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                                             www.stutteringhelp.org • www.tartamudez.org


            T HE S TUTTERING F OUNDATION
   A Nonprofit Organization                                   WINTER 2006                                 Since 1947... Helping Those Who Stutter

  The age factor in stuttering, page 3              Kenyon Martin lights up young lives, page 9               Annie’s Mailbox reaches millions, page 3

A look at genetic                                   Redesigned Web site easier to use
and neurological                                    I  nformation about stuttering is just a
                                                       mouse click away.
                                                                                                                                            on July 4th,”
                                                                                                                                              says       Jane
    correlates                                         The Stuttering Foundation has
                                                    redesigned its Web site,
                                                                                                                                         Fraser, president
                                                                                                                                       of the Foundation.
                                                    www.stutteringhelp.org, so                                                       “Hits jumped from
  of stuttering                                     the public and speech clin-                                                    550,000 a month on the
By Lisa Scott, Ph.D.                                icians can more easily find                                                   old site to 850,000 in
The Florida State University                                                                                                            September to a
      In November, four of the leading scien-
                                                    the information
tists in stuttering presented their latest re-      they need.                                                                            record 1,250,000
search at the American Speech-Language-                There are spe-                                                                      and 1,300,000 in
                  Hearing Association con-          cial pages for                                                                         October        and
                  vention in San Diego.             children, teens,                                                                        November re-
                  Participating in a session en-    adults, teachers,                                                                       spectively.”
                  titled,     “Genetic       and
                  Neurological Correlates of        SLPs and em-                                                                                The Web site
                  Stuttering,” were Drs.            ployers.                                                                                 uses the latest
                  Dennis Drayna, NIDCD,                All the foun-                                                                          technology to
                  Christine         Weber-Fox,      dation’s                                                                                   quickly up-
      Drayna      Purdue University, Ann            brochures are                                                                              load informa-
                  Foundas, Tulane University,       available on-                                                                               tion and keep
                  and      Gerald      Maguire,
                  University of California-         line and sev-                                                                                the Web site
                  Irvine. In a session coordi-      eral books                                                                                    up-to-date.
                  nated by Dr. Christy              are too.                                                                                      Loading
                  Ludlow, NIDCD, four pre-             Favorites                                                                                  precise ad-
                  senters focused their discus-     like the ex-                                                                                  dresses and
    Weber-Fox     sions on state-of-the-art re-
                  search in the understanding
                                                    tensive list                                                                                information
                  of genetic and neurological       of famous people                                                                  for 6,500 libraries
                  factors that contribute to        who stutter now                                                                     regularly is no small
                  stuttering. Three of the four     highlight the head-                                                                 task, but our dedi-
                  researchers, Drs. Drayna,         line banner.                                                                        cated staff makes it
                  Weber-Fox, and Foundas,              For those who pre-
                                                                                            What’s Hot                                 seem easy.
                  have previously contributed
                  articles on their research to     fer to check out            Celebrities who stutter     Why speech therapy?             “Those who
                                                                                FAQ                         Special education law
     Foundas
                  past issues of this newsletter.   books and videos at         Is my child stuttering?     Downloadable books,
                                                                                                                                       haven’t been to the
                    Genetics and Stuttering         libraries, the site lists   Research on stuttering brochures and poster            Web site recently
                      Dr. Drayna described the      6,500 libraries that        Insurance questions         Exciting new pages         should check it
                  current knowledge of the role                                 Electronic devices        just for kids and teens
                                                    shelve the founda-          ADHD and stuttering         Areas specifically for
                                                                                                                                       out,” Fraser said.
                  of genetics in stuttering. He                                                                                        “I believe they
                  provided an overview of how
                                                    tion’s latest materials.    Referral list to special- teachers and parents

                  genetics are studied, including      “The response has ists in stuttering                 Cluttering                 will find the infor-
                                                                                Answers for employers Coming soon:                     mation timely and
                  the use of twin and adoption      been tremendous             Referral to libraries     Streaming video
     Maguire               Continued on page 6      since the launching                                                                valuable.”           ❑



Annenberg Foundation grant helps SFA reach children
     An unprecedented grant from the                                                                       kids learn more about stuttering will
Annenberg Foundation is making                                                                             want to see this tape,” says speech-
Stuttering: For Kids, By Kids available                                                                    language pathologist Bill Murphy of
free of charge to every public library in                                                                  Purdue University. “The children fea-
the country. By year-end, more than                 lots of press these days — from daily                  tured are a perfect example of how to
6,500 libraries will have the new DVD               and weekly newspapers and leading                      openly and honestly handle stuttering.
whose animated star, Swish, is doing a              magazines like Woman’s Day to the                      This is an important tool for families
jump shot above.                                    ASHA Leader and Advance for SLPs.                      and teachers of kids who stutter too.”
     The 12-minute DVD is getting                        “All those interested in helping                                            Continued on page 2
2       www.stutteringhelp.org                                                                                                 1-800-992-9392


On the air on NBC
   NBC stations around the nation
                                               Stuttering and the basal ganglia
aired a health segment about stuttering        By Per Alm, Ph.D.                                  able to do it when receiving external “tim-
during their local news-                       University of Alberta                              ing cues,” is characteristic of dysfunction of
casts in early December.                                                                          the basal ganglia motor circuits (including
   The broadcast featured                         Editor’s note: Per Alm has a Ph.D. in neu-      related structures, such as the supplemen-
                                               ropsychology and has been working with re-         tary motor area (SMA)). Normally, the
speech-language patholo-                       search on stuttering in Sweden but is current-     basal ganglia seem to provide “go-signals”
gist Dr. Tricia Zebrowski                      ly teaching at the University of Alberta,          for the segments in a motor sequence, e.g.
of the University of Iowa working              Edmonton. We asked Per if he could write           the syllables in speech.
with a 7-year-old boy who stutters.            something about his research and his view on          Without sufficiently strong go-signals
   WIS TV in Columbia, S.C., told              stuttering and the brain.                          the speech cannot be started or will be
viewers, “There’s no miracle cure for                                                             disrupted. The rhythm effect appears to
stuttering and it’s best to evaluate a            The variability of stuttering is often strik-   be a key feature of stuttering, providing a
problem early.” The station then list-         ing to the listener and mysterious for the         strong indication that stuttering is related
ed the Stuttering Foundation as a re-          person who stutters.                               to some type of disturbance of the basal
source for parents.                               Based on personal                               ganglia motor circuits.
   In addition, WIS TV linked to the           experiences I have                                    There are several other indications for
Foundation’s Web site from their               felt that the lack of                              the important role of the basal ganglia in
home page and posted the story and a           real knowledge about                               stuttering, for example: (1) Lesions that
video clip online for Internet users.          the underlying mech-                               cause “acquired stuttering” often affect the
                                               anisms of stuttering is                            basal ganglia (Ludlow et al., 1987). (2) The
Viewers could even e-mail the news
                                               a problem in many                                  drugs that have shown the clearest effect on
segment and story to others who may            ways. It makes it
need this valuable information.      ❑                                                            stuttering, to make it better or worse, affect
                                               more difficult to treat,      Per Alm, Ph.D.       the dopamine system. Dopamine is a key
                                               it leaves the field                                transmitter that regulates the function of
                                               open to unfounded                                  the basal ganglia. (3) Basal ganglia motor
Annenberg          Continued from front page   speculations, and it makes it difficult for        disorders characteristically worsen during
     Children on the DVD share their           persons who stutter to reach self-under-           stress and “nervous tension,” and improve
views on dealing with teasing, how to          standing. For this reason, I changed my vo-        under relaxed conditions.
teach others about stuttering, and what        cation from engineering to research on the            In the review on stuttering and the basal
helps them manage their stuttering.            nature of stuttering, about 10 years ago.          ganglia (Alm, 2004), it was also argued
     Speech-lan-                                  When I began my Ph.D. studies, it was           that the typical pattern of onset of stuttering
guage pathologists                             not easy to know what to do to advance             around age 2.5 to 3, with a large percentage
who specialize in                              the understanding of stuttering. So many           of early recoveries, may be related to a nat-
the treatment of flu-                          ingenious efforts had already been made.           ural phase of the development of the basal
ency disorders spent                           Comparing this research to a puzzle, it            ganglia. Specifically, it has been shown
more than a year de-                           felt important to try to make sense of the         that children in general have a peak in the
veloping the script for this film.             scattered pieces. Therefore I worked both          number of dopamine receptors type D2 in
     The concept of Swish was thor-            with experimental studies and theoretical          the basal ganglia at this time. There are the-
oughly researched by a computer                overviews of previous research findings.           oretical arguments for how a large number
graphics design team at Purdue                    In this article I will focus on the main        of D2 receptors may increase the risk for
University for optimum appeal and              theoretical work, regarding the possible re-       stuttering. Furthermore, the drugs that have
memory attention for children in               lation between stuttering and the basal            shown the best documented effect on stut-
grades 2-6. Once created, the boun-            ganglia, brain structures involved in au-          tering act by blocking these D2 receptors.
cy, genderless cartoon character               tomatization (Alm, 2004). This work led               The number of D2 receptors has also
with a kid’s voice and vocabulary              to the proposal of the dual premotor sys-          been reported to show correlation with
was extensively field-tested in                tems model of stuttering (Alm, 2005). The          cognitive performance, which is in ac-
speech clinics at Purdue and The               idea that stuttering is related to the basal       cord with the observation that children
Florida State University.                      ganglia is not new. The first account came         with early onset of stuttering often dis-
     Judging from the letters that con-        from the German physician Sahli, based             play precocious language development
tinue to pour in, libraries around the         on studies of epidemic encephalitis around         (Watkins, Yairi, & Ambrose, 1999).
country are very excited and grateful          1920. Among later examples can be men-                In the thesis, On the causal mecha-
for this donation.                             tioned Caruso (1991) and Molt (1999).              nisms of stuttering (Alm, 2005), the
     “On behalf of the Board of                   Conditions where stuttering tends to be         basal ganglia model was developed fur-
Trustees, staff and patrons, I want to         absent provide important clues about the           ther, based on the theoretical work on the
thank you for the material your orga-          underlying dysfunction. One such condition         human motor system proposed by
nization has provided for our collec-          is the “rhythm effect”: persons who stutter        Goldberg (1985, 1991) and others.
tion,” writes the director at the              usually become fluent when speaking to the            Goldberg argued that the human brain
Aracnum, Ohio, library.                        pace of a metronome. They seem unable to           has two parallel premotor systems, i.e.
     The library director in                   stutter when following the beats. This dis-        systems involved in planning and execu-
Chatham, Ill., echoed that senti-              tinction, to have a problem performing a           tion of movements, including speech.
ment, “This resource is a welcome              motor sequence on your own, but being
addition to our collection.”         ❑                                                                                    Continued on page 12
WINTER 2006                                                                                                        1-800-992-9392               3



 The phones                                  The age factor in stuttering
                                             Ehud Yairi, Ph.D.                                 tional processes contribute to stuttering;
 keep ringing                                University of Illinois
                                                Age is among the strongest risk factors
                                                                                               hence the possibility of relations among
                                                                                               stuttering, language, and articulation.
Annie’s Mailbox reaches                      for stuttering with several important impli-      Although our own data (Watkins, Yairi, &
millions, even in South Korea                cations. Although the disorder begins with-       Ambrose, 1999), and those of our col-
   The Memphis staff is hearing ring-        in a wide age-range, current robust evidence      leagues from Germany (Rommel et. al.,
ing in their sleep after a wave of calls     indicates that, for a very large proportion of    1999), show that the language skills of
flooded the Stuttering Foundation’s          cases, it erupts during                           children who stutter, as a group, meet or
switchboard follow-                          the preschool period.                             exceed norms, we suspect that there are
ing mentions in two                          Data obtained at the                              differences in the ways in which they pro-
syndicated columns.                          University of Illinois                            cess language. One research priority con-
   One        mother                         Stuttering Research                               sequent to information about age at onset
wrote, “My son                               Program revealed that                             is experimental manipulation of similari-
sometimes can’t say                          for 65% of the child                              ties and/or differences in language pro-
anything and then                            participants, stuttering                          cessing and production between children
will say the same                            onset occurred prior                              who stutter near the onset of the disorder
word over and over.                          to age 3; the figure                              and normally fluent children, particularly
Please help!”              Marcy Sugar       rose to 85% by 3 1/2         Ehud Yairi, Ph.D.    in terms of the nature of linguistic knowl-
   “Since I read the                         years of age (Yairi &                             edge and the time course of knowledge ac-
column, I feel like                          Ambrose,         2005).                           tivation. Varied responses to semantic and
there is hope for                            Leaving room for some sampling errors,            phonological distracters, slower reaction
my daughter,” said                           children past age 4 face a relatively low risk    time, and/or alternative activation paths
a father in Ohio.                            for stuttering. From clinical considerations,     may reveal differences in language pro-
   On Oct. 22,                               these statistics call for greater emphasis on     cessing. One of the intriguing questions is:
Int’l. Stuttering                            preparing clinicians for working with early       does age at stuttering onset – prior to, or
Awareness Day,                               childhood stuttering.                             after, a certain point in language develop-
Annie’s Mailbox                                 Age brings out other factors. The fact         ment – underlie distinct subtypes of the
listed SFA as a           Kathy Mitchell     that the critical age for stuttering onset par-   disorder? Currently, scientists in several
source of help and                           allels the age span when significant rapid        laboratories are pursuing such issues.
information on                               developments occur in the anatomy of the             Brain imaging studies of children should
stuttering and in-                           speech system, as well as in complex lan-         also enhance understanding of this issue.
cluded SFA’s Web                             guage and articulatory skills, invites spec-      Our team members, Chang, Erickson, and
site address and                             ulations that interferences in these matura-                                  Continued on page 8
toll-free     phone
number. The col-
umn’s       authors,
Marcy Sugar and
Kathy Mitchell,
                          Robert Wallace         Outreach to pediatricians
said, “We are                                By June Campbell, M.A.
happy to help out. Thanks for all                Physicians once again flocked to
                                             the SFA Exhibit Booth at the
                                                                                                                           Before
the good work you do.”
   Their syndicated column is read by        American Academy of Pediatrics
nearly      90     million       people.     Annual Conference and Exhibition in
Newspapers as far away as Seoul,             Washington, D.C., this October. It was
South Korea, carried the story, which        noted that the demographics of physi-
resulted in many requests for help.          cians stopping by to discuss cases and
   Earlier this summer, Dr. Robert           materials was broadening: whether
Wallace, who writes Tween 12 & 20,           young into their careers or well-sea-
mentioned the Foundation twice in            soned, physicians came not only from
two separate columns that reach              many major U.S. metropolitan and
nearly 5 million readers.                    rural areas such as Fly Creek, N.Y.,
   On Aug. 18, he described                  and Homer Glen, Ill., but also from
Stuttering: Straight Talk for Teachers       Sydney, Australia, Athens, Greece,
as an important resource and listed          Lima, Peru, Trinidad, West Indies, and
the SFA Web site.                            many locations in Mexico.
   On Sept. 17, a single New                     Requests for Spanish edition
Orleans mother without Internet ac-          books and brochures was at an all-
cess wrote Dr. Wallace seeking help
for her young son. He followed up
                                             time high as were the DVD formatted
                                             films. Kudos to SFA for reaching out                                          During
by listing eight tips from SFA right         to the medical field which can most               June and Allen Campbell discuss Stuttering: For Kids,
in his column.                           ❑   help with early intervention!       ❑             By Kids with a pediatrician.
4       www.stutteringhelp.org                                                                                                        1-800-992-9392



        Iowa workshop brings together
       clinicians from around the world
T
      he Stuttering Foundation and
      the University of Iowa held the
      second        Workshop       for
Specialists in Stuttering in Iowa City
this past summer, under the leader-
ship of Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D.,
and Toni Cilek, M.A.
     The event hosted 20 clinicians
from 10 states and eight foreign
countries.
     Guest lecturers during the two
week course included Edward G.
Conture, Ph.D., of Vanderbilt
University and Peter Ramig,
Ph.D., of University of Colorado-
Boulder. The first workshop at
Iowa was offered in 2003, and the
third will be offered in the summer
of 2007.
     “The second workshop met
our expectations – and then
some,” said Patricia Zebrowski. “I
hope we continue our track record
of receiving applicants from all         The Class of 2005 gathers for pictures during Stuttering Therapy: Workshop for Specialists, sponsored by the
over the world – this year we had        Stuttering Foundation and the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Front row (from left): Jeamjai Jeeraumporn, Jennifer
                                         Tseng, Jennifer Peacock, Calista Keck, Ashley Jackson, Jane Fraser, Erol Belgin, and Nao Yasuda. Second row:
specialists from the United States       Amie King, Suzanne Sylvester, Patricia Zebrowski, Michelle Jones, Toni Cilek, and Joe Fulcher. Third row:
as well as from Russia, Italy,           Margaret Schmidt, Maria Gurrister, Yulia Filatova, Cheryl Arismendi, and Mavis Kulak Kayikci. Back row: Nina
Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Taiwan          Conrad, Peter Ramig, Massimiliano Marchiori, Peter Reitzes, Michelle Snead, and Kathleen Scaler Scott.
and New Zealand.
This course gives me the opportu-
nity to talk about how research
and clinical practice complement
each other, and to hear from spe-
cialists in the field about how this
relationship functions in the real
world of therapy.
     The international flavor pro-
vides an excellent opportunity to
                                                                                                                   Ashley Jackson, Peter Reitzes, and
discuss diverse practices and expe-                                                                              Toni Cilek take time for a picture dur-
riences with people who stutter, and                                                                             ing the workshop.
these discussions help all of us who
                                                                                                                    Jennier Peacock (from left),
work with this population.”                                                                                      Massimiliano Marchiori, Calista Keck,
     The response from those attend-                                                                             Peter Reitzes, and Ashley Jackson
ing this year’s workshop has been                                                                                visit the Field of Dreams.
outstanding.
     “Attending the Iowa workshop        who are also wanting to help those                         viding training to speech-language
made me feel like I was part of an       who stutter. I appreciate your gen-                        pathologists throughout the world.
‘All-Star’ stuttering team wrestling     erosity in making workshops like                           It provides many speech-patholo-
with this complicated disorder,” said    this one come to life. I will have an                      gists who could never otherwise af-
Peter Reitzes of Brooklyn, N.Y.          opportunity to meet with my col-                           ford it the opportunity to be well
     “What a fantastic workshop          leagues in the school district to                          trained in the field of fluency.”
here at Iowa,” said Cheryl               share the workshop information.”
                                                                                                        Information on upcoming work-
Arismendi of Pomona, Calif. “I               Kathy     Scaler      Scott    of                      shops can be found on the Stuttering
have learned so much and had a           Flemington, N.J., said, “This pro-                         Foundation’s Web site, www.stutter-
wonderful time meeting others            gram is an amazing method for pro-                         inghelp.org.                      ❑
WINTER 2006                                                                                                              1-800-992-9392          5


“I’m not hiding All-new DVD series for 1.0 CEUs
                  Do you ever remember a name, but whether treatment is recommended for
   anymore”     not recognize a face? Well, that’s
                what may happen when you see one
                                                   young children.
                                                     E. Charles Healey, Ph.D., of the
By Rob Bloom
   I stutter. I always have. In fact, I can re-               of SFA’s newest productions.                          University of Nebraska-
member being three years old and trying                          The Child Who Stutters:                             Lincoln addresses the con-
very hard to push out the word “d-d-daddy.”                   Practical Ideas for                                           ceptual framework
   When it became apparent that I was not                     the        School                                             of CALMS as a
going to “grow out of it,” I decided I would                  Clinician Series                                              model for planning
do whatever it took to keep my shameful                       has the same title                                            stuttering assess-
stuttering a secret from the world. And thus                  as a former pro-                                              ment and treatment.
began a life of substituting words, avoiding                  duction, but you                                                        Kristin A.
sounds, and quite                                             won’t recognize it                                            Chmela, M.A., of
frankly, living in fear.                                      because everything             Guitar          Ramig          Northwestern
   I hid my stuttering                                        about it is new.                                              University discusses
throughout college,                                              The six-DVD se-                                            counseling, listening
often taking drastic                                          ries, which offers                                            and valuing, creat-
means to do so —                                              speech-language                                               ing communicative
from claiming to                                              pathologists       1.0                                        space, taking timed
have laryngitis to                                            CEUs, has been to-                                            risks, and document-
giving a fake name                                            tally redone.                  Chmela
                                                                                                                            ing your goals.
                                                                                                              Healey
when meeting new                                                 Six fluency spe-                                             Bill Murphy, M.A.,
people. Sure, I was              Rob Bloom                    cialists went before                                          of Purdue University
successful in lying to                                        the camera this past                                           discusses the emo-
the world…but the truth was catching up                       year to remake this                                            tions of school-age
with me: in the form of a stomach ulcer.                      popular series.                                                 children, the stutter-
   After graduation, I took a job writing for                    Barry        Guitar,                                         ing triangle, essen-
an advertising agency where I continued to                    Ph.D.,       of    the                                           tial tools, conspira-
                                                                                             Murphy         Zebrowski
portray the role of a fluent speaker on the                   University          of                                           cy of easy fluency,
outside. But despite professional success                     Vermont describes                                             and keys to progress.
and recognition, I could barely look at my-                   stuttering modification and                  Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D., of the
self in the mirror. When the economy                          fluency shaping and demonstrates           University of Iowa offers help to
slumped and my job was eliminated, I had                      both concepts.                             understand adolescence and discuss-
the opportunity to do a little soul-search-                      Peter Ramig, Ph.D., of the              es motor training, mental training,
ing. It was then that I had a startling real-                 University of Colorado-Boulder             and emotions.
ization: I needed to stop hiding.                             gives general information on stuttering,     For more information on this DVD
   I forced myself to face my fears directly.                 outlines basic principles, offers case     series, visit www.stutteringhelp.org
One way I did this was to do the very thing                   studies, and suggests ways to determine    or call 1-800-992-9392.
that scared me more than anything else:
stuttering. I walked into situations and in-
tentionally stuttered. Although agonizingly
difficult at first, I slowly began to desensi-                SFA materials travel the world helping people
tize myself to the behavior. In addition, I                      Stuttering knows no boundaries.         young     people who stutter in
joined Toastmasters where I willingly                         It is a disorder that affects people                     Hebrew in the last 35
stood before a group of people and spoke.                     everywhere.                                              years or more,” says
Did I stutter? Of course. But I also proved                      Just this year alone, SFA material                     Benny, chair of ISA.
to myself that I was much more than the                       has been translated into                                     The DVDs, Stuttering
behavior of stuttering and even came to re-                   several different lan-                                    and Your Child: Help for
alize that I actually enjoy public speaking.                  guages — most recently,                                    Families,    Stuttering:
   In opening up about stuttering, I’ve dis-                  Lithuanian, Japanese,                                      Straight    Talk      for
covered the stigma and fears that I’ve based                  and Hebrew.                                                Teachers, and Stuttering:
my life around die a little bit more with each                   The        Stuttering                   For Kids By Kids, have been converted
passing day. I’ve also accepted the fact that,                Problem Club of                            to Japanese this year.
yes, I do stutter. I now know that if I stutter,              Lithuania translated                          “It’s our really great honor to
my arms aren’t going to fall off and my head                  two books, Stuttering: An Integration      produce
isn’t going to spin around. I’m just going                    of Contemporary Therapies and              and pub-
to…well…stutter. And while this may al-                       Counseling Those Who Stutter into a        lish such
ways be the case, I now realize that there are                single publication.                        excellent
much more important things to focus on.                          Benny Ravid of the Israeli              programs
    Rob Bloom is a humor writer who has stuttered his en-
tire life. In addition to his humor column, Rob has written
                                                              Stuttering Association translated          as your titles in Japanese versions,”
for the Cartoon Network, Travel Channel, and National         Do You Stutter: A Guide for Teens          writes Kazunari Katsumasa, CEO
Public Radio. You can read some of Rob's work at his Web      into Hebrew.                               of the Institute of Medical
site, www.robbloom.com.                                  ❑       “It is the first publication for        Education.                             ❑
6          www.stutteringhelp.org                                                                                                                1-800-992-9392


Boston workshoppers leave with enthusiasm
By Diane Fillion Parris, M.S.
     Twenty speech-language patholo-
gists representing nine states in the U.S.,
Turkey, Thailand, and Lebanon, attended
the New England Workshop at Boston
University from June 22 – 26, 2005.
     Instruction and practical experiences
in the diagnosis and treatment of children
and adolescents who stutter were lead by
Edward Conture, Ph.D., Vanderbilt
University, Susan Dietrich, Ph.D., Harvard
Medical School, Sheryl Gottwald, Ph.D.,
University of New Hampshire, and Diane
Parris, M.S., Boston University.
     During the five-day workshop, partic-
ipants received instruction in differential
diagnosis of fluency disorders, interpreta-
tion of diagnostic findings, treatment tech-              Front (front): Laura Halley, Vanessa Sheets Paddock, Jane Fraser, Elise Goodman, Debra Robinson, Ponjit
                                                          Jithavech, and Susan Dietrich. Second row: Sheryl Gottwald, Burcu Ardaman, Nancy Swartz, Dollen Tabri,
niques for motor speech behaviors as well                 Amanda Taylor, Tara Turken, Helen Selle, Rose Marie Pietrzyk, Susan Carnavale, and Laura Delaney. Back
as desensitization and counseling strate-                 row: Joe Fulcher, Diane Parris, Paul Quin, Christine LaFleur, Joe Wohlgemuth, Karen Dohn, Terry Colyar. Not
gies, and approaches to working with par-                 pictured are Jo Ellen Ryan and guest speaker Ed Conture.
ents and teachers.                                        knowledge,” says Joseph J. Wohlgemuth                   writes, “I learned new therapy techniques
     Guided practical training with local                 of New Jersey.                                          in a wonderful, professional environment,
preschoolers, school-age children, and                         “The intense format of the work-                   techniques I have already put successfully
young teens left participants with enthusi-               shop combined with the practice with                    in use with more than one patient. The
asm and confidence in their new skills.                   children helped transition the theory into              joint efforts led by the Stuttering
     “All of my students who stutter are                  practice,” states Paul Quin.                            Foundation of America are making a great
greatly benefiting from all of my new                          Dollen Tabri of Beirut, Lebanon,                   difference in many people’s lives.” ❑

                                                              Language Processing and Stuttering                  respiratory systems but is also determined by
Stuttering              Continued from front page               Dr. Christine Weber-Fox discussed the             language processing.
studies and studies of families in Africa.                neurological evidence for how individuals who                 She uses a research technique called
      The evidence for genetic factors in stutter-        stutter process linguistic information. Her pur-        event-related potentials to illustrate how the
ing is overwhelming, with genetic factors playing         pose in pursuing this line of research is to inves-     brain processes information. A series of elec-
a role in at least half of all cases. Although stutter-   tigate whether individuals who stutter exhibit          trodes are placed on a person’s head and the
ing does cluster in families, severity does not. In       atypical brain functions when they are process-         electrical energy that is emitted while the indi-
other words, if you have a family member who              ing linguistic in-                                      vidual completes a task is measured by the
stutters, you are more likely to stutter. However,        formation, such as        Editor’s note: This en-       electrodes. The researcher then examines the
if you have a family member who stutters severe-          deciding whether tire article, including Drs.           print-outs of the electrical waves to determine
ly, his or her severity does not put you at addition-     a sentence con- Maguire’s and Foundas’                  in what areas of the brain, and how quickly, the
al risk for stuttering nor does it relate to the sever-   tains a grammati- research, can be found at             brain processes a given signal.
ity of your own stuttering.                               cal     error     or www.stutteringhelp.org                   Her findings for adults who stutter show dif-
      Another interesting finding is that the             whether         two under What’s New.                   ferences in their ability to accurately judge gram-
                                                          words rhyme. Her          This article was great-       matical information such as verb-agreement vio-
male-to-female ratio in familial cases of stutter-
ing is approximately 1.5:1. This means that in            work is based on ly abridged because of                 lations. This reduced ability was also character-
families who appear to have some genetic trans-           the theory that space limitations.                      ized by differences in the degree and patterns of
mission of stuttering, for every 1.5 cases of             moments of stut-                                        electrical energy in the brain. Additionally, in a
males who stutter, there is a case of a female            tering, or breakdowns in speech motor control,          study where individuals had to process different
who stutters. This figure is considerably differ-         are related to difficulty processing elements of        types of words or phrases (e.g., I didn’t know
ent from past reports of male-to-female ratios            language such as grammar, retrieving specific           what time it was so I looked at my rain), those
for stuttering, which have previously been de-            words, or processing small units of speech such         who stuttered showed a delay in processing that
scribed as 4 or 5 males for every 1 female. This          as individual speech sounds or syllables. She           was not seen in individuals who did not stutter.
suggests that genetic transmission of stuttering          stated that current thinking in this area of re-              Because the brain is plastic, or change-
affects females almost as frequently as males,            search is that there are bidirectional influences       able over time with experiences, it is difficult
and that the male-to-female ratio is much high-           between language and motor processing. That is,         to determine if these differences exist at the
er, probably 7 or 8 males for every 1 female, for         the complexity of the sentence or timing de-            onset of stuttering and thus could be partially
individuals with no family history of stuttering.         mands in recalling a specific word seem to influ-       responsible for the problem. Alternatively,
      Despite this genetic evidence, however,             ence the individual’s ability to generate the nec-      because of plasticity, it might be that living
Dr. Drayna cautioned that most human medical              essary sequence of muscle movements to say the          with stuttering over time may contribute to
problems are a combination of genes and                   sentence, and vice versa.                               the differences being noted in adults as the
“something else,” such as environment or learn-                 Dr. Weber-Fox discussed a series of stud-         brain attempts to compensate for stuttering.
ing. Also, geneticists who study stuttering are al-       ies she and colleagues at Purdue University             Therefore, Dr. Weber-Fox’s current research
most certain that there are many genes that con-          have conducted that have led to their conclu-           is focusing on making similar types of mea-
tribute to stuttering rather than one particular          sion that stuttering is not based solely on an in-      surements in children who stutter to deter-
gene having most responsibility. For example,             dividual’s ability to execute a sequence of             mine whether the differences noted for adults
there are over 100 genes that cause deafness.             muscle movements in the mouth, larynx, and              are present in younger individuals.              ❑
WINTER 2006                                                                                                         1-800-992-9392                   7



An almost famous singer
     While the SFA’s Web site list of           constantly passed over for a record-
Famous People Who Stutter includes              ing contract.
many high-profile names, we like to                  Rory had to deal almost on a daily
think that every person who stutters            basis with the Beatles’ success because
is unique in their own right.                   his sister Iris was Paul McCartney’s
     One person who stutters who un-            girlfriend for awhile, both before and
fortunately never became famous                 after the Beatles’ success. She was
was Rory Storm.                                 Paul’s last Liverpool girlfriend, and           Next time you peruse a magazine at the doctor’s office,
     Born Alan Caldwell in Liverpool            even after their break-up, Paul kept in         don’t be surprised if you see a public service ad for the
in 1942, he took the name Rory                  touch regularly with Rory’s mother,             Stuttering Foundation. Oprah’s O Magazine, Redbook,
Storm when he formed his own rock               Violet Caldwell. In fact, when Paul             Forbes, Good Housekeeping, Better Homes and
band, Rory Storm                                                       wrote Yesterday, the     Gardens, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmo, Cosmogirl,
& the Hurricanes.                                                      first person he called   and Newsweek are just a few of the major magazines
Rory       stuttered                                                   was Violet Caldwell      who have donated space this year. Major specialized
badly but was total-                                                   to sing it to her over   publications supporting the foundation include
                                                                                                Physicians Practice, School Nurse News, and Discovery,
ly fluent when                                                         the phone.               which is distributed aboard Princess Cruise ships. ❑
singing, as is the                                                          It was difficult
case for many peo-                                                     for a talented per-
ple. All accounts of                                                   son like Rory to be
Rory describe his                                                      passed over during
speech problem as                                                      the Liverpool craze
being severe.                                                          in rock history. He
     Rory Storm &                                                      found it most diffi-
the Hurricanes was                                                     cult to adjust to a
the most popular                                                       life in which he
band in Liverpool                      Photo from www.beatlesource.com had to speak rather
and — at one point            Rory Storm & the Hurricanes              than sing.
— even had more                                                           Another hardship
fans than their friends The Beatles.            would come later. While known on
Rory’s blonde hair and blue eyed                the club scene throughout England,
good looks made him quite popular               his trademark moves on stage cou-
with young women in Liverpool.                  pled with his blonde hair and good
     Rory would indirectly make his-            looks were legendary. It is widely be-
tory when he advised his drummer,               lieved that an upstart singer Rod
Ritchie Starkey, to change his name             Stewart, who saw Rory perform
because it did not sound artistic. Not          many times in the early days, “stole”           SFA material received special attention at the
wanting to change his name, the                 the singer’s trademark persona and              Rensselaer (Ind.) Public Library.
drummer finally did when Rory sug-              found success of his own with well-
gested he take the name “Ringo” be-             choreographed moves on stage and
                                                flaunting his blonde hair.
                                                                                                A special bookshelf
cause of the drummer’s penchant for
wearing rings.                                       Rory successfully treated his                The Rensselaer (Ind.) Public
                                                speech problem and became a flu-                Library did more than just place
     Ironically, Rory Storm & the                                                               books and material on stuttering on a
Hurricanes played in the same club in           ent disc jockey for several years.
                                                However, tragedy would follow. In               shelf. Glenda Brown made a special
Hamburg with the Beatles for a year.                                                            display complete with posters of fa-
Ringo Starr had to fill in many times           1972, shortly after the death of his
                                                father and down on his luck, Rory               mous people who stutter, videos and
for original Beatle drummer Pete                                                                other resources.
Best and it always went well.                   took an overdose of pills and
                                                                                                  The material on the display was
     When the Beatles canned Best               whiskey to end his life. His dis-               also available to check out.
just prior to recording their first             traught mother died hours later of a              The display was so good that the
record in 1962, Ringo was the                   heart attack.                                   local newspaper did an entire article
unanimous choice to replace the                      True followers of the Liverpool            on it and SFA supporter, Leon
popular Best.                                   club scene prior to 1962 know that              “Jigger” Sirois.
     Rory was sorry to lose Ringo               Rory Storm was just as talented as                The Stuttering Foundation is able to
but wished him well. Unfortunately              any of the acts that found fame in the          make resources available free of
for Rory, he and the Hurricanes                 “British invasion.” Success was all             charge to public libraries nationwide
would never see any glory days.                 around Rory Storm for many years,               because of donations from people like
With Beatlemania in England, other              but life dealt him an unfortunate               Sirois of Williamsburg, Va.
groups out of Liverpool, such as                hand. While he did not achieve fame               If your local library doesn’t have
Gerry & the Pacemakers, achieved                and fortune, his unique accomplish-             SFA material, please encourage them
some success. However, Rory and                 ments put him on our radar screen as            to contact the Foundation at 1-800-
his band fell on hard times and were            a famous person who stutters.              ❑    992-9392.                           ❑
8        www.stutteringhelp.org                                                                                                         1-800-992-9392



ASHA 2005
     While temperatures for much of the
country began to drop for winter, it was a
different story in warm San Diego, Calif.,
which hosted the 2005 convention for the
American Speech-Language-Hearing
Association in mid-November.
     The Foundation booth was wildly
busy with a number of items proving to
be very popular, including Stuttering: For
Kids, By Kids and the new DVD series.
     Many volunteers staffed the booth.
A special thanks to Peter Ramig, Joe                                                           E. Charles Healey (left) and Joe Donaher speak with a customer.
Donaher, Charlie Healey, Peter Reitzes,
Tony Buhr, Vianne Bjornberg, Liz
Edwards, Steffi Schopick, Judy Kuster,
Nancy Ribbler, Glenn Weybright, Maria               SFA anchor Carol Ecke gets ready for the
Gurrister, Brenda Malepeai, John Ellis,             big rush.
Ryan Pollard, Tom Gurrister, Darrell
Dodge, Lorrie Scott, Julie Anderson,
Mark Pellowski, Kathleen Chase,
Jennifer Watson, Linda Louko, and
Susan Hamilton.                         ❑




                                                                                                       Susan Hamilton and Marlene Taylor donated $500 to
                                                                                                     the Stuttering Foundation from money they raised by
                                                                                                     selling jewelry at the Cookie Lee booth.
        Peter Reitzes answers a question.                                                                SFA materials draw a crowd.



Age factor              Continued from page 3     reason for shunning direct speech therapy             accumulating at a rapid pace but much
                                                  for preschoolers. Whereas some three-year             remains to be learned.
Ambrose (2005) successfully obtained              olds are either clearly, or appear to be,                References
                                                                                                           Ambrose, N., & Yairi, E. (1994). The develop-
high resolution structural MRI data from          aware of stuttering, available experimental           ment of awareness of stuttering in preschool chil-
stuttering and control children ages 8-13.        data show a very large increase in aware-             dren. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 19, 229-245.
Initial results indicate significant group        ness between ages 4 and 5, including nor-                Chang, S., Erickson, K., & Ambrose, N. (2005).
                                                                                                        Regional white and grey matter volumetric growth
differences in white and grey matter vol-         mally fluent children (Ambrose & Yairi,               differences in children with persistent versus recov-
ume in brain areas involved in integrating        1994; Ezrati, Platzky, & Yairi, 2001). This           ered stuttering: An MRI (VBM) study. Presented at
sensory and motor aspects of speech.              information would seem to justify direct in-          the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience,
                                                  tervention techniques as well as provide              2005, Washington, D.C. Program No. 565.5. 2005
Testing younger children closer to onset                                                                Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Online
should advance our knowledge.                     clues for the timing of intervention and                 Cox, N., Roe, C., Suresh, R., Cook, E.,
   Evidence is also accumulating that age         should be considered in counseling of par-            Lundstrom, C., Garsten, M., Ezrati, R. Ambrose,
at onset may bear a relation to genetic fac-      ents and teachers about reactions of normal-          N., & Yairi, E. (2005). Chromosomal signals for
                                                                                                        genes underlying stuttering. Presented at the
tors, in particular, it appears there may be      ly fluent children to their stuttering peers.         Oxford Disfluency Conference, Oxford University,
a trend for persistent stuttering to have a          Finally, important information about               Oxford, United Kingdom.
slightly later onset than recovered stutter-      persistent stuttering may be uncovered by                Ezrati, R., Platzky, R., & Yairi, E. (2001). The
                                                                                                        young child's awareness of stuttering-like disfluen-
ing (Yairi & Ambrose, 2005). As the               studying upper age groups — people who                cy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
Illinois team continues to uncover possi-         have stuttered for many years into ad-                Research, 44, 368-380.
ble interactions among different genetic          vanced ages. Perhaps they exhibit more                   Rommel, D., Hage, A., Kalehne, P., &
loci (Cox, et al., 2005), the age factor          pronounced characteristics that reveal                Johannsen, H. (1999). Developmental, mainte-
                                                                                                        nance, and recovery of childhood stuttering:
should become more clear.                         differences not easily identifiable in the            Prospective longitudinal data 3 years after first con-
   Age is also a risk factor in regard to chil-   typical child or young adult who stutters.            tact. In K. Baker, L. Rustin, & K. Baker (Eds.),
dren’s awareness of disfluent speech. The         Indeed, our team’s members are current-               Proceedings of the fifth Oxford disfluency confer-
                                                                                                        ence (pp.168-182). Chappell Gardner, UK:
belief that preschoolers who stutter lack in      ly pursuing structural brain imaging stud-            Windsor, Berkshire.
such awareness played a major role in theo-       ies of aged people who stutter.                          Watkins, R., Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N.G. (1999).
ries and developmental models of the disor-          All of the above serve to highlight the            Early childhood stuttering III: Initial status of ex-
                                                                                                        pressive language abilities. Journal of Speech,
der. For many years, clinicians’ assumption       role of age in the onset and development              Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 1125-1135.
that awareness would trigger strong emo-          of stuttering, in subtype differentiation,               Yairi, E. & Ambrose, N. (2005). Early childhood
tions (e.g., anxiety) in children was the main    and in treatment strategies. Knowledge is             stuttering. Austin: Pro-Ed, Inc.                   ❑
WINTER 2006                                                                                                                                               1-800-992-9392          9




                         Dear SFA: Reader Response
                         Send letters to SFA, P.O. Box 11749, Memphis, TN 38111-0749 or email info@stutteringhelp.org.

Video gets four stars                                                                                                                      School scares me
Dear SFA:                                                                                                                                  Hi:
   Stuttering: For Kids, By Kids is                                                                                                           I am very happy I found your Web
about stuttering. What I liked about                                                                                                       site. Stuttering is a real problem for
the movie was that the children in the                                                                                                     me and I think it is going to limit the
video say that they are not shy to talk.                                                                                                   opportunities I have in life. I am only
Another thing I liked about it was that                                                                                                    13. I always get nervous in school and
the children stutter and they just kept                                                                                                    sometimes I can’t ask important ques-
on talking. For example, when they                                                                                                         tions because I can’t say it quickly. If
spoke they just let their stuttering out                                                                                                   I didn’t stutter, I would look forward
and did not care about their stuttering.                                                                                                   to school and I would be an actress
   During speech class, I watched this                                                                                                     and sing! But I can’t and I am scared
video with four of my friends. My                                                                                                          when I go to school because you don’t
friend Katie said, “I learned that stutter-                                                                                                know if you are going to have to read
ing is not a big deal because everyone                                                                                                     something out loud. If you have any
has problems.” Jennifer said, “I learned                                                                                                   ideas for helping me, please e-mail!
that some people can help themselves                                                                                                       Thank you for your support and I ap-
with stuttering.” Martha said, “What I                                                                                                     preciate every bit of it!!
learned was that you should tell your                                                                                                      Sarah
friends if you stutter.” Susan said,                                                                                                       Atlanta
“What I learned is that stuttering is not
                                                                                                                                           Editor: Help has gone out to Sarah.
funny.” My speech teacher said, “I am
so glad that Melissa shared her stutter-
ing and this video with her friends.”
                                              Photo by Fernando Medina/NBAE via Getty Images. Copyright 2004 NBAE. Used with permission.   Workplace survey
Melissa
                                              Since our summer newsletter, we have heard from                                                Marshall Rice, Ph.D. of York
                                              many people who have been inspired by Denver                                                 University in Toronto, Canada, is
Fifth grade                                   Nuggets basketball sensation Kenyon Martin. He is now
New York                                      included on our 16 Famous People Who Stutter poster.                                         conducting a survey on the impact of
                                                                                                                                           stuttering at work. To enable him to
                                               am surprised that so many famous peo-                                                       better understand the issues and
I do what I want to do                         ple stutter. I like reading the letters.                                                    challenges that people who stutter
Dear SFA:                                      John
      My name is John. I am 11 years                                                                                                       face on the job. The research may
                                               Chicago                                                                                     help identify policies that will help
old. I am a 5th grader in Chicago. I
like to read and hang out with                                                                                                             to prevent discrimination against
friends. I have been stuttering since
                                               Web site a great help                                                                       people who stutter. Please complete
                                               Dear SFA:                                                                                   the confidential survey online at:
kindergarten. At first when I stut-              I thank you for your Web site. My
tered I couldn’t get every word that                                                                                                       www.survey-city.com/survey/stut-
                                               mother has stuttered all of her life.                                                       ter/pws.html. If you have questions,
I said out of my mouth. But then
                                               And she has always been embar-                                                              contact Dr. Marshall Rice at
when I got older I tend to repeat
words two or three times and then I            rassed to talk to people due to her                                                         mrice@schulich.yorku.ca or at 416-
am fluent. My dad also stutters but            stuttering. I also use to stutter when                                                      736-2100, Ext. 58241.
not that much. My little brother               I was younger. I still do, when I am
also stutters.                                 nervous. My son, brother and many                                                           Online journal
   I notice that when I am not paying          of my uncles and aunts still stutter. I                                                       Peter Reitzes and Gregory Snyder will
attention to how I talk, I don’t stutter.      was so surprised to see how many                                                            launch an online journal, The Journal of
I never stutter when I sing or when            people has stuttered. Because of                                                            Stuttering Therapy, Advocacy, and
I’m in a play. I don’t let stuttering          your Web site, my mother is not as                                                          Research, to be ready in February,
stop me from doing any thing I want            ashamed of her stuttering.                                                                  www.JournalofStuttering.com. To sub-
to do. When I am stuttering I don’t              I cannot thank you enough for al-                                                         mit papers, e-mail Gregory Snyder, at
like it when people interrupt me.              lowing so many people to see that they                                                      OleMiss@GregorySnyder.com.
   I don’t care that I stutter. Stuttering     were not alone. If you can help others
actually helps me meet new people              as you did my mother and myself,                                                            NSSLHA chapters donate
because either some of my friends in-          than you are doing something great.                                                         Thanks to The Florida State University
troduce me to their friends or they            Keep up the good work. God bless                                                            and the Eastern Washington University
make sure that I am in a group pro-            you all for reaching out to people like                                                     chapters of the National Student Speech-
ject, and I meet new kids there.               me and my family. Thank you.                                                                Language-Hearing Association, which
   My speech therapist told me about           Francis                                                                                     recently donated to the SFA. Their gener-
your Web site and your newsletter. I           Boston                                                                                      ous gifts will help children who stutter. ❑
12        www.stutteringhelp.org                                                                                                                       1-800-992-9392

Brain                     Continued from page 2         pertain to the metronome effect, unison                  ganglia may be disturbed because of
                                                        reading, imitation of an accent, and role                deficient input from the primary motor
(However, he did not discuss stuttering.)               play. Furthermore,                                       cortex. In this way the basal ganglia
According to this model, both systems                   there are re-                                            model is compatible with the recent re-
have the ability to provide go-signals for              search data                                              ports of structural anomalies of the cor-
movements, but under somewhat differ-                   supporting                                               tex and the white matter, e.g. in the sen-
ent conditions. The lateral system, con-                that it is the                                           sorimotor region for the speech organs
sisting of the lateral premotor cortex and              lateral system                                           (Foundas et al., 2001; Sommer et al.,
the cerebellum, is active when the move-                that is dominant for                                     2002; Jancke et al., 2004; Watkins et
ment is controlled in relation to the senso-            go-signals     during                                    al., 2005). A more detailed account of
ry input — like when speaking to the                    singing and rhythmic speech, conditions                  this dual premotor model of stuttering
pace of a metronome or reading in uni-                  know to improve fluency.
son. Similarly, the lateral system is dom-                                                                       is currently under way.
                                                           An interesting question is how the                       A pdf-file of the thesis can be downloaded
inant when speech is controlled by audi-                effect of altered auditory feedback on                   from http://theses.lub.lu.se/postgrad/ (However,
tory or somatosensory feedback.                         stuttering can be explained, for exam-                   the online version does not yet include all the re-
                                                                                                                 search papers, because of copyright questions.
   In contrast, the medial system, consist-             ple frequency altered feedback (FAF).                    For missing papers contact Per.Alm@psycholo-
ing of the basal ganglia and the SMA,                   There are now several brain imaging                      gy.lu.se. Printed copies of the complete thesis can
operates based on automatized programs                  studies showing specific activation of                   be ordered from the Swedish Stuttering
without external feedback. This system is                                                                        Association, kansliet@stamning.se, maybe about
                                                        the lateral premotor system when lis-                    $20 including postage.)
dominant during spontaneous speech, es-                 tening to speech sounds. Moreover, re-                       References
pecially if the speech is propositional, i.e.           cent brain imaging data (Watkins,                            Alm, PA (2004). Stuttering and the basal ganglia cir-
that it conveys thoughts or emotions.                                                                            cuits: a critical review of possible relations. Journal of
                                                        Davis, & Howell, 2005) have shown                        Communication Disorders, 37, 325-69.
   The lateral system is also assumed to be             increased activation of the auditory                         Alm, PA (2005). On the causal mechanisms of stutter-
active when a movement is executed with                 cortex during speech with FAF. These                     ing. Doctoral thesis. Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Lund
                                                                                                                 University, Sweden.
increased attention and conscious control,              findings point to increased control                          Caruso, AJ (1991). Neuromotor processes underlying
while the medial system dominates for au-               from the lateral system during altered                   stuttering. In Peters et al. Speech motor control and stutter-
tomatic responses. This is claimed to be the            feedback, so that difficulties with the                  ing (101-16).
                                                                                                                     Foundas, AL et al. (2001). Anomalous anatomy of
reason why it is difficult to get a natural             medial system may be bypassed. This                      speech-language areas ... Neurology, 57, 207-15.
smile when asked by a photographer —                    hypothesis is supported by reports that                      Goldberg, G (1985). Supplementary motor area ...
                                                        some       speech      difficulties    in                Behavioral Brain Sci, 8, 567-616.
voluntary and spontaneous smiles are cre-                                                                            Goldberg, G (1991). Microgenetic theory and the dual
ated by two different systems in the brain.             Parkinson’s disease, which is a basal                    premotor systems hypothesis. In Hanlon Cognitive micro-
This distinction suggests that the lateral              ganglia disorder, may be improved by                     genesis (32-52).
                                                        either delayed or frequency altered au-                      Jancke, L et al. (2004). Morphological brain differ-
system is in charge when speaking in a way                                                                       ences ... BMC Neurology, 4.
that is not automatic, like imitating an ac-            ditory feedback.                                             Ludlow, CL et al. (1987). Site of penetrating brain le-
cent or playing a role.                                    An important aspect of the dual pre-                  sions ... Ann Neurol, 22, 60-6.
                                                                                                                 Molt LF (1999). The basal ganglia's possible role in stut-
   This dual premotor systems model of                  motor model is that it emphasizes that                   tering. Proc. 2nd Internat. Stuttering Awareness Day,
stuttering provides a novel explanation for             the basal ganglia system is part of a                    Internet.
most of the well-known fluency inducing                 larger medial system, including the                          Sommer, M et al. (2002). Disconnection of speech-rel-
                                                                                                                 evant brain areas ... Lancet, 360, 380-3.
conditions in stuttering. Stuttering is relat-          complete loop from the cortex through                        Watkins, K, Davis, M, & Howell, P (2005). Brain ac-
ed to a disturbance of the medial system,               the basal ganglia and the thalamus, and                  tivity during altered auditory feedback. Paper at the Oxford
                                                        back to the cortex (the SMA). For ex-                    Dysfluency Conference 2005, Oxford.
but when the control is shifted from the                                                                             Watkins, RV, Yairi, E, & Ambrose, NG (1999). Early
medial to the lateral system the problem is             ample, as suggested in Alm (2004), the                   childhood stuttering III. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 42,
bypassed. As mentioned above, this could                production of go-signals from the basal                  1125-35.                                                   ❑

                                                        Newsbriefs and Books, usually found
          Workshops                                       on this page, are at What’s New,
                                                              www.stutteringhelp.org
                                                                                                                   The Stuttering Foundation of America is a tax-ex-
                                                                                                                   empt organization under section 501(c)(3) of the
                                                                                                                   Internal Revenue Code and is classified as a pri-
     Stuttering Therapy: Practical Ideas                                                                           vate operating foundation as defined in section
           for the School Clinician                                                                                4942(j)(3). Charitable contributions and be-
     June 9-10, 2006 — Chicago                                                                                     quests to the Foundation are tax-
 With Kristin Chmela, M.A., E. Charles Healey, Ph.D.,                                                              deductible, subject to limitations under the Code.
       Bill Murphy, M.A., Peter Ramig, Ph.D.,
 Lisa A. Scott, Ph.D., and Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D.

                                                                                                                          THE
   The Mid-Atlantic Workshop: Treating                                                                                    STUTTERING
   Children and Adolescents Who Stutter
      Co-sponsored by the Children’s
                                                                                                                          FOUNDATION
          Hospital of Philadelphia                                                                                 A Nonprofit Organization
             June 21-25, 2006                                                                                      Since 1947 — Helping Those Who Stutter
                                                        Our best wishes for a happy new year!
  With Joseph Donaher, M.A., Kristin Chmela, M.A.,                                                                 3100 Walnut Grove Road, Suite 603
                                                        The SFA staff: (Front row, L to R) Lisa Scott, Jane
              and Lisa A. Scott, Ph.D  .                Fraser and Susie Hall; (Back row, L to R) Joan Warner,
                                                                                                                   P.O. Box 11749 ● Memphis, TN 38111-0749
   Applications are available online                    Roberta Brugge, Pat Hamm, Lisa Hinton and Anne            1-800-992-9392 ● 1-800-967-7700
     at www.stutteringhelp.org                          Edwards. Not pictured are John Bell, Carol Ecke, Don       www.stutteringhelp.org www.tartamudez.org
        or call 1-800-992-9392                          Edwards, Joe Fulcher, Patty Reed and Scot Squires.                    info@stutteringhelp.org

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Winter newsletter 2006

  • 1. 1-800-992-9392 www.stutteringhelp.org • www.tartamudez.org T HE S TUTTERING F OUNDATION A Nonprofit Organization WINTER 2006 Since 1947... Helping Those Who Stutter The age factor in stuttering, page 3 Kenyon Martin lights up young lives, page 9 Annie’s Mailbox reaches millions, page 3 A look at genetic Redesigned Web site easier to use and neurological I nformation about stuttering is just a mouse click away. on July 4th,” says Jane correlates The Stuttering Foundation has redesigned its Web site, Fraser, president of the Foundation. www.stutteringhelp.org, so “Hits jumped from of stuttering the public and speech clin- 550,000 a month on the By Lisa Scott, Ph.D. icians can more easily find old site to 850,000 in The Florida State University September to a In November, four of the leading scien- the information tists in stuttering presented their latest re- they need. record 1,250,000 search at the American Speech-Language- There are spe- and 1,300,000 in Hearing Association con- cial pages for October and vention in San Diego. children, teens, November re- Participating in a session en- adults, teachers, spectively.” titled, “Genetic and Neurological Correlates of SLPs and em- The Web site Stuttering,” were Drs. ployers. uses the latest Dennis Drayna, NIDCD, All the foun- technology to Christine Weber-Fox, dation’s quickly up- Drayna Purdue University, Ann brochures are load informa- Foundas, Tulane University, available on- tion and keep and Gerald Maguire, University of California- line and sev- the Web site Irvine. In a session coordi- eral books up-to-date. nated by Dr. Christy are too. Loading Ludlow, NIDCD, four pre- Favorites precise ad- senters focused their discus- like the ex- dresses and Weber-Fox sions on state-of-the-art re- search in the understanding tensive list information of genetic and neurological of famous people for 6,500 libraries factors that contribute to who stutter now regularly is no small stuttering. Three of the four highlight the head- task, but our dedi- researchers, Drs. Drayna, line banner. cated staff makes it Weber-Fox, and Foundas, For those who pre- What’s Hot seem easy. have previously contributed articles on their research to fer to check out Celebrities who stutter Why speech therapy? “Those who FAQ Special education law Foundas past issues of this newsletter. books and videos at Is my child stuttering? Downloadable books, haven’t been to the Genetics and Stuttering libraries, the site lists Research on stuttering brochures and poster Web site recently Dr. Drayna described the 6,500 libraries that Insurance questions Exciting new pages should check it current knowledge of the role Electronic devices just for kids and teens shelve the founda- ADHD and stuttering Areas specifically for out,” Fraser said. of genetics in stuttering. He “I believe they provided an overview of how tion’s latest materials. Referral list to special- teachers and parents genetics are studied, including “The response has ists in stuttering Cluttering will find the infor- Answers for employers Coming soon: mation timely and the use of twin and adoption been tremendous Referral to libraries Streaming video Maguire Continued on page 6 since the launching valuable.” ❑ Annenberg Foundation grant helps SFA reach children An unprecedented grant from the kids learn more about stuttering will Annenberg Foundation is making want to see this tape,” says speech- Stuttering: For Kids, By Kids available language pathologist Bill Murphy of free of charge to every public library in Purdue University. “The children fea- the country. By year-end, more than lots of press these days — from daily tured are a perfect example of how to 6,500 libraries will have the new DVD and weekly newspapers and leading openly and honestly handle stuttering. whose animated star, Swish, is doing a magazines like Woman’s Day to the This is an important tool for families jump shot above. ASHA Leader and Advance for SLPs. and teachers of kids who stutter too.” The 12-minute DVD is getting “All those interested in helping Continued on page 2
  • 2. 2 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392 On the air on NBC NBC stations around the nation Stuttering and the basal ganglia aired a health segment about stuttering By Per Alm, Ph.D. able to do it when receiving external “tim- during their local news- University of Alberta ing cues,” is characteristic of dysfunction of casts in early December. the basal ganglia motor circuits (including The broadcast featured Editor’s note: Per Alm has a Ph.D. in neu- related structures, such as the supplemen- ropsychology and has been working with re- tary motor area (SMA)). Normally, the speech-language patholo- search on stuttering in Sweden but is current- basal ganglia seem to provide “go-signals” gist Dr. Tricia Zebrowski ly teaching at the University of Alberta, for the segments in a motor sequence, e.g. of the University of Iowa working Edmonton. We asked Per if he could write the syllables in speech. with a 7-year-old boy who stutters. something about his research and his view on Without sufficiently strong go-signals WIS TV in Columbia, S.C., told stuttering and the brain. the speech cannot be started or will be viewers, “There’s no miracle cure for disrupted. The rhythm effect appears to stuttering and it’s best to evaluate a The variability of stuttering is often strik- be a key feature of stuttering, providing a problem early.” The station then list- ing to the listener and mysterious for the strong indication that stuttering is related ed the Stuttering Foundation as a re- person who stutters. to some type of disturbance of the basal source for parents. Based on personal ganglia motor circuits. In addition, WIS TV linked to the experiences I have There are several other indications for Foundation’s Web site from their felt that the lack of the important role of the basal ganglia in home page and posted the story and a real knowledge about stuttering, for example: (1) Lesions that video clip online for Internet users. the underlying mech- cause “acquired stuttering” often affect the anisms of stuttering is basal ganglia (Ludlow et al., 1987). (2) The Viewers could even e-mail the news a problem in many drugs that have shown the clearest effect on segment and story to others who may ways. It makes it need this valuable information. ❑ stuttering, to make it better or worse, affect more difficult to treat, Per Alm, Ph.D. the dopamine system. Dopamine is a key it leaves the field transmitter that regulates the function of open to unfounded the basal ganglia. (3) Basal ganglia motor Annenberg Continued from front page speculations, and it makes it difficult for disorders characteristically worsen during Children on the DVD share their persons who stutter to reach self-under- stress and “nervous tension,” and improve views on dealing with teasing, how to standing. For this reason, I changed my vo- under relaxed conditions. teach others about stuttering, and what cation from engineering to research on the In the review on stuttering and the basal helps them manage their stuttering. nature of stuttering, about 10 years ago. ganglia (Alm, 2004), it was also argued Speech-lan- When I began my Ph.D. studies, it was that the typical pattern of onset of stuttering guage pathologists not easy to know what to do to advance around age 2.5 to 3, with a large percentage who specialize in the understanding of stuttering. So many of early recoveries, may be related to a nat- the treatment of flu- ingenious efforts had already been made. ural phase of the development of the basal ency disorders spent Comparing this research to a puzzle, it ganglia. Specifically, it has been shown more than a year de- felt important to try to make sense of the that children in general have a peak in the veloping the script for this film. scattered pieces. Therefore I worked both number of dopamine receptors type D2 in The concept of Swish was thor- with experimental studies and theoretical the basal ganglia at this time. There are the- oughly researched by a computer overviews of previous research findings. oretical arguments for how a large number graphics design team at Purdue In this article I will focus on the main of D2 receptors may increase the risk for University for optimum appeal and theoretical work, regarding the possible re- stuttering. Furthermore, the drugs that have memory attention for children in lation between stuttering and the basal shown the best documented effect on stut- grades 2-6. Once created, the boun- ganglia, brain structures involved in au- tering act by blocking these D2 receptors. cy, genderless cartoon character tomatization (Alm, 2004). This work led The number of D2 receptors has also with a kid’s voice and vocabulary to the proposal of the dual premotor sys- been reported to show correlation with was extensively field-tested in tems model of stuttering (Alm, 2005). The cognitive performance, which is in ac- speech clinics at Purdue and The idea that stuttering is related to the basal cord with the observation that children Florida State University. ganglia is not new. The first account came with early onset of stuttering often dis- Judging from the letters that con- from the German physician Sahli, based play precocious language development tinue to pour in, libraries around the on studies of epidemic encephalitis around (Watkins, Yairi, & Ambrose, 1999). country are very excited and grateful 1920. Among later examples can be men- In the thesis, On the causal mecha- for this donation. tioned Caruso (1991) and Molt (1999). nisms of stuttering (Alm, 2005), the “On behalf of the Board of Conditions where stuttering tends to be basal ganglia model was developed fur- Trustees, staff and patrons, I want to absent provide important clues about the ther, based on the theoretical work on the thank you for the material your orga- underlying dysfunction. One such condition human motor system proposed by nization has provided for our collec- is the “rhythm effect”: persons who stutter Goldberg (1985, 1991) and others. tion,” writes the director at the usually become fluent when speaking to the Goldberg argued that the human brain Aracnum, Ohio, library. pace of a metronome. They seem unable to has two parallel premotor systems, i.e. The library director in stutter when following the beats. This dis- systems involved in planning and execu- Chatham, Ill., echoed that senti- tinction, to have a problem performing a tion of movements, including speech. ment, “This resource is a welcome motor sequence on your own, but being addition to our collection.” ❑ Continued on page 12
  • 3. WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 3 The phones The age factor in stuttering Ehud Yairi, Ph.D. tional processes contribute to stuttering; keep ringing University of Illinois Age is among the strongest risk factors hence the possibility of relations among stuttering, language, and articulation. Annie’s Mailbox reaches for stuttering with several important impli- Although our own data (Watkins, Yairi, & millions, even in South Korea cations. Although the disorder begins with- Ambrose, 1999), and those of our col- The Memphis staff is hearing ring- in a wide age-range, current robust evidence leagues from Germany (Rommel et. al., ing in their sleep after a wave of calls indicates that, for a very large proportion of 1999), show that the language skills of flooded the Stuttering Foundation’s cases, it erupts during children who stutter, as a group, meet or switchboard follow- the preschool period. exceed norms, we suspect that there are ing mentions in two Data obtained at the differences in the ways in which they pro- syndicated columns. University of Illinois cess language. One research priority con- One mother Stuttering Research sequent to information about age at onset wrote, “My son Program revealed that is experimental manipulation of similari- sometimes can’t say for 65% of the child ties and/or differences in language pro- anything and then participants, stuttering cessing and production between children will say the same onset occurred prior who stutter near the onset of the disorder word over and over. to age 3; the figure and normally fluent children, particularly Please help!” Marcy Sugar rose to 85% by 3 1/2 Ehud Yairi, Ph.D. in terms of the nature of linguistic knowl- “Since I read the years of age (Yairi & edge and the time course of knowledge ac- column, I feel like Ambrose, 2005). tivation. Varied responses to semantic and there is hope for Leaving room for some sampling errors, phonological distracters, slower reaction my daughter,” said children past age 4 face a relatively low risk time, and/or alternative activation paths a father in Ohio. for stuttering. From clinical considerations, may reveal differences in language pro- On Oct. 22, these statistics call for greater emphasis on cessing. One of the intriguing questions is: Int’l. Stuttering preparing clinicians for working with early does age at stuttering onset – prior to, or Awareness Day, childhood stuttering. after, a certain point in language develop- Annie’s Mailbox Age brings out other factors. The fact ment – underlie distinct subtypes of the listed SFA as a Kathy Mitchell that the critical age for stuttering onset par- disorder? Currently, scientists in several source of help and allels the age span when significant rapid laboratories are pursuing such issues. information on developments occur in the anatomy of the Brain imaging studies of children should stuttering and in- speech system, as well as in complex lan- also enhance understanding of this issue. cluded SFA’s Web guage and articulatory skills, invites spec- Our team members, Chang, Erickson, and site address and ulations that interferences in these matura- Continued on page 8 toll-free phone number. The col- umn’s authors, Marcy Sugar and Kathy Mitchell, Robert Wallace Outreach to pediatricians said, “We are By June Campbell, M.A. happy to help out. Thanks for all Physicians once again flocked to the SFA Exhibit Booth at the Before the good work you do.” Their syndicated column is read by American Academy of Pediatrics nearly 90 million people. Annual Conference and Exhibition in Newspapers as far away as Seoul, Washington, D.C., this October. It was South Korea, carried the story, which noted that the demographics of physi- resulted in many requests for help. cians stopping by to discuss cases and Earlier this summer, Dr. Robert materials was broadening: whether Wallace, who writes Tween 12 & 20, young into their careers or well-sea- mentioned the Foundation twice in soned, physicians came not only from two separate columns that reach many major U.S. metropolitan and nearly 5 million readers. rural areas such as Fly Creek, N.Y., On Aug. 18, he described and Homer Glen, Ill., but also from Stuttering: Straight Talk for Teachers Sydney, Australia, Athens, Greece, as an important resource and listed Lima, Peru, Trinidad, West Indies, and the SFA Web site. many locations in Mexico. On Sept. 17, a single New Requests for Spanish edition Orleans mother without Internet ac- books and brochures was at an all- cess wrote Dr. Wallace seeking help for her young son. He followed up time high as were the DVD formatted films. Kudos to SFA for reaching out During by listing eight tips from SFA right to the medical field which can most June and Allen Campbell discuss Stuttering: For Kids, in his column. ❑ help with early intervention! ❑ By Kids with a pediatrician.
  • 4. 4 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392 Iowa workshop brings together clinicians from around the world T he Stuttering Foundation and the University of Iowa held the second Workshop for Specialists in Stuttering in Iowa City this past summer, under the leader- ship of Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D., and Toni Cilek, M.A. The event hosted 20 clinicians from 10 states and eight foreign countries. Guest lecturers during the two week course included Edward G. Conture, Ph.D., of Vanderbilt University and Peter Ramig, Ph.D., of University of Colorado- Boulder. The first workshop at Iowa was offered in 2003, and the third will be offered in the summer of 2007. “The second workshop met our expectations – and then some,” said Patricia Zebrowski. “I hope we continue our track record of receiving applicants from all The Class of 2005 gathers for pictures during Stuttering Therapy: Workshop for Specialists, sponsored by the over the world – this year we had Stuttering Foundation and the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Front row (from left): Jeamjai Jeeraumporn, Jennifer Tseng, Jennifer Peacock, Calista Keck, Ashley Jackson, Jane Fraser, Erol Belgin, and Nao Yasuda. Second row: specialists from the United States Amie King, Suzanne Sylvester, Patricia Zebrowski, Michelle Jones, Toni Cilek, and Joe Fulcher. Third row: as well as from Russia, Italy, Margaret Schmidt, Maria Gurrister, Yulia Filatova, Cheryl Arismendi, and Mavis Kulak Kayikci. Back row: Nina Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Taiwan Conrad, Peter Ramig, Massimiliano Marchiori, Peter Reitzes, Michelle Snead, and Kathleen Scaler Scott. and New Zealand. This course gives me the opportu- nity to talk about how research and clinical practice complement each other, and to hear from spe- cialists in the field about how this relationship functions in the real world of therapy. The international flavor pro- vides an excellent opportunity to Ashley Jackson, Peter Reitzes, and discuss diverse practices and expe- Toni Cilek take time for a picture dur- riences with people who stutter, and ing the workshop. these discussions help all of us who Jennier Peacock (from left), work with this population.” Massimiliano Marchiori, Calista Keck, The response from those attend- Peter Reitzes, and Ashley Jackson ing this year’s workshop has been visit the Field of Dreams. outstanding. “Attending the Iowa workshop who are also wanting to help those viding training to speech-language made me feel like I was part of an who stutter. I appreciate your gen- pathologists throughout the world. ‘All-Star’ stuttering team wrestling erosity in making workshops like It provides many speech-patholo- with this complicated disorder,” said this one come to life. I will have an gists who could never otherwise af- Peter Reitzes of Brooklyn, N.Y. opportunity to meet with my col- ford it the opportunity to be well “What a fantastic workshop leagues in the school district to trained in the field of fluency.” here at Iowa,” said Cheryl share the workshop information.” Information on upcoming work- Arismendi of Pomona, Calif. “I Kathy Scaler Scott of shops can be found on the Stuttering have learned so much and had a Flemington, N.J., said, “This pro- Foundation’s Web site, www.stutter- wonderful time meeting others gram is an amazing method for pro- inghelp.org. ❑
  • 5. WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 5 “I’m not hiding All-new DVD series for 1.0 CEUs Do you ever remember a name, but whether treatment is recommended for anymore” not recognize a face? Well, that’s what may happen when you see one young children. E. Charles Healey, Ph.D., of the By Rob Bloom I stutter. I always have. In fact, I can re- of SFA’s newest productions. University of Nebraska- member being three years old and trying The Child Who Stutters: Lincoln addresses the con- very hard to push out the word “d-d-daddy.” Practical Ideas for ceptual framework When it became apparent that I was not the School of CALMS as a going to “grow out of it,” I decided I would Clinician Series model for planning do whatever it took to keep my shameful has the same title stuttering assess- stuttering a secret from the world. And thus as a former pro- ment and treatment. began a life of substituting words, avoiding duction, but you Kristin A. sounds, and quite won’t recognize it Chmela, M.A., of frankly, living in fear. because everything Guitar Ramig Northwestern I hid my stuttering about it is new. University discusses throughout college, The six-DVD se- counseling, listening often taking drastic ries, which offers and valuing, creat- means to do so — speech-language ing communicative from claiming to pathologists 1.0 space, taking timed have laryngitis to CEUs, has been to- risks, and document- giving a fake name tally redone. Chmela ing your goals. Healey when meeting new Six fluency spe- Bill Murphy, M.A., people. Sure, I was Rob Bloom cialists went before of Purdue University successful in lying to the camera this past discusses the emo- the world…but the truth was catching up year to remake this tions of school-age with me: in the form of a stomach ulcer. popular series. children, the stutter- After graduation, I took a job writing for Barry Guitar, ing triangle, essen- an advertising agency where I continued to Ph.D., of the tial tools, conspira- Murphy Zebrowski portray the role of a fluent speaker on the University of cy of easy fluency, outside. But despite professional success Vermont describes and keys to progress. and recognition, I could barely look at my- stuttering modification and Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D., of the self in the mirror. When the economy fluency shaping and demonstrates University of Iowa offers help to slumped and my job was eliminated, I had both concepts. understand adolescence and discuss- the opportunity to do a little soul-search- Peter Ramig, Ph.D., of the es motor training, mental training, ing. It was then that I had a startling real- University of Colorado-Boulder and emotions. ization: I needed to stop hiding. gives general information on stuttering, For more information on this DVD I forced myself to face my fears directly. outlines basic principles, offers case series, visit www.stutteringhelp.org One way I did this was to do the very thing studies, and suggests ways to determine or call 1-800-992-9392. that scared me more than anything else: stuttering. I walked into situations and in- tentionally stuttered. Although agonizingly difficult at first, I slowly began to desensi- SFA materials travel the world helping people tize myself to the behavior. In addition, I Stuttering knows no boundaries. young people who stutter in joined Toastmasters where I willingly It is a disorder that affects people Hebrew in the last 35 stood before a group of people and spoke. everywhere. years or more,” says Did I stutter? Of course. But I also proved Just this year alone, SFA material Benny, chair of ISA. to myself that I was much more than the has been translated into The DVDs, Stuttering behavior of stuttering and even came to re- several different lan- and Your Child: Help for alize that I actually enjoy public speaking. guages — most recently, Families, Stuttering: In opening up about stuttering, I’ve dis- Lithuanian, Japanese, Straight Talk for covered the stigma and fears that I’ve based and Hebrew. Teachers, and Stuttering: my life around die a little bit more with each The Stuttering For Kids By Kids, have been converted passing day. I’ve also accepted the fact that, Problem Club of to Japanese this year. yes, I do stutter. I now know that if I stutter, Lithuania translated “It’s our really great honor to my arms aren’t going to fall off and my head two books, Stuttering: An Integration produce isn’t going to spin around. I’m just going of Contemporary Therapies and and pub- to…well…stutter. And while this may al- Counseling Those Who Stutter into a lish such ways be the case, I now realize that there are single publication. excellent much more important things to focus on. Benny Ravid of the Israeli programs Rob Bloom is a humor writer who has stuttered his en- tire life. In addition to his humor column, Rob has written Stuttering Association translated as your titles in Japanese versions,” for the Cartoon Network, Travel Channel, and National Do You Stutter: A Guide for Teens writes Kazunari Katsumasa, CEO Public Radio. You can read some of Rob's work at his Web into Hebrew. of the Institute of Medical site, www.robbloom.com. ❑ “It is the first publication for Education. ❑
  • 6. 6 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392 Boston workshoppers leave with enthusiasm By Diane Fillion Parris, M.S. Twenty speech-language patholo- gists representing nine states in the U.S., Turkey, Thailand, and Lebanon, attended the New England Workshop at Boston University from June 22 – 26, 2005. Instruction and practical experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents who stutter were lead by Edward Conture, Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, Susan Dietrich, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School, Sheryl Gottwald, Ph.D., University of New Hampshire, and Diane Parris, M.S., Boston University. During the five-day workshop, partic- ipants received instruction in differential diagnosis of fluency disorders, interpreta- tion of diagnostic findings, treatment tech- Front (front): Laura Halley, Vanessa Sheets Paddock, Jane Fraser, Elise Goodman, Debra Robinson, Ponjit Jithavech, and Susan Dietrich. Second row: Sheryl Gottwald, Burcu Ardaman, Nancy Swartz, Dollen Tabri, niques for motor speech behaviors as well Amanda Taylor, Tara Turken, Helen Selle, Rose Marie Pietrzyk, Susan Carnavale, and Laura Delaney. Back as desensitization and counseling strate- row: Joe Fulcher, Diane Parris, Paul Quin, Christine LaFleur, Joe Wohlgemuth, Karen Dohn, Terry Colyar. Not gies, and approaches to working with par- pictured are Jo Ellen Ryan and guest speaker Ed Conture. ents and teachers. knowledge,” says Joseph J. Wohlgemuth writes, “I learned new therapy techniques Guided practical training with local of New Jersey. in a wonderful, professional environment, preschoolers, school-age children, and “The intense format of the work- techniques I have already put successfully young teens left participants with enthusi- shop combined with the practice with in use with more than one patient. The asm and confidence in their new skills. children helped transition the theory into joint efforts led by the Stuttering “All of my students who stutter are practice,” states Paul Quin. Foundation of America are making a great greatly benefiting from all of my new Dollen Tabri of Beirut, Lebanon, difference in many people’s lives.” ❑ Language Processing and Stuttering respiratory systems but is also determined by Stuttering Continued from front page Dr. Christine Weber-Fox discussed the language processing. studies and studies of families in Africa. neurological evidence for how individuals who She uses a research technique called The evidence for genetic factors in stutter- stutter process linguistic information. Her pur- event-related potentials to illustrate how the ing is overwhelming, with genetic factors playing pose in pursuing this line of research is to inves- brain processes information. A series of elec- a role in at least half of all cases. Although stutter- tigate whether individuals who stutter exhibit trodes are placed on a person’s head and the ing does cluster in families, severity does not. In atypical brain functions when they are process- electrical energy that is emitted while the indi- other words, if you have a family member who ing linguistic in- vidual completes a task is measured by the stutters, you are more likely to stutter. However, formation, such as Editor’s note: This en- electrodes. The researcher then examines the if you have a family member who stutters severe- deciding whether tire article, including Drs. print-outs of the electrical waves to determine ly, his or her severity does not put you at addition- a sentence con- Maguire’s and Foundas’ in what areas of the brain, and how quickly, the al risk for stuttering nor does it relate to the sever- tains a grammati- research, can be found at brain processes a given signal. ity of your own stuttering. cal error or www.stutteringhelp.org Her findings for adults who stutter show dif- Another interesting finding is that the whether two under What’s New. ferences in their ability to accurately judge gram- words rhyme. Her This article was great- matical information such as verb-agreement vio- male-to-female ratio in familial cases of stutter- ing is approximately 1.5:1. This means that in work is based on ly abridged because of lations. This reduced ability was also character- families who appear to have some genetic trans- the theory that space limitations. ized by differences in the degree and patterns of mission of stuttering, for every 1.5 cases of moments of stut- electrical energy in the brain. Additionally, in a males who stutter, there is a case of a female tering, or breakdowns in speech motor control, study where individuals had to process different who stutters. This figure is considerably differ- are related to difficulty processing elements of types of words or phrases (e.g., I didn’t know ent from past reports of male-to-female ratios language such as grammar, retrieving specific what time it was so I looked at my rain), those for stuttering, which have previously been de- words, or processing small units of speech such who stuttered showed a delay in processing that scribed as 4 or 5 males for every 1 female. This as individual speech sounds or syllables. She was not seen in individuals who did not stutter. suggests that genetic transmission of stuttering stated that current thinking in this area of re- Because the brain is plastic, or change- affects females almost as frequently as males, search is that there are bidirectional influences able over time with experiences, it is difficult and that the male-to-female ratio is much high- between language and motor processing. That is, to determine if these differences exist at the er, probably 7 or 8 males for every 1 female, for the complexity of the sentence or timing de- onset of stuttering and thus could be partially individuals with no family history of stuttering. mands in recalling a specific word seem to influ- responsible for the problem. Alternatively, Despite this genetic evidence, however, ence the individual’s ability to generate the nec- because of plasticity, it might be that living Dr. Drayna cautioned that most human medical essary sequence of muscle movements to say the with stuttering over time may contribute to problems are a combination of genes and sentence, and vice versa. the differences being noted in adults as the “something else,” such as environment or learn- Dr. Weber-Fox discussed a series of stud- brain attempts to compensate for stuttering. ing. Also, geneticists who study stuttering are al- ies she and colleagues at Purdue University Therefore, Dr. Weber-Fox’s current research most certain that there are many genes that con- have conducted that have led to their conclu- is focusing on making similar types of mea- tribute to stuttering rather than one particular sion that stuttering is not based solely on an in- surements in children who stutter to deter- gene having most responsibility. For example, dividual’s ability to execute a sequence of mine whether the differences noted for adults there are over 100 genes that cause deafness. muscle movements in the mouth, larynx, and are present in younger individuals. ❑
  • 7. WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 7 An almost famous singer While the SFA’s Web site list of constantly passed over for a record- Famous People Who Stutter includes ing contract. many high-profile names, we like to Rory had to deal almost on a daily think that every person who stutters basis with the Beatles’ success because is unique in their own right. his sister Iris was Paul McCartney’s One person who stutters who un- girlfriend for awhile, both before and fortunately never became famous after the Beatles’ success. She was was Rory Storm. Paul’s last Liverpool girlfriend, and Next time you peruse a magazine at the doctor’s office, Born Alan Caldwell in Liverpool even after their break-up, Paul kept in don’t be surprised if you see a public service ad for the in 1942, he took the name Rory touch regularly with Rory’s mother, Stuttering Foundation. Oprah’s O Magazine, Redbook, Storm when he formed his own rock Violet Caldwell. In fact, when Paul Forbes, Good Housekeeping, Better Homes and band, Rory Storm wrote Yesterday, the Gardens, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmo, Cosmogirl, & the Hurricanes. first person he called and Newsweek are just a few of the major magazines Rory stuttered was Violet Caldwell who have donated space this year. Major specialized badly but was total- to sing it to her over publications supporting the foundation include Physicians Practice, School Nurse News, and Discovery, ly fluent when the phone. which is distributed aboard Princess Cruise ships. ❑ singing, as is the It was difficult case for many peo- for a talented per- ple. All accounts of son like Rory to be Rory describe his passed over during speech problem as the Liverpool craze being severe. in rock history. He Rory Storm & found it most diffi- the Hurricanes was cult to adjust to a the most popular life in which he band in Liverpool Photo from www.beatlesource.com had to speak rather and — at one point Rory Storm & the Hurricanes than sing. — even had more Another hardship fans than their friends The Beatles. would come later. While known on Rory’s blonde hair and blue eyed the club scene throughout England, good looks made him quite popular his trademark moves on stage cou- with young women in Liverpool. pled with his blonde hair and good Rory would indirectly make his- looks were legendary. It is widely be- tory when he advised his drummer, lieved that an upstart singer Rod Ritchie Starkey, to change his name Stewart, who saw Rory perform because it did not sound artistic. Not many times in the early days, “stole” SFA material received special attention at the wanting to change his name, the the singer’s trademark persona and Rensselaer (Ind.) Public Library. drummer finally did when Rory sug- found success of his own with well- gested he take the name “Ringo” be- choreographed moves on stage and flaunting his blonde hair. A special bookshelf cause of the drummer’s penchant for wearing rings. Rory successfully treated his The Rensselaer (Ind.) Public speech problem and became a flu- Library did more than just place Ironically, Rory Storm & the books and material on stuttering on a Hurricanes played in the same club in ent disc jockey for several years. However, tragedy would follow. In shelf. Glenda Brown made a special Hamburg with the Beatles for a year. display complete with posters of fa- Ringo Starr had to fill in many times 1972, shortly after the death of his father and down on his luck, Rory mous people who stutter, videos and for original Beatle drummer Pete other resources. Best and it always went well. took an overdose of pills and The material on the display was When the Beatles canned Best whiskey to end his life. His dis- also available to check out. just prior to recording their first traught mother died hours later of a The display was so good that the record in 1962, Ringo was the heart attack. local newspaper did an entire article unanimous choice to replace the True followers of the Liverpool on it and SFA supporter, Leon popular Best. club scene prior to 1962 know that “Jigger” Sirois. Rory was sorry to lose Ringo Rory Storm was just as talented as The Stuttering Foundation is able to but wished him well. Unfortunately any of the acts that found fame in the make resources available free of for Rory, he and the Hurricanes “British invasion.” Success was all charge to public libraries nationwide would never see any glory days. around Rory Storm for many years, because of donations from people like With Beatlemania in England, other but life dealt him an unfortunate Sirois of Williamsburg, Va. groups out of Liverpool, such as hand. While he did not achieve fame If your local library doesn’t have Gerry & the Pacemakers, achieved and fortune, his unique accomplish- SFA material, please encourage them some success. However, Rory and ments put him on our radar screen as to contact the Foundation at 1-800- his band fell on hard times and were a famous person who stutters. ❑ 992-9392. ❑
  • 8. 8 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392 ASHA 2005 While temperatures for much of the country began to drop for winter, it was a different story in warm San Diego, Calif., which hosted the 2005 convention for the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in mid-November. The Foundation booth was wildly busy with a number of items proving to be very popular, including Stuttering: For Kids, By Kids and the new DVD series. Many volunteers staffed the booth. A special thanks to Peter Ramig, Joe E. Charles Healey (left) and Joe Donaher speak with a customer. Donaher, Charlie Healey, Peter Reitzes, Tony Buhr, Vianne Bjornberg, Liz Edwards, Steffi Schopick, Judy Kuster, Nancy Ribbler, Glenn Weybright, Maria SFA anchor Carol Ecke gets ready for the Gurrister, Brenda Malepeai, John Ellis, big rush. Ryan Pollard, Tom Gurrister, Darrell Dodge, Lorrie Scott, Julie Anderson, Mark Pellowski, Kathleen Chase, Jennifer Watson, Linda Louko, and Susan Hamilton. ❑ Susan Hamilton and Marlene Taylor donated $500 to the Stuttering Foundation from money they raised by selling jewelry at the Cookie Lee booth. Peter Reitzes answers a question. SFA materials draw a crowd. Age factor Continued from page 3 reason for shunning direct speech therapy accumulating at a rapid pace but much for preschoolers. Whereas some three-year remains to be learned. Ambrose (2005) successfully obtained olds are either clearly, or appear to be, References Ambrose, N., & Yairi, E. (1994). The develop- high resolution structural MRI data from aware of stuttering, available experimental ment of awareness of stuttering in preschool chil- stuttering and control children ages 8-13. data show a very large increase in aware- dren. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 19, 229-245. Initial results indicate significant group ness between ages 4 and 5, including nor- Chang, S., Erickson, K., & Ambrose, N. (2005). Regional white and grey matter volumetric growth differences in white and grey matter vol- mally fluent children (Ambrose & Yairi, differences in children with persistent versus recov- ume in brain areas involved in integrating 1994; Ezrati, Platzky, & Yairi, 2001). This ered stuttering: An MRI (VBM) study. Presented at sensory and motor aspects of speech. information would seem to justify direct in- the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, tervention techniques as well as provide 2005, Washington, D.C. Program No. 565.5. 2005 Testing younger children closer to onset Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Online should advance our knowledge. clues for the timing of intervention and Cox, N., Roe, C., Suresh, R., Cook, E., Evidence is also accumulating that age should be considered in counseling of par- Lundstrom, C., Garsten, M., Ezrati, R. Ambrose, at onset may bear a relation to genetic fac- ents and teachers about reactions of normal- N., & Yairi, E. (2005). Chromosomal signals for genes underlying stuttering. Presented at the tors, in particular, it appears there may be ly fluent children to their stuttering peers. Oxford Disfluency Conference, Oxford University, a trend for persistent stuttering to have a Finally, important information about Oxford, United Kingdom. slightly later onset than recovered stutter- persistent stuttering may be uncovered by Ezrati, R., Platzky, R., & Yairi, E. (2001). The young child's awareness of stuttering-like disfluen- ing (Yairi & Ambrose, 2005). As the studying upper age groups — people who cy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Illinois team continues to uncover possi- have stuttered for many years into ad- Research, 44, 368-380. ble interactions among different genetic vanced ages. Perhaps they exhibit more Rommel, D., Hage, A., Kalehne, P., & loci (Cox, et al., 2005), the age factor pronounced characteristics that reveal Johannsen, H. (1999). Developmental, mainte- nance, and recovery of childhood stuttering: should become more clear. differences not easily identifiable in the Prospective longitudinal data 3 years after first con- Age is also a risk factor in regard to chil- typical child or young adult who stutters. tact. In K. Baker, L. Rustin, & K. Baker (Eds.), dren’s awareness of disfluent speech. The Indeed, our team’s members are current- Proceedings of the fifth Oxford disfluency confer- ence (pp.168-182). Chappell Gardner, UK: belief that preschoolers who stutter lack in ly pursuing structural brain imaging stud- Windsor, Berkshire. such awareness played a major role in theo- ies of aged people who stutter. Watkins, R., Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N.G. (1999). ries and developmental models of the disor- All of the above serve to highlight the Early childhood stuttering III: Initial status of ex- pressive language abilities. Journal of Speech, der. For many years, clinicians’ assumption role of age in the onset and development Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 1125-1135. that awareness would trigger strong emo- of stuttering, in subtype differentiation, Yairi, E. & Ambrose, N. (2005). Early childhood tions (e.g., anxiety) in children was the main and in treatment strategies. Knowledge is stuttering. Austin: Pro-Ed, Inc. ❑
  • 9. WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 9 Dear SFA: Reader Response Send letters to SFA, P.O. Box 11749, Memphis, TN 38111-0749 or email info@stutteringhelp.org. Video gets four stars School scares me Dear SFA: Hi: Stuttering: For Kids, By Kids is I am very happy I found your Web about stuttering. What I liked about site. Stuttering is a real problem for the movie was that the children in the me and I think it is going to limit the video say that they are not shy to talk. opportunities I have in life. I am only Another thing I liked about it was that 13. I always get nervous in school and the children stutter and they just kept sometimes I can’t ask important ques- on talking. For example, when they tions because I can’t say it quickly. If spoke they just let their stuttering out I didn’t stutter, I would look forward and did not care about their stuttering. to school and I would be an actress During speech class, I watched this and sing! But I can’t and I am scared video with four of my friends. My when I go to school because you don’t friend Katie said, “I learned that stutter- know if you are going to have to read ing is not a big deal because everyone something out loud. If you have any has problems.” Jennifer said, “I learned ideas for helping me, please e-mail! that some people can help themselves Thank you for your support and I ap- with stuttering.” Martha said, “What I preciate every bit of it!! learned was that you should tell your Sarah friends if you stutter.” Susan said, Atlanta “What I learned is that stuttering is not Editor: Help has gone out to Sarah. funny.” My speech teacher said, “I am so glad that Melissa shared her stutter- ing and this video with her friends.” Photo by Fernando Medina/NBAE via Getty Images. Copyright 2004 NBAE. Used with permission. Workplace survey Melissa Since our summer newsletter, we have heard from Marshall Rice, Ph.D. of York many people who have been inspired by Denver University in Toronto, Canada, is Fifth grade Nuggets basketball sensation Kenyon Martin. He is now New York included on our 16 Famous People Who Stutter poster. conducting a survey on the impact of stuttering at work. To enable him to am surprised that so many famous peo- better understand the issues and I do what I want to do ple stutter. I like reading the letters. challenges that people who stutter Dear SFA: John My name is John. I am 11 years face on the job. The research may Chicago help identify policies that will help old. I am a 5th grader in Chicago. I like to read and hang out with to prevent discrimination against friends. I have been stuttering since Web site a great help people who stutter. Please complete Dear SFA: the confidential survey online at: kindergarten. At first when I stut- I thank you for your Web site. My tered I couldn’t get every word that www.survey-city.com/survey/stut- mother has stuttered all of her life. ter/pws.html. If you have questions, I said out of my mouth. But then And she has always been embar- contact Dr. Marshall Rice at when I got older I tend to repeat words two or three times and then I rassed to talk to people due to her mrice@schulich.yorku.ca or at 416- am fluent. My dad also stutters but stuttering. I also use to stutter when 736-2100, Ext. 58241. not that much. My little brother I was younger. I still do, when I am also stutters. nervous. My son, brother and many Online journal I notice that when I am not paying of my uncles and aunts still stutter. I Peter Reitzes and Gregory Snyder will attention to how I talk, I don’t stutter. was so surprised to see how many launch an online journal, The Journal of I never stutter when I sing or when people has stuttered. Because of Stuttering Therapy, Advocacy, and I’m in a play. I don’t let stuttering your Web site, my mother is not as Research, to be ready in February, stop me from doing any thing I want ashamed of her stuttering. www.JournalofStuttering.com. To sub- to do. When I am stuttering I don’t I cannot thank you enough for al- mit papers, e-mail Gregory Snyder, at like it when people interrupt me. lowing so many people to see that they OleMiss@GregorySnyder.com. I don’t care that I stutter. Stuttering were not alone. If you can help others actually helps me meet new people as you did my mother and myself, NSSLHA chapters donate because either some of my friends in- than you are doing something great. Thanks to The Florida State University troduce me to their friends or they Keep up the good work. God bless and the Eastern Washington University make sure that I am in a group pro- you all for reaching out to people like chapters of the National Student Speech- ject, and I meet new kids there. me and my family. Thank you. Language-Hearing Association, which My speech therapist told me about Francis recently donated to the SFA. Their gener- your Web site and your newsletter. I Boston ous gifts will help children who stutter. ❑
  • 10. 12 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392 Brain Continued from page 2 pertain to the metronome effect, unison ganglia may be disturbed because of reading, imitation of an accent, and role deficient input from the primary motor (However, he did not discuss stuttering.) play. Furthermore, cortex. In this way the basal ganglia According to this model, both systems there are re- model is compatible with the recent re- have the ability to provide go-signals for search data ports of structural anomalies of the cor- movements, but under somewhat differ- supporting tex and the white matter, e.g. in the sen- ent conditions. The lateral system, con- that it is the sorimotor region for the speech organs sisting of the lateral premotor cortex and lateral system (Foundas et al., 2001; Sommer et al., the cerebellum, is active when the move- that is dominant for 2002; Jancke et al., 2004; Watkins et ment is controlled in relation to the senso- go-signals during al., 2005). A more detailed account of ry input — like when speaking to the singing and rhythmic speech, conditions this dual premotor model of stuttering pace of a metronome or reading in uni- know to improve fluency. son. Similarly, the lateral system is dom- is currently under way. An interesting question is how the A pdf-file of the thesis can be downloaded inant when speech is controlled by audi- effect of altered auditory feedback on from http://theses.lub.lu.se/postgrad/ (However, tory or somatosensory feedback. stuttering can be explained, for exam- the online version does not yet include all the re- search papers, because of copyright questions. In contrast, the medial system, consist- ple frequency altered feedback (FAF). For missing papers contact Per.Alm@psycholo- ing of the basal ganglia and the SMA, There are now several brain imaging gy.lu.se. Printed copies of the complete thesis can operates based on automatized programs studies showing specific activation of be ordered from the Swedish Stuttering without external feedback. This system is Association, kansliet@stamning.se, maybe about the lateral premotor system when lis- $20 including postage.) dominant during spontaneous speech, es- tening to speech sounds. Moreover, re- References pecially if the speech is propositional, i.e. cent brain imaging data (Watkins, Alm, PA (2004). Stuttering and the basal ganglia cir- that it conveys thoughts or emotions. cuits: a critical review of possible relations. Journal of Davis, & Howell, 2005) have shown Communication Disorders, 37, 325-69. The lateral system is also assumed to be increased activation of the auditory Alm, PA (2005). On the causal mechanisms of stutter- active when a movement is executed with cortex during speech with FAF. These ing. Doctoral thesis. Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Lund University, Sweden. increased attention and conscious control, findings point to increased control Caruso, AJ (1991). Neuromotor processes underlying while the medial system dominates for au- from the lateral system during altered stuttering. In Peters et al. Speech motor control and stutter- tomatic responses. This is claimed to be the feedback, so that difficulties with the ing (101-16). Foundas, AL et al. (2001). Anomalous anatomy of reason why it is difficult to get a natural medial system may be bypassed. This speech-language areas ... Neurology, 57, 207-15. smile when asked by a photographer — hypothesis is supported by reports that Goldberg, G (1985). Supplementary motor area ... some speech difficulties in Behavioral Brain Sci, 8, 567-616. voluntary and spontaneous smiles are cre- Goldberg, G (1991). Microgenetic theory and the dual ated by two different systems in the brain. Parkinson’s disease, which is a basal premotor systems hypothesis. In Hanlon Cognitive micro- This distinction suggests that the lateral ganglia disorder, may be improved by genesis (32-52). either delayed or frequency altered au- Jancke, L et al. (2004). Morphological brain differ- system is in charge when speaking in a way ences ... BMC Neurology, 4. that is not automatic, like imitating an ac- ditory feedback. Ludlow, CL et al. (1987). Site of penetrating brain le- cent or playing a role. An important aspect of the dual pre- sions ... Ann Neurol, 22, 60-6. Molt LF (1999). The basal ganglia's possible role in stut- This dual premotor systems model of motor model is that it emphasizes that tering. Proc. 2nd Internat. Stuttering Awareness Day, stuttering provides a novel explanation for the basal ganglia system is part of a Internet. most of the well-known fluency inducing larger medial system, including the Sommer, M et al. (2002). Disconnection of speech-rel- evant brain areas ... Lancet, 360, 380-3. conditions in stuttering. Stuttering is relat- complete loop from the cortex through Watkins, K, Davis, M, & Howell, P (2005). Brain ac- ed to a disturbance of the medial system, the basal ganglia and the thalamus, and tivity during altered auditory feedback. Paper at the Oxford back to the cortex (the SMA). For ex- Dysfluency Conference 2005, Oxford. but when the control is shifted from the Watkins, RV, Yairi, E, & Ambrose, NG (1999). Early medial to the lateral system the problem is ample, as suggested in Alm (2004), the childhood stuttering III. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 42, bypassed. As mentioned above, this could production of go-signals from the basal 1125-35. ❑ Newsbriefs and Books, usually found Workshops on this page, are at What’s New, www.stutteringhelp.org The Stuttering Foundation of America is a tax-ex- empt organization under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and is classified as a pri- Stuttering Therapy: Practical Ideas vate operating foundation as defined in section for the School Clinician 4942(j)(3). Charitable contributions and be- June 9-10, 2006 — Chicago quests to the Foundation are tax- With Kristin Chmela, M.A., E. Charles Healey, Ph.D., deductible, subject to limitations under the Code. Bill Murphy, M.A., Peter Ramig, Ph.D., Lisa A. Scott, Ph.D., and Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D. THE The Mid-Atlantic Workshop: Treating STUTTERING Children and Adolescents Who Stutter Co-sponsored by the Children’s FOUNDATION Hospital of Philadelphia A Nonprofit Organization June 21-25, 2006 Since 1947 — Helping Those Who Stutter Our best wishes for a happy new year! With Joseph Donaher, M.A., Kristin Chmela, M.A., 3100 Walnut Grove Road, Suite 603 The SFA staff: (Front row, L to R) Lisa Scott, Jane and Lisa A. Scott, Ph.D . Fraser and Susie Hall; (Back row, L to R) Joan Warner, P.O. Box 11749 ● Memphis, TN 38111-0749 Applications are available online Roberta Brugge, Pat Hamm, Lisa Hinton and Anne 1-800-992-9392 ● 1-800-967-7700 at www.stutteringhelp.org Edwards. Not pictured are John Bell, Carol Ecke, Don www.stutteringhelp.org www.tartamudez.org or call 1-800-992-9392 Edwards, Joe Fulcher, Patty Reed and Scot Squires. info@stutteringhelp.org