0,65 0,53 0,39 0,70 0,49 0,53 0,33 2 0,55 0,68 0,93 1,00 0,80 0,82 0,73 0,76 1 0,90 0,80 0,94 0,77 0,88 0,60 0,72 0,38 0 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 North South Electric Power Current Work & Asset Management Societal & Environmental Customer Organization & Structure Strategy, Management & Regulatory Grid Operations Technology Value Chain Integration
  • 11. 1 1 2 2 3 0 2 0 NSEP today Compass results: maturity profile
  • 13. Methodology to define the Road map Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Utility’s current status Vision-Goals Strategic Roadmap State-of- the-Art Smart Grid Topics Utility’s future status Maturity Model Maturity Model Evaluation of current status Evaluation of future status Gap Analysis List of requirements Selection of solutions Cost/Benefit Analysis Revision of requirements and solutions Identified solutions List of Business Needs Business Cases Use Cases Detailed user’s requirements Technical specifications Final Report Description of user’s requirements Development of user’s requirements Evaluation of standards, technologies and best practices Development of technical specifications IntelliGrid Methodology
  • 14. Smart Grid Fundamentals Source: http://www.renesas.eu/ecology/eco_society/smart_grid/ Maturity Model Maturity Level Characteristics
  • 15. Integration Challenges Technical Physical •Distributed Generation Integration •Microgrids Integration •Short Circuit Current and Protection •Energy Storage Integration •Energy Vehicle Integration System Challenges •Security of Energy Supply •Frequency Control •Voltage Control Market and Regulatory Challenges
  • 16. System integration – IEEE Std 1547
  • 17. System integration – IEEE Std 1547 IEEE Std 1547™-2003 - IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems •IEEE Std 1547a™-2014 (Amendment to IEEE Std 1547™-2003) IEEE Std 1547.1™-2005 - IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems •IEEE Std 1547.1a™-2015 (Amendment to IEEE Std 1547.1™-2005) IEEE Std 1547.2™-2008 - IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547™, IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems IEEE Std 1547.3™-2007 - IEEE Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange, and Control of Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems IEEE Std 1547.4™-2011 - IEEE Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems IEEE Std 1547.6™-2011 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems Distribution Secondary Networks IEEE Std 1547.7™-2013 - IEEE Guide for Conducting Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed Resource Interconnection P1547.8/D8, Jul 2014 - IEEE Draft Recommended Practice for Establishing Methods and Procedures that Provide Supplemental Support for Implementation Strategies for Expanded Use of IEEE Standard 1547
  • 18. What is Interoperability? IEEE 2030 – 2011: “Interoperability is the capability of two or more networks, systems, devices, applications, or components to externally exchange and readily use information securely and effectively.” Smart Grid interoperability provides the ability to communicate effectively and transfer meaningful data, even though they may be using a variety of different information systems over widely different infrastructures, sometimes across different geographic regions and cultures. IT on Smart Grid
  • 19. The Problem “Everyone speaks his own language” There is a lot of Information exchange formats. This makes hard the sharing data between different companies, and very costly the software maintenance and upgrade. It’s necessary to unify the way that companies represent the data for different applications. IT on Smart Grid
  • 20. IT on Smart Grid
  • 21.   2 1 nn Converters n Converters PSSEEMTP SCADA GIS Asset Management Event Log Enterprise Bus + Exchange Format CIM EMTP SCADA GIS Asset Management Event Log PSSE IT on Smart Grid
  • 22. Renewable Energy Policy Status in Latin America COUNTRY Renewableenergytargets REGULATORY POLICIES FISCAL INCENTIVES AND PUBLIC FINANCING Feed-intariff/premium payment Electricutilityquota obligation/RPS Netmetering Biofuelsobligation/mandate Heatobligation/mandate TradableREC Tendering Capitalsubsidy,grant,or rebate Investmentorproductiontax credits Reductionsinsales,energy, CO2,VAT,orothertaxes Energyproductionpayment Publicinvestment,loans,or grants Argentina O O O R O O Barbados O O N O N O O Belize O O O Brazil O O R ON O O O O O Chile O O O N O O O O O Colombia O N O O Costa Rica O R N O N O O O Dominican Republic O O O N R N Ecuador O O O O O El Salvador O O O O O Guatemala O O O O O O Guyana O O O O Haiti O O O O Honduras O O N O O O O Jamaica O O O O O O Mexico O O O O O O Nicaragua O O O O O Panama O O O O O Paraguay O O O O Peru O O O O O Trinidad y Tobago O O Uruguay O O O O O O O - Existing national (could also include state/provincial) ON - Existing state/provincial (but no national) R - Revised N - New Source: REN21. Annual Reporting on Renewables: Ten years of excellence. (2015).
  • 23. Opportunities in Latin America Country Description Argentina Energía Argentina S.A. (ENARSA) are implementing for several years actions to obtain an active monitoring of equipment associated with the transmission system. They have implemented the Distributed Generation Program created to respond to the challenge of the development of Smart Grids in the Argentine country. Moreover, the largest distribution of electricity called EDENOR has implemented a number of technologies to achieve an intelligent management of the power grid. Brazil Smart Grid has become in one of the most important concepts in the Brazilian energy sector, since the topic drive many policies that are aligned with the economic growth of the country. In 2010, many Brazilian utilities started a deep study in Smart Grids, in order to prepare and manage their investment in new infrastructures, research and development and the grid modernization. In 2020, Brazil government want to expand the Smart Grid concept in their electrical grid. Companies like Companhia Energética do Ceará (COELCE) or Centrais Elétricas de Santa Catarina S.A. (CELESC) have been focused on Smart Metering. Chile Chilean Energy system was one of the first in Latin America that regulated the participation of Smart Grids and the integration of Renewable Energy Technologies. The Chilean government has defined an energy strategy stated in the “Estrategia Nacional de Energía 2012-2030” published by the Ministerio de Energía on February 2012, which indicates the development of distributed generation, smart metering technologies (focusing on Net Metering) and smart grids as a target. The company Chilectra has started in 2011 the first project of smart metering in Santiago. Santiago is actually one of the first cities in Latin America supporting the diffusion of smart grid technologies, which are key to the development of more sustainable energy systems. The Smart City Santiago project consists in providing state of the art technologies.
  • 24. Opportunities in Latin America Country Description Colombia The definition of Smart Grids Vision 2030 Colombia was structured, a document which was done by the Mining-Energy Planning Unit (UPME) that includes not only the challenges that must be faced by the country in order to implement this Smart Grid vision, but also the tasks and requirements that must be carried out. There are AMI projects developed by EPSA, Emcali and Electricaribe using the PLC technology. Law 1715 was implemented in 2014, which establishes the legal framework and instruments for the use of non-conventional energy sources (especially those from renewable sources). At the end of 2010, XM, CNO, CAC, COCIER, CIDET and CINTEL promoted the creation of COLOMBIA INTELIGENTE in order to promote the development of the electrical sector under the concept of Smart Grids. Costa Rica The eight biggest distribution local companies applied the Maturity Model of the Software Engineering Institute. The application of the methodology helps to evaluate and diagnose the current situation of electricity companies, as well as the aspiration for the future and the development of a roadmap for the implementation of intelligent solutions in electrical service. These was done with the support of the CECACIER and CRUSA. Mexico The Smart Grids development in the Mexico incorporates digital technology in each part of the energy system chain. They have facilitated the incorporation of renewable energy to the Mexican energy matrix. The biggest energy company in the country called Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) is carrying out a project to improve the exchange of data in order to monitor and control electrical parameters of the power grid by using wireless technology. The CFE in conjunction with ELSTER Group have invested in an AMI solution to install it into their grid. Panama The Secretaria Nacional de Energia de Panama (SNE) has acknowledged the importance of the potential of smart grids as an enabler for the National Energy Strategy. The, SNE must conduct a study on the legislative, regulatory and operational actions to progressively adopt smart grids concepts and technologies in the distribution system of Panama.
  • 25. Challenges and recommendation for Latin American • Smart Grid vision is already started to be considered in many regulatory and technological aspects in the different countries of Latin America and around the world. • After the definition of the Smart Grid Road Map, a suitable policy and legislative framework can be developed at the different responsibilities level. • Smart Grids will allow an easy participation of the new technologies, including all the components associated with distributed generation. Latin American countries have an interesting opportunity to use non-conventional energy resources because the good availability in comparisons with other countries. • Specific cost-benefits scenarios must be analyzed in the various Latin American situations by the different stakeholders and implemented considering the potential of policy and regulation adaptation. • The development of smart grids technologies relies on technology interoperability, which is achieved through an adequate standardization.
  • 26. Conclusions • Smart Grid implementation process is still an ongoing effort in the whole world. State of arts showed that nothing have been developed completely regarding this topic. • There are still some open questions about standardization process, selection of smart grid applications and regulatory aspects. • Latin-American governments must invest in the effort to ease the definition of the energy modernization goals. • Latin-American countries are already aware about the importance of the Smart Grid implementation in their electric grids. Then, for 2030 it is expected that Latin-American countries at least have defined a Smart Grid vision and a road map developed.

Editor's Notes

  1. Titulo Texto
  2. DG One possibility that helps to achieve this goal corresponds to the high integration of Distributed Generators (DG) [9]. They increase the reliability of the system since they are generation units spread around the whole system. Then, one unit can be disconnected for maintenance with only a moderate effect on the rest of the power system. Additionally, they can be placed close to the end-user, thus decreasing transmission and distribution costs and electrical losses. They are particularly interesting for the integration of renewable energy sources, which make possible the use of clean sources of energy. Their modularity is another advantages, since they can be installed in short time. The main benefit of integrating DGs is the possibility of having generation at the user level that increases service reliability. If the source comes from green power, not only the price is lowered but also the pollution emission. However, important considerations must be done. For example, short circuit levels increase along the feeders with the DG, which increase the withstand capabilities of breakers, sectionalizers, reclosers, capacitors, etc. In particular extra care has to be exercised with breakers and reclosers to make sure that their duties are above the maximum total short circuit currents. Also, the reclosing functionality at the substation that feeds distribution lines should be disabled if there is not a proper way to open the generators connected along the feeders upon the occurrence and clarification of a fault. This prevents the possibility of energizing a line with generation at the other end without following an appropriate synchronization procedure. This of course reduces the flexibility of the operation but is required to avoid accidents that could be fatal.
  3. MICROGRID Microgrids can play an important role in integrating renewable energy sources into the desired Smart Grid. They are localized grids that can be disconnected from the main grid to operate autonomously and help mitigate grid disturbances to strengthen grid resilience. Microgrids can help mitigate grid disturbances and strengthen grid resilience because they can continue operating while the grid is down, and they can function as a grid resource for faster system response and recovery. They support an efficient and flexible grid, by enabling the integration of distributed energy resources, combined heat and power, and energy storage. Additionally, it could be a reduction of energy losses in transmission and distribution in the same way that was stated for distributed generator units.
  4. Frequency regulation: The energy storage system is charged or discharged in response to an increase or decrease, respectively, of grid frequency. This approach to frequency regulation is a particularly attractive option due to its rapid response time and emission-free operation. Spinning reserve: To provide effective spinning reserve, the energy storage system is maintained at a level of charge ready to respond to a generation or transmission outage. Depending on the application, the system can respond within milliseconds or minutes and supply power to maintain network continuity while the back-up generator is started and brought on line. This enables generators to work at optimum power output, without the need to keep idle capacity for spinning reserves. It can also eliminate the need to have back-up generators running idle. Power quality: In power quality applications, an energy storage system helps protect downstream loads against short-duration events that affect the quality of power delivered. Capacity firming: The variable, intermittent power output from a renewable power plant, such as wind or solar, can be maintained at a committed (firm) level for a period of time. The energy storage system smoothes the output and controls the ramp rate (MW/min) to eliminate rapid voltage and power swings on the electrical grid. Load leveling: Load leveling usually involves storing power during periods of light loading on the system and delivering it during periods of high demand. During these periods of high demand the energy storage system supplies power, reducing the load on less economical peak-generating facilities. This allows for the postponement of investments in grid upgrades or in new generating capacity. Voltage support: An energy storage system can help to maintain the grid voltage by injecting or absorbing both active and reactive power. Peak shaving: Peak shaving is similar to load leveling, but may be for the purpose of reducing peak demand rather than for economy of operation. The goal is to avoid the installation of capacity to supply the peaks of a highly variable load. Peak shaving installations are often owned by the electricity consumer, rather than by the utility.
  5. Benefits: ––Commercial and industrial customers save on their electricity bills by reducing peak demand ––Utilities reduce the operational cost of generating power during peak periods (reducing the need for peaking units) –– Investment in infrastructure is delayed due to the flatter loads with smaller peaks
  6. DG One possibility that helps to achieve this goal corresponds to the high integration of Distributed Generators (DG) [9]. They increase the reliability of the system since they are generation units spread around the whole system. Then, one unit can be disconnected for maintenance with only a moderate effect on the rest of the power system. Additionally, they can be placed close to the end-user, thus decreasing transmission and distribution costs and electrical losses. They are particularly interesting for the integration of renewable energy sources, which make possible the use of clean sources of energy. Their modularity is another advantages, since they can be installed in short time. The main benefit of integrating DGs is the possibility of having generation at the user level that increases service reliability. If the source comes from green power, not only the price is lowered but also the pollution emission. However, important considerations must be done. For example, short circuit levels increase along the feeders with the DG, which increase the withstand capabilities of breakers, sectionalizers, reclosers, capacitors, etc. In particular extra care has to be exercised with breakers and reclosers to make sure that their duties are above the maximum total short circuit currents. Also, the reclosing functionality at the substation that feeds distribution lines should be disabled if there is not a proper way to open the generators connected along the feeders upon the occurrence and clarification of a fault. This prevents the possibility of energizing a line with generation at the other end without following an appropriate synchronization procedure. This of course reduces the flexibility of the operation but is required to avoid accidents that could be fatal.
  7. Titulo Texto
  8. •Voltage control is at present mainly provided by the synchronous generators of the conventional power plants •Due to the decreasing availability of conventional power plants in a system with a high penetration of inverter-based renewable energies, other concepts have to be established •During the last years laws and provisions were introduced which oblige inverter-based fluctuating renewables to contribute to the voltage control •PV systems provide reactive power referred to a fix implemented characteristic •Wind turbines have to provide reactive power in a defined range
  9. •Voltage control is at present mainly provided by the synchronous generators of the conventional power plants •Due to the decreasing availability of conventional power plants in a system with a high penetration of inverter-based renewable energies, other concepts have to be established •During the last years laws and provisions were introduced which oblige inverter-based fluctuating renewables to contribute to the voltage control •PV systems provide reactive power referred to a fix implemented characteristic •Wind turbines have to provide reactive power in a defined range
  10. •Every wind turbine has to fulfil one of three in the SDLWindV defined fields of reactive power (depends on grid situation) •Passing through the field has to be possible in 4 minutes
  11. •Every wind turbine has to fulfil one of three in the SDLWindV defined fields of reactive power (depends on grid situation) •Passing through the field has to be possible in 4 minutes
  12. •Every wind turbine has to fulfil one of three in the SDLWindV defined fields of reactive power (depends on grid situation) •Passing through the field has to be possible in 4 minutes
  13. Primary Control Primary Control is more commonly known as Frequency Response. Frequency Response occurs within the first few seconds following a change in system frequency (disturbance) to stabilize the Interconnection. Frequency Response is provided by: 1. Governor Action. Governors on generators are similar to cruise control on your car. They sense a change in speed and adjust the energy input into the generators’ prime mover. 2. Load. The speed of motors in an Interconnection change in direct proportion to frequency. As frequency drops, motors will turn slower and draw less energy. Rapid reduction of system load may also be effected by automatic operation of under-frequency relays which interrupt pre-defined loads within fractions of seconds or within seconds of frequency reaching a predetermined value. Such reduction of load may be contractually represented as interruptible load or may be provided in the form of resources procured as reliability (or Ancillary) services. As a safety net, percentages of firm load may be dropped by under-frequency load shedding programs to ensure stabilization of the systems under severe disturbance scenarios. These load characteristics assist in stabilizing frequency following a disturbance. The most common type of disturbance in an Interconnection is associated with the loss of a generator, which causes a decline in frequency. In general, the amount of (frequencyresponsive) Spinning Reserve in an Interconnection will determine the amount of available Frequency Response. It is important to remember that Primary Control will not return frequency to normal, but only stabilize it. Other control components are used to restore frequency to normal. Operating Tip: Frequency Response is particularly important during disturbances and islanding situations. Operators should be aware of their frequency responsive resources. Blackstart units must be able to control to frequency and arrest excursions. Secondary Control Secondary Control typically includes the balancing services deployed in the “minutes” time frame. Some resources however, such as hydroelectric generation, can respond faster in many cases. This control is accomplished using the Balancing Authority’s control computer4 and the manual actions taken by the dispatcher to provide additional adjustments. Secondary Control also includes initial reserve deployment for disturbances. In short, Secondary Control maintains the minute-to-minute balance throughout the day and is used to restore frequency to its scheduled value, usually 60 Hz, following a disturbance. Secondary Control is provided by both Spinning and Non-Spinning Reserves. The most common means of exercising secondary control is through Automatic Generation Control (AGC). AGC operates in conjunction with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. SCADA gathers information about an electric system, in particular system frequency, generator outputs, and actual interchange between the system and adjacent systems. Using system frequency and net actual interchange, plus knowledge of net scheduled interchange, it is possible to determine the system’s energy balance with its interconnection in near-real-time. Most SCADA systems poll sequentially for electric system data, with a typical periodicity of four seconds. Because of this, data is naturally slightly out of perfect time sync, but is of sufficient quality to permit balancing and good frequency control. AGC computes a Balancing Area’s Area Control Error (ACE, further described below) from interchange and frequency data. ACE tells whether a system is in balance or needs to make adjustments to generation. AGC software, while observing ACE, automatically determines the most economical output for generating resources while observing energy balance and frequency control, usually by sending setpoints to generators. Some generators also use pulse-accumulator methodology to derive a setpoint from pulses sent by AGC, but these have become less common over time. The degree of success of AGC in complying with balancing and frequency control is manifested in a Balancing Area’s control performance compliance statistics, which are described in greater detail later in this document. Tertiary Control Tertiary Control encompasses actions taken to get resources in place to handle current and future contingencies. Reserve deployment and Reserve restoration following a disturbance are common types of Tertiary Control.
  14. Facts •Inertia is a property of the electricity system •Inertia mainly depends on kinetic energy stored in rotating masses of synchronous generators •Inertia defines the response of the system frequency following a power imbalance – higher inertia leads to a slower frequency change Why is this important? •System frequency is used as control variable for the power control •Primary control reacts automatically to frequency deviations What is the problem? •Power plants providing primary reserve need time to change power output •System inertia decreases due to higher share of renewable energies About the graph… •Simulation without contribution of wind power plants to frequency control •In all cases, the same range of controlling power is available. •Primary control of conventional power plants is not fast enough. Conclusions •Grid inertia is important for the controllability of the electricity system •Today grid inertia is mainly provided by the rotating masses of the generators in conventional power plants •Inverter-based generation units have no inertia •Due to the decreasing availability of conventional power plants in a system with a high penetration of inverter-based renewable energies, other concepts have to be established •Providing inertia (for a short time) with wind turbines is possible •Providing inertia by curtailed operation of the generation units is economically questionable •Other concepts (e. g. demand side integration) or additional storage components in combination with control strategies could improve the system inertia
  15. The results are displayed in Figure 3 and Figure 4. Looking at the two cases, it is clear that there are large variations in system inertia during a day. During the night, when the demand is low, few power plants are operating and the inertia is low. During high demand, the opposite is true. Comparing the cases with and without renewables, the inertia drops significantly when integrating renewables into the generation mix, due to smaller amount of operating generators. Especially during the night, the integration of renewables can lead to a very low inertia. When a sudden power imbalance occurs during this period, the frequency variations will be very large. Because solar power coincides with periodes of high demand (high inertia), the effect of solar power on system inertia will be smaller than that of wind, which will occur both during periods of high and low demand.
  16. The results are displayed in Figure 3 and Figure 4. Looking at the two cases, it is clear that there are large variations in system inertia during a day. During the night, when the demand is low, few power plants are operating and the inertia is low. During high demand, the opposite is true. Comparing the cases with and without renewables, the inertia drops significantly when integrating renewables into the generation mix, due to smaller amount of operating generators. Especially during the night, the integration of renewables can lead to a very low inertia. When a sudden power imbalance occurs during this period, the frequency variations will be very large. Because solar power coincides with periodes of high demand (high inertia), the effect of solar power on system inertia will be smaller than that of wind, which will occur both during periods of high and low demand.
  17. In a first method, an energy storage system (ESS) like batteries or capacitors is added together with a PV unit or wind farm [15], [16]. A coordinated control is necessary between the ESS and the wind farm/PV unit, to optimize the power output by the renewables and the frequency support. Another possibility is deloading or curtailing the wind turbine or PV unit. By deloading, the units operate at a sub-optimal operating point and a power reserve is created which can be used for frequency control [17]. The main advantage of this option is that frequency control can be delivered for a longer period of time and thus participate in primary and secondary control like conventional power plants do. However, keeping reserves by renewables is relatively expensive due to the production support mechanisms and the negligible marginal costs [18]. A third option (only applicable to wind turbines) uses the kinetic energy to support the frequency by interchanging this energy with the grid (Figure 5). For instance, during a frequency dip, the wind turbine will raise its power output during tdec to deliver frequency support. As a consequence, the rotor speed will drop. To bring it back to the optimal rotor speed, the power output decreases [19], [20]. In this case, no power is spilled during normal operation. On the other hand, frequency control can only be delivered for a short time and a second frequency dip can occure because of the decrease in power output during tacc. Finally, we can also intervene at the load side through demand side management (DSM). In [21] for instance, a control method is proposed to control a voltage independent load to support the frequency.
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  22. A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802.11 standards, marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name. Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation, and in commercial complexes offering wireless access to their customers; often for free. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City, for instance, has begun a pilot program to provide city workers in all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access.
  23. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a communication technology for wirelessly delivering high-speed Internet service to large geographical areas. The 2005 WiMAX revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s[1][2] with the 2011 update of up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. It is a part of a “fourth generation,” or 4G, of wireless-communication technology. WiMax far surpasses the 30-metre (100-foot) wireless range of a conventional Wi-Fi local area network (LAN), offering a metropolitan area network with a signal radius of about 50 km (30 miles). The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".[3] WiMax offers data-transfer rates of up to 75 Mbit/s, which is superior to conventional cable-modem and DSL connections. However, the bandwidth must be split among multiple users and thus yields lower speeds in practice. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX
  24. The GPRS core network is the central part of the General Packet Radio Service which allows 2G, 3G and WCDMA mobile networks to transmit IP packets to external networks such as the Internet. The GPRS system is an integrated part of the GSM network switching subsystem. The GPRS core network provides mobility management, session management and transport for Internet Protocol packet services in GSM and WCDMA networks. The core network also provides support for other additional functions such as billing and lawful interception. It was also proposed, at one stage, to support packet radio services in the US D-AMPS TDMA system, however, in practice, all of these networks have been converted to GSM so this option has become irrelevant. Like GSM in general, GPRS module is an open standards driven system. The standardization body is the 3GPP. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPRS_Core_Network
  25. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. Applications include wireless light switches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, and other consumer and industrial equipment that requires short-range wireless transfer of data at relatively low rates. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is targeted at radio-frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. ZigBee has a defined rate of 250 kbps best suited for periodic or intermittent data or a single signal transmission from a sensor or input device.[1] ZigBee based traffic management system have also been implemented. The name refers to the waggle dance of honey bees after their return to the beehive.[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZigBee
  26. Power line communication or power line carrier (PLC), also known as power line digital subscriber line (PDSL), mains communication, power line telecom (PLT), power line networking(PLN), or broadband over power lines (BPL) are systems for carrying data on a conductor also used for electric power transmission. A wide range of power line communication technologies are needed for different applications, ranging from home automation to Internet access. Electrical power is transmitted over long distances using high voltage transmission lines, distributed over medium voltages, and used inside buildings at lower voltages. Most PLC technologies limit themselves to one set of wires (such as premises wiring within a single building), but some can cross between two levels (for example, both the distribution network and premises wiring). Typically transformers prevent propagating the signal, which requires multiple technologies to form very large networks. Various data rates and frequencies are used in different situations. A number of difficult technical problems are common between wireless and power line communication, notably those of spread spectrum radio signals operating in a crowded environment. Potential interference, for example, has been a long concern of amateur radio groups. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_line_communication
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