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WOUND AND WOUND
DRESSING
Presented By-
Mr. Atul Yadav (RN,RM)
WOUND
AND WOUND DRESSING
DEFINITION OFWOUND
A wound is a break or cut in the continuity
of any body structure, internal or external
caused by physical means.
CLASSIFICATION OF WOUND
1.According to status of skin integrity--
Open wound
Closed wound
2. According to the cause of the wound--
Intentional or surgical wound
Unintentional wound
CONT…
3. According to severity of injury
Superficial (Abraded) wound
Penetrating wound
Perforated wound
Puncture or stab wound
4. According to cleanliness /
contamination
Clean wound
Contaminated wound
Infected or septic wound
Colonized wound
Open wound
 An open wound is an injury involving an external or
internal break in body tissue, usually involving the
skin. Nearly everyone will experience an open wound
at some point in their life. Most open wounds are
minor and can be treated at home.
 Falls, accidents with sharp objects, and car accidents
are the most common causes of open wounds. In the
case of a serious accident, you should seek immediate
medical care. This is especially true if there’s a lot of
bleeding or if bleeding lasts for more than 20 minutes.
Open Wound Types
 A. Penetrating wounds:
 Puncture wounds: caused by an object that punctures
and penetrates the skin (e.g. knife, splinter, needle, nail)
 Surgical wounds and Incisions: wounds caused by clean,
sharp objects such as a knife, razor, or piece of sharp glass
 Thermal, chemical, or electrical burns
 Bites and stings
 Gunshot wounds or other high velocity projectile which
penetrates the body (this may have one wound at site of
entry and another at site of exit)
Cont…
 Blunt trauma wounds:
 Abrasions: superficial wounds due to the top layer of
skin being traumatically removed (e.g. fall or slide on a
rough surface).
 Lacerations: wounds that are linear and regular in
shape from sharp cuts, to irregularly shaped tears from
trauma.
 Skin tears: can be chronic like a wound in the base of
a skin fissure, or acute due to trauma and friction.
Closed wounds
 Closed wounds have fewer categories,
but are just as dangerous as open
wounds
Closed Wound Types
 Contusions: blunt trauma causing pressure damage to the
skin and / or underlying tissues (includes bruises)
 Blisters: fluid filled pockets under the skin
 Seroma: a fluid filled area that develops under the skin or
body tissue (commonly occur after blunt trauma or
surgery)
 Hematoma: a blood filled area that develops under the
skin or body tissue (occur due to internal blood vessel
damage to an artery or vein)
 Crush injuries: can be caused by extreme forces, or lesser
forces over a long period of time.
2. Intentional or surgical
wound-
 Intentional wounds are those that are purposefully
created for therapeutic reasons. Examples
are surgical incisions or venipuncture. These
are wounds that are created under sterile conditions
and are closed immediately after the intervention to
repair the skin integrity and prevent infection.
Signs and symptoms
 Fever
 Warm, red, painful, or swollen skin near the wound
 Blood or pus coming from the wound
 A foul odor coming from the wound
Diagnostic Evaluation-
 Blood tests may be done to check for infection.
 X-ray or CT may be done to look for infection in deep
tissues or a foreign object in your wound. You may be
given contrast liquid to help the pictures show up
better. Tell the healthcare provider if you have ever had
an allergic reaction to contrast liquid.
 A wound culture is a sample of fluid or tissue that
taken from the wound. It is sent to a lab and tested for
the germ that is causing the infection.
WOUND HEALING PROCESS
Stage 1
Inflammatory phase
Stage 2 Destructive
phase
Stage 3 Proliferative
phase
Stage 4 Maturation
phase
Inflammatory phase
• Within few seconds after injury, inflammation begins and
lasts for about 3 days.
• Injured tissues and mast cells secrete histamine, resulting in
vasodilation of surrounding capillaries and exudation of
serum and white blood cells into damaged tissues.
• Leukocytes reach the wound within few hours. The neutrophil
begins to ingest bacteria and small debris. The neutrophil dies
in a few days.
• During this period the monocyte which transforms into
macrophages cells clean the wound bacteria, dead cells and
debris.
• This process continues for about 48 hours. Finally a thin layer
of epithelial tissue forms over the wound, which is later
absorbed.
Destructive phase
This begins before the inflammatory phase ends and
lasts for about 2 to 5 days.
Macrophages continue its cleaning process and
stimulate the formation of fibroblast.
Proliferative phase
This phase begins with the appearance of the new
blood vessels and lasts from 3 to 24 days. Fibroblasts
appear alongside the capillaries. These two together
constitute the granulation tissue.
Subsequently there is epithelization. All the cells
forming the surface epithelium undergoes rapid
division and migrates as a thin film covering the
wound.
The wound appears pink owing to the new capillaries
in the granulation tissue and the area is soft and
tender.
Maturation phase
This final phase may take more than one year there
is scar formation by the fibroblasts. The capillaries
and lymphatic endothelial buds in the new tissues
disappear and the scar then shrinks. The collagen
scar continues to regain strength over several
months.
Wound
FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING PROCESS
Nutrition
Age
Blood supply
Hormones
Drugs
Extent of the injury
Infection
Chronic diseases
Smoking
Obesity
Radiation
Wound stress
COMPLICATION
Hemorrhage
Infections
Fistula
Abscess formation
Cellulitis
Necrosis or Gangrene
Keloids (raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury)
Pain
Fluid collection
Interference with organ function
DEFINITION OF WOUND DRESSING
It is a sterile protective covering applied to a
wound/incision with aseptic technique with or without
medications.
TYPES OF DRESSINGS-
Dressings are vary by type of material and mode of
application.
 Gauze dressings
Non-antiseptic dressings
Antiseptic dressings
Wet dressings
Pressure dressings
Non-adherent gauze dressings
Self-adhesive transparent film
Wound
Wound
PURPOSES OF WOUNDDRESSINGS
To prevent infection.
To prevent further tissue damage.
To promote healing.
To absorb inflammatory exudate and to promote drainages.
To convert the contaminated wound into a clean wound.
To prevent hemorrhage.
To prevent skin excoriation.
To apply medication in place.
To restore the function of the part.
To provide physical and mental comfort to the patient.
To promote thermal insulation to the wound surface area.
To provide maintenance of high humidity between the wound and
dressing.
PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN WOUND
DRESSINGS
Micro-organisms are present in environment, on the
articles and on the skin. Pathogenic organisms are
transmitted from the source to the new host directly or
indirectly.
Bacteria travel along with the dust particles.
Cleaning the area where there is less number of
organisms, before cleaning an area where there is more
organisms. Minimize the spread of organisms to the clean
area.
A break in the skin and mucus membrane acts as the
portal of entry for the pathogenic organisms.
CON..
Respiratory tract harbors micro-organisms that can enter
the wound.
Nutrients and oxygen are carried to the wound via blood
stream and are essential for collagen formation.
Moisture facilitates growth and movement of micro-
organisms.
Fluid moves downwards as a result of gravitational pull.
Fluids move through materials by capillary action.
Unfamiliar situations produce anxiety.
Systematic ways of working saves time, energy and
material.
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE WOUND
DRESSING
Practice strict aseptic technique to prevent cross infection to the
wound and from the wound. All materials touching to the wound
should be sterile.
All articles should be disinfected thoroughly to make sure that they
are free from pathogens. Special care must be taken when there is
any reason to suspect the presence of pathogenic spores particularly
those causing the dreaded wound infections of gas gangrene and
tetanus. These spores are destroyed only by the sterilization with
steam under pressure.
Wash hands thoroughly before and after procedure.
Instruments used for one dressing can not be used for another until
they have been re-sterilized.
Use masks, sterile gloves and gowns for large dressings to minimize
the wound contamination.
CON..
Dressings are not changed for at-least 15 minutes after the room has
been swept or cleaned. Sweeping and dusting of the room will raise
the dust and the wound will be contaminated.
Use individually wrapped sterile dressings and equipment for the
greatest safety of the wound. The practice of storing dressings and
instruments in large trays and drums and opening them every now
and then should be condemned.
Create a sterile field around the wound by spreading sterile towels.
Avoid talking, coughing and sneezing when the wound is opened.
During the procedure the nurse works carefully to avoid
contaminating the patient’s skin. Clothing and bed linen with soiled
instruments and dressings. All the soiled dressings and contaminated
instruments should be carefully collected and disposed safely.
CON…
Cleaning of the wound should be done from the most clean area to the less
clean area. Consider the wound area cleaner than the skin area even if the
wound is infected. Therefore clean the wound from its center to theperiphery.
When cleaning the circular wound, start from the center of the wound and go
to the periphery. When cleaning a linear wound, the first swab cleanses the
wound line and the subsequent swabs cleanse the skin on either side of the
wound.
If the dressings are adherent to the wound due to the drying of the secretionsor
blood, wet it with physiologic saline before it is removed from thewound.
When dressing the wound, keep the wound edges as near as possibleto
promote healing.
When drains are in place, anticipate drainage and re-enforce the dressings
accordingly. The dressings over the drains should not combined with the
dressings on the wound line. This enables a nurse to change the dressingsover
the drains without disturbing the wound dressings and thereby minimizing the
wound infections.
CON..
The amount of discharge from the wound should be accurately
measured by recording the number and size of the dressings
changed. Note the colour, odour, amount and consistency of
the drainage.
When the wound drainage is diminished the drains are to be
shortened. This should be done in consultation with the doctor.
Usually the doctor gives a written order.
Before doing the dressings, inspect the wound for any
complications such as dehiscence (crack) and evisceration
(secretion of fluid ). If present, report it immediately to the
surgeon and immediate steps are to be taken.
Avoid meal timing.
Give an analgesics prior to the painful dressings.
PREPARATION OFARTICLES
Articles Purpose
A sterile tray containing
Artery forceps - 1 To clean the wound
Dissecting forceps – 2
Scissors - 1 For the debridement of the wound if
necessary or to cut the gauze pieces to fit
around the drainage tubes etc.
Sinus forceps - 1 To open the sinus tract or to pack the sinus
tract if necessary.
Small bowl - 1 To take the cleaning solution.
Safety pins - 1 To fix the drain in case the drains are cut
short.
Gloves, mask and gown To use when large wounds are dressed.
Cotton balls, gauze pieces, cotton pads etc. To clean and dress the wound.
as necessary
Slit or dressing towel To create a sterile field around the wound.
CONT..
An unsterile tray containing
Cleaning solution as necessary To clean the wound and surrounding skin
area.
Ointment and powders as ordered To apply on the wound.
Vaseline gauze in sterile containers To prevent the dressing adhering to the
wound.
Ribbon gauze in sterile containers To pack the sinus tract or a penetrating
wound.
Swab stick in a sterile containers To apply the medication if necessary.
Transfer forceps in a sterile containers To handle the sterile supplies.
Bandages, binders, pins, adhesive
plaster and scissors
To fix the dressing in place.
A large bowl with disinfectant solution To discard the used instruments.
Kidney tray and paper bag To collect the wastes.
Mackintosh and towel To protect the bed linens.
TOPICAL AGENTS FOR CLEANSINGWOUND
Skin antiseptic
Non irritating antiseptics used for
cleaning of wounds
Mercurochrome 1 to 2.5%
Tr.Iodine 1 – 2%
Savlon 5%
Cetavlon 1%
Normal saline/ Eusol solution
0.5 to 1%
Hydrogen peroxide 1.5 to 3%
Acetone, ether, turpentine
It is an oxidizing agent useful for
softening and removing crusted
exudate and debris.
Used for removing adhesive
marks from the skin
PRELIMINARYASSESSMENT
Check the diagnosis and the general condition of thepatient.
Check the purpose for which the dressing is to be done.
Check the condition of the wound- the type of the wound, the types ofsuturing
applied, the type of dressing to be applied etc.
Check the physician’s order for the type of dressing to be applied and the
specific instructions, if any, regarding the cleaning solutions, removal of
sutures, drains and the application of the medicationsetc.
Check the patient’s name, bed number and other identification.
Check the nurse’s records to find out the general condition of thewound.
Check the abilities and limitations of the patient.
Check the consciousness of the patient and the ability to follow instructions.
Check the articles available in the unit.
PREPARATION OF THE PATIENTAND
ENVIRONMENT
Identify the patient and explain the procedure to win his
confidence and co-operation.
Provide privacy with curtains and drapes.
Apply restraints in case of children.
As far as possible avoid meal timings. The dressings may
be done either one hour before of the meals or after meals.
Offer bedpan or urinal prior to the dressing.
Give some analgesics if the patient is in pain.
See the cleaning of the room is done at least one hour
before the expected time of the dressing.
CON…
Shave the areas if necessary. Removal of adhesive is more painful
if hair is present.
Placed the patient in a comfortable position and relaxed position
depending on the area to be dressed.
Give proper support to the body parts to the body parts if the
patient has to raise and hold it in position for considerable time.
See that patient’s room is in order with no unnecessary articles.
Clear the bedside table, so that there is sufficient space to set up a
sterile field and to arrange needed supplies and equipment.
Close the doors and windows to prevent drafts. Put off fan.
CON..
Adjust the height of the bed for the comfortable working of the
doctors and nurses so that they have neither to stop nor over
reach to do the dressing. Bring the patient to the edge to the
bed. Call for assistance if necessary.
Protect the bed with a mackintosh and towel.
Fold back the upper bedding towards the foot end of the bed
leaving a bath blanket or sheet over the patient. Expose the part
as necessary.
Untie the bandage or adhesive and remove them. Make sure
that the dressing is not removed from it place until the nurse is
ready to do dressing.
Turn the head of the patient to one side, so that the patient may
not see the wound and get worried about it.
STEPS OF THEPROCEDURE
Steps of the procedure Reason
Tie the mask To prevent wound contamination with
droplets
Wash hands thoroughly To prevent cross infection
Put on gown (if necessary), gloves To ensure asepsis
Open the sterile tray. Spread the sterile
towel around the wound
To create a sterile field around the wound
the dissecting forceps in the bowl of
lotion.
Pick up a dissecting forceps and remove To prevent contamination of the hands with
the dressings and put into kidney. Discard soiled dressings. If the dressing is adherent
to the wound, pour physiologic saline and
wet it before removal.
Note the type and amount of drainage
present.
Ask the assistant to pour small amount of
cleansing solution into the bowl.
To prevent contaminating the hands of the
nurse by the outside of the bottle.
CON..
Clean the wound from center to
periphery discarding each swab after
each stroke.
Cleaning the wound should be done from
the cleanest area to the less clean area.
Wound line is considered cleaner than
the surrounding area even if the wound
is infected.
To keep the wound as dry as possible.After thoroughly cleaning of the wound,
dry the wound with dry swabs using the
same precautions. Discard the forceps in
the bowl of lotion.
Apply medications if ordered. To apply the ointment directly to the wound
may be difficult. Apply a small portion on
the dressing that goes directly over the
wound.
CON..
Apply the sterile dressings. Apply the
gauze pieces first and then the cotton
pads. Reinforce the dressing on the
dependent parts where the drainage
may collect.
Cotton placed directly onto the wound
may stick on the wound, when the
discharge dries.
Reinforcing the dressing will prevent
oozing of the drainage onto the bed of
the patient.
Gloves worn during the dressing will be
highly contaminated.
Remove the gloves and discard it into
the bowl with lotion.
Secure the dressings with bandage or
adhesive tapes.
AFTER CARE OF THE PATIENT ANDARTICLES
Help the patient to dress up and to take comfortable
position in the bed. Change the garments if soiled with
drainage.
Replace the bed linen.
Remove the mackintosh and towel.
Take all articles to the utility room. Discard the soiled
dressing into a covered container and send for
incineration. Remove the instruments and other articles
from the disinfectant solution and clean them
thoroughly. Dry them. Re-set the tray and send them for
autoclaving. Replace all other articles to their proper
places. Send the soiled linen to the laundry bag for the
washing (remove blood stains before sending them).
CON..
Wash hands.
Record the procedure on nurse’s record with date
and time. Record the condition of the wound, type
and amount of drainage, condition of the sutures etc.
on the nurse’s record. Report to the surgeon if any
abnormality found.
Return to the bedside to assess the comfort of the
patient. Special instruction in the care of the wound
are to be communicated to the patient.
Tidy up the bed and unit of the patient.
Wound

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Wound

  • 1. WOUND AND WOUND DRESSING Presented By- Mr. Atul Yadav (RN,RM)
  • 3. DEFINITION OFWOUND A wound is a break or cut in the continuity of any body structure, internal or external caused by physical means.
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF WOUND 1.According to status of skin integrity-- Open wound Closed wound 2. According to the cause of the wound-- Intentional or surgical wound Unintentional wound
  • 5. CONT… 3. According to severity of injury Superficial (Abraded) wound Penetrating wound Perforated wound Puncture or stab wound 4. According to cleanliness / contamination Clean wound Contaminated wound Infected or septic wound Colonized wound
  • 6. Open wound  An open wound is an injury involving an external or internal break in body tissue, usually involving the skin. Nearly everyone will experience an open wound at some point in their life. Most open wounds are minor and can be treated at home.  Falls, accidents with sharp objects, and car accidents are the most common causes of open wounds. In the case of a serious accident, you should seek immediate medical care. This is especially true if there’s a lot of bleeding or if bleeding lasts for more than 20 minutes.
  • 7. Open Wound Types  A. Penetrating wounds:  Puncture wounds: caused by an object that punctures and penetrates the skin (e.g. knife, splinter, needle, nail)  Surgical wounds and Incisions: wounds caused by clean, sharp objects such as a knife, razor, or piece of sharp glass  Thermal, chemical, or electrical burns  Bites and stings  Gunshot wounds or other high velocity projectile which penetrates the body (this may have one wound at site of entry and another at site of exit)
  • 8. Cont…  Blunt trauma wounds:  Abrasions: superficial wounds due to the top layer of skin being traumatically removed (e.g. fall or slide on a rough surface).  Lacerations: wounds that are linear and regular in shape from sharp cuts, to irregularly shaped tears from trauma.  Skin tears: can be chronic like a wound in the base of a skin fissure, or acute due to trauma and friction.
  • 9. Closed wounds  Closed wounds have fewer categories, but are just as dangerous as open wounds
  • 10. Closed Wound Types  Contusions: blunt trauma causing pressure damage to the skin and / or underlying tissues (includes bruises)  Blisters: fluid filled pockets under the skin  Seroma: a fluid filled area that develops under the skin or body tissue (commonly occur after blunt trauma or surgery)  Hematoma: a blood filled area that develops under the skin or body tissue (occur due to internal blood vessel damage to an artery or vein)  Crush injuries: can be caused by extreme forces, or lesser forces over a long period of time.
  • 11. 2. Intentional or surgical wound-  Intentional wounds are those that are purposefully created for therapeutic reasons. Examples are surgical incisions or venipuncture. These are wounds that are created under sterile conditions and are closed immediately after the intervention to repair the skin integrity and prevent infection.
  • 12. Signs and symptoms  Fever  Warm, red, painful, or swollen skin near the wound  Blood or pus coming from the wound  A foul odor coming from the wound
  • 13. Diagnostic Evaluation-  Blood tests may be done to check for infection.  X-ray or CT may be done to look for infection in deep tissues or a foreign object in your wound. You may be given contrast liquid to help the pictures show up better. Tell the healthcare provider if you have ever had an allergic reaction to contrast liquid.  A wound culture is a sample of fluid or tissue that taken from the wound. It is sent to a lab and tested for the germ that is causing the infection.
  • 14. WOUND HEALING PROCESS Stage 1 Inflammatory phase Stage 2 Destructive phase Stage 3 Proliferative phase Stage 4 Maturation phase
  • 15. Inflammatory phase • Within few seconds after injury, inflammation begins and lasts for about 3 days. • Injured tissues and mast cells secrete histamine, resulting in vasodilation of surrounding capillaries and exudation of serum and white blood cells into damaged tissues. • Leukocytes reach the wound within few hours. The neutrophil begins to ingest bacteria and small debris. The neutrophil dies in a few days. • During this period the monocyte which transforms into macrophages cells clean the wound bacteria, dead cells and debris. • This process continues for about 48 hours. Finally a thin layer of epithelial tissue forms over the wound, which is later absorbed.
  • 16. Destructive phase This begins before the inflammatory phase ends and lasts for about 2 to 5 days. Macrophages continue its cleaning process and stimulate the formation of fibroblast.
  • 17. Proliferative phase This phase begins with the appearance of the new blood vessels and lasts from 3 to 24 days. Fibroblasts appear alongside the capillaries. These two together constitute the granulation tissue. Subsequently there is epithelization. All the cells forming the surface epithelium undergoes rapid division and migrates as a thin film covering the wound. The wound appears pink owing to the new capillaries in the granulation tissue and the area is soft and tender.
  • 18. Maturation phase This final phase may take more than one year there is scar formation by the fibroblasts. The capillaries and lymphatic endothelial buds in the new tissues disappear and the scar then shrinks. The collagen scar continues to regain strength over several months.
  • 20. FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING PROCESS Nutrition Age Blood supply Hormones Drugs Extent of the injury Infection Chronic diseases Smoking Obesity Radiation Wound stress
  • 21. COMPLICATION Hemorrhage Infections Fistula Abscess formation Cellulitis Necrosis or Gangrene Keloids (raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury) Pain Fluid collection Interference with organ function
  • 22. DEFINITION OF WOUND DRESSING It is a sterile protective covering applied to a wound/incision with aseptic technique with or without medications.
  • 23. TYPES OF DRESSINGS- Dressings are vary by type of material and mode of application.  Gauze dressings Non-antiseptic dressings Antiseptic dressings Wet dressings Pressure dressings Non-adherent gauze dressings Self-adhesive transparent film
  • 26. PURPOSES OF WOUNDDRESSINGS To prevent infection. To prevent further tissue damage. To promote healing. To absorb inflammatory exudate and to promote drainages. To convert the contaminated wound into a clean wound. To prevent hemorrhage. To prevent skin excoriation. To apply medication in place. To restore the function of the part. To provide physical and mental comfort to the patient. To promote thermal insulation to the wound surface area. To provide maintenance of high humidity between the wound and dressing.
  • 27. PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN WOUND DRESSINGS Micro-organisms are present in environment, on the articles and on the skin. Pathogenic organisms are transmitted from the source to the new host directly or indirectly. Bacteria travel along with the dust particles. Cleaning the area where there is less number of organisms, before cleaning an area where there is more organisms. Minimize the spread of organisms to the clean area. A break in the skin and mucus membrane acts as the portal of entry for the pathogenic organisms.
  • 28. CON.. Respiratory tract harbors micro-organisms that can enter the wound. Nutrients and oxygen are carried to the wound via blood stream and are essential for collagen formation. Moisture facilitates growth and movement of micro- organisms. Fluid moves downwards as a result of gravitational pull. Fluids move through materials by capillary action. Unfamiliar situations produce anxiety. Systematic ways of working saves time, energy and material.
  • 29. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE WOUND DRESSING Practice strict aseptic technique to prevent cross infection to the wound and from the wound. All materials touching to the wound should be sterile. All articles should be disinfected thoroughly to make sure that they are free from pathogens. Special care must be taken when there is any reason to suspect the presence of pathogenic spores particularly those causing the dreaded wound infections of gas gangrene and tetanus. These spores are destroyed only by the sterilization with steam under pressure. Wash hands thoroughly before and after procedure. Instruments used for one dressing can not be used for another until they have been re-sterilized. Use masks, sterile gloves and gowns for large dressings to minimize the wound contamination.
  • 30. CON.. Dressings are not changed for at-least 15 minutes after the room has been swept or cleaned. Sweeping and dusting of the room will raise the dust and the wound will be contaminated. Use individually wrapped sterile dressings and equipment for the greatest safety of the wound. The practice of storing dressings and instruments in large trays and drums and opening them every now and then should be condemned. Create a sterile field around the wound by spreading sterile towels. Avoid talking, coughing and sneezing when the wound is opened. During the procedure the nurse works carefully to avoid contaminating the patient’s skin. Clothing and bed linen with soiled instruments and dressings. All the soiled dressings and contaminated instruments should be carefully collected and disposed safely.
  • 31. CON… Cleaning of the wound should be done from the most clean area to the less clean area. Consider the wound area cleaner than the skin area even if the wound is infected. Therefore clean the wound from its center to theperiphery. When cleaning the circular wound, start from the center of the wound and go to the periphery. When cleaning a linear wound, the first swab cleanses the wound line and the subsequent swabs cleanse the skin on either side of the wound. If the dressings are adherent to the wound due to the drying of the secretionsor blood, wet it with physiologic saline before it is removed from thewound. When dressing the wound, keep the wound edges as near as possibleto promote healing. When drains are in place, anticipate drainage and re-enforce the dressings accordingly. The dressings over the drains should not combined with the dressings on the wound line. This enables a nurse to change the dressingsover the drains without disturbing the wound dressings and thereby minimizing the wound infections.
  • 32. CON.. The amount of discharge from the wound should be accurately measured by recording the number and size of the dressings changed. Note the colour, odour, amount and consistency of the drainage. When the wound drainage is diminished the drains are to be shortened. This should be done in consultation with the doctor. Usually the doctor gives a written order. Before doing the dressings, inspect the wound for any complications such as dehiscence (crack) and evisceration (secretion of fluid ). If present, report it immediately to the surgeon and immediate steps are to be taken. Avoid meal timing. Give an analgesics prior to the painful dressings.
  • 33. PREPARATION OFARTICLES Articles Purpose A sterile tray containing Artery forceps - 1 To clean the wound Dissecting forceps – 2 Scissors - 1 For the debridement of the wound if necessary or to cut the gauze pieces to fit around the drainage tubes etc. Sinus forceps - 1 To open the sinus tract or to pack the sinus tract if necessary. Small bowl - 1 To take the cleaning solution. Safety pins - 1 To fix the drain in case the drains are cut short. Gloves, mask and gown To use when large wounds are dressed. Cotton balls, gauze pieces, cotton pads etc. To clean and dress the wound. as necessary Slit or dressing towel To create a sterile field around the wound.
  • 34. CONT.. An unsterile tray containing Cleaning solution as necessary To clean the wound and surrounding skin area. Ointment and powders as ordered To apply on the wound. Vaseline gauze in sterile containers To prevent the dressing adhering to the wound. Ribbon gauze in sterile containers To pack the sinus tract or a penetrating wound. Swab stick in a sterile containers To apply the medication if necessary. Transfer forceps in a sterile containers To handle the sterile supplies. Bandages, binders, pins, adhesive plaster and scissors To fix the dressing in place. A large bowl with disinfectant solution To discard the used instruments. Kidney tray and paper bag To collect the wastes. Mackintosh and towel To protect the bed linens.
  • 35. TOPICAL AGENTS FOR CLEANSINGWOUND Skin antiseptic Non irritating antiseptics used for cleaning of wounds Mercurochrome 1 to 2.5% Tr.Iodine 1 – 2% Savlon 5% Cetavlon 1% Normal saline/ Eusol solution 0.5 to 1% Hydrogen peroxide 1.5 to 3% Acetone, ether, turpentine It is an oxidizing agent useful for softening and removing crusted exudate and debris. Used for removing adhesive marks from the skin
  • 36. PRELIMINARYASSESSMENT Check the diagnosis and the general condition of thepatient. Check the purpose for which the dressing is to be done. Check the condition of the wound- the type of the wound, the types ofsuturing applied, the type of dressing to be applied etc. Check the physician’s order for the type of dressing to be applied and the specific instructions, if any, regarding the cleaning solutions, removal of sutures, drains and the application of the medicationsetc. Check the patient’s name, bed number and other identification. Check the nurse’s records to find out the general condition of thewound. Check the abilities and limitations of the patient. Check the consciousness of the patient and the ability to follow instructions. Check the articles available in the unit.
  • 37. PREPARATION OF THE PATIENTAND ENVIRONMENT Identify the patient and explain the procedure to win his confidence and co-operation. Provide privacy with curtains and drapes. Apply restraints in case of children. As far as possible avoid meal timings. The dressings may be done either one hour before of the meals or after meals. Offer bedpan or urinal prior to the dressing. Give some analgesics if the patient is in pain. See the cleaning of the room is done at least one hour before the expected time of the dressing.
  • 38. CON… Shave the areas if necessary. Removal of adhesive is more painful if hair is present. Placed the patient in a comfortable position and relaxed position depending on the area to be dressed. Give proper support to the body parts to the body parts if the patient has to raise and hold it in position for considerable time. See that patient’s room is in order with no unnecessary articles. Clear the bedside table, so that there is sufficient space to set up a sterile field and to arrange needed supplies and equipment. Close the doors and windows to prevent drafts. Put off fan.
  • 39. CON.. Adjust the height of the bed for the comfortable working of the doctors and nurses so that they have neither to stop nor over reach to do the dressing. Bring the patient to the edge to the bed. Call for assistance if necessary. Protect the bed with a mackintosh and towel. Fold back the upper bedding towards the foot end of the bed leaving a bath blanket or sheet over the patient. Expose the part as necessary. Untie the bandage or adhesive and remove them. Make sure that the dressing is not removed from it place until the nurse is ready to do dressing. Turn the head of the patient to one side, so that the patient may not see the wound and get worried about it.
  • 40. STEPS OF THEPROCEDURE Steps of the procedure Reason Tie the mask To prevent wound contamination with droplets Wash hands thoroughly To prevent cross infection Put on gown (if necessary), gloves To ensure asepsis Open the sterile tray. Spread the sterile towel around the wound To create a sterile field around the wound the dissecting forceps in the bowl of lotion. Pick up a dissecting forceps and remove To prevent contamination of the hands with the dressings and put into kidney. Discard soiled dressings. If the dressing is adherent to the wound, pour physiologic saline and wet it before removal. Note the type and amount of drainage present. Ask the assistant to pour small amount of cleansing solution into the bowl. To prevent contaminating the hands of the nurse by the outside of the bottle.
  • 41. CON.. Clean the wound from center to periphery discarding each swab after each stroke. Cleaning the wound should be done from the cleanest area to the less clean area. Wound line is considered cleaner than the surrounding area even if the wound is infected. To keep the wound as dry as possible.After thoroughly cleaning of the wound, dry the wound with dry swabs using the same precautions. Discard the forceps in the bowl of lotion. Apply medications if ordered. To apply the ointment directly to the wound may be difficult. Apply a small portion on the dressing that goes directly over the wound.
  • 42. CON.. Apply the sterile dressings. Apply the gauze pieces first and then the cotton pads. Reinforce the dressing on the dependent parts where the drainage may collect. Cotton placed directly onto the wound may stick on the wound, when the discharge dries. Reinforcing the dressing will prevent oozing of the drainage onto the bed of the patient. Gloves worn during the dressing will be highly contaminated. Remove the gloves and discard it into the bowl with lotion. Secure the dressings with bandage or adhesive tapes.
  • 43. AFTER CARE OF THE PATIENT ANDARTICLES Help the patient to dress up and to take comfortable position in the bed. Change the garments if soiled with drainage. Replace the bed linen. Remove the mackintosh and towel. Take all articles to the utility room. Discard the soiled dressing into a covered container and send for incineration. Remove the instruments and other articles from the disinfectant solution and clean them thoroughly. Dry them. Re-set the tray and send them for autoclaving. Replace all other articles to their proper places. Send the soiled linen to the laundry bag for the washing (remove blood stains before sending them).
  • 44. CON.. Wash hands. Record the procedure on nurse’s record with date and time. Record the condition of the wound, type and amount of drainage, condition of the sutures etc. on the nurse’s record. Report to the surgeon if any abnormality found. Return to the bedside to assess the comfort of the patient. Special instruction in the care of the wound are to be communicated to the patient. Tidy up the bed and unit of the patient.