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Why is the blue good for you? Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD LSU AgCenter
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Usage and Popularity
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Health Benefits of Blueberries
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],What are Phytochemicals?
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],What are Phytochemicals?
Major Groups of Phytochemicals ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],There are several major groups of phytochemicals
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Phytochemicals (American Cancer Society)
[object Object],Flavonoids  American Cancer Society
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Flavonoids cont.
[object Object],[object Object],Isoflavones
[object Object],[object Object],Phenolic Acids
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Carotenoids
[object Object],[object Object],Blueberry Phytochemicals
[object Object],ORAC Score
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],ORAC Score http://www.oracvalues.com/sort/orac-value/260
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Blueberries are a Superfood
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cancer Risk
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cancer Risk Lila
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cancer Prevention
[object Object],[object Object],Heart Disease Risk
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Heart Disease Risk
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Diabetes
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Vision
[object Object],[object Object],Alzheimer's Risk
[object Object],[object Object],Alzheimer’s Duffy KB et al Ingram  DK. Neurobiology of Aging 29 (2008) 1680–1689
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],GI Health
[object Object],[object Object],Urinary Track
Effect of blueberry phytochemicals on the organ systems and the organs in the body: System/Effect Whole system:   Cancer prevention (whole body)   Anti-infectious (whole body)   Prevents hyperglycemic peak, improves insulin and glucose levels (blood) Reduces inflammatory reaction, improves the immune system (whole body)   Reduces blood pressure (blood vessels)   Preventive against toxins Antioxidant (whole body)
System Effect Liver Prevents glycogenolysis  Intestines Improves glucose absorption Cardiovascular , blood vessels Prevents LDL oxidation Brain  Reduces oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s. Reduces amyloid formation in Alzheimer’s and improves dopamine levels in Parkinson’s Heart Dilates blood vessels in the heart, reduces plaque formation, improves endothelial cell function  Bones Protects against osteoporosis, promotes bone growth Skin Protects against UV radiation, cancer preventive.  Joints Collagen formation Eyes Maintain healthy vision, reduce cataracts Nerve cells Synthesis of neurotransmitters Muscles Improves performance
[object Object],Health Benefits of Blueberries
[object Object],Availability
[object Object],[object Object],Enhancing absorption
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Anthocyanin Stability
 
 
[object Object],[object Object],Conclusions
Thank You!
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],References

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Why the blue is good for you

  • 1. Why is the blue good for you? Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD LSU AgCenter
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  • 28. Effect of blueberry phytochemicals on the organ systems and the organs in the body: System/Effect Whole system:   Cancer prevention (whole body)   Anti-infectious (whole body)   Prevents hyperglycemic peak, improves insulin and glucose levels (blood) Reduces inflammatory reaction, improves the immune system (whole body)   Reduces blood pressure (blood vessels)   Preventive against toxins Antioxidant (whole body)
  • 29. System Effect Liver Prevents glycogenolysis Intestines Improves glucose absorption Cardiovascular , blood vessels Prevents LDL oxidation Brain Reduces oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s. Reduces amyloid formation in Alzheimer’s and improves dopamine levels in Parkinson’s Heart Dilates blood vessels in the heart, reduces plaque formation, improves endothelial cell function Bones Protects against osteoporosis, promotes bone growth Skin Protects against UV radiation, cancer preventive. Joints Collagen formation Eyes Maintain healthy vision, reduce cataracts Nerve cells Synthesis of neurotransmitters Muscles Improves performance
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Editor's Notes

  1. In the past few years, research has uncovered that there are healthful phytochemcials in fruits and vegetables, and that is one of the reasons the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that half of our plate should be fruits and vegetables. We will talk about the health benefits of blueberries in this presentation. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/dietaryguidelines.htm
  2. Blueberries have become more popular with the consumers, and they have also become more popular as a crop in Louisiana. As the science of health and nutrition has advanced, more information has become available about the various nutrients and non-nutritive chemicals in blueberries. Some of the non-nutritive chemicals make the blueberries blue, and they are also very strong antioxidants that can help eliminate harmful chemicals from our bodies. Source: Economic Research Service, USDA; National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA; Bureau of the Census, DOC www.blueberry.org
  3. The healthful phytochemcials are known to do many things, including acting as strong antioxidants. As antioxidants they can kill cancer cells, help keep our nerve cells healthy and prevent and reduce inflammation. Many of the chronic diseases are thought to begin due to inflammation in our bodies. We might have inflammation due to many things, such as exposure infective agents, to the sun, smoking, drugs, or exposure to radiation. BURNS KRAFT, T. et al. J. Agric. Food Chem., Vol. 56, No. 3, 2008
  4. Phytochemicals are large molecules in plants. There are thousands of different kind and only a small number has been identified and researched. Phytochemiclas are molecules that the plant itself is using to fight insects, and to keep safe from harmful solar radiation. There are many different types of phytochemicals. http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/ComplementaryandAlternativeMedicine/HerbsVitaminsandMinerals/phytochemicals
  5. Phytochemicals are found in plant foods. They are found in fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and other plants. They are the colored compounds in many fruits, vegetables and flowers. They are said to be bioactive and are considered to have a beneficial effect on human health. They add color to flowers, fruits, and vegetables. When humans eat fruits and vegetables that have these phytochemicals, they get protection as well.
  6. This is a breakdown of the different types of phytochemicals in plants. Under each major heading, there may be thousands of different compounds. Many of these can help reduce cholesterol, reduce the incidence of hormone related cancers, and prevent other chronic diseases. http://www.phytochemicals.info/
  7. Phytochemicals are promoted for the prevention and treatment of many health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Lycopene has been shown to be preventive against prostate cancer. Lutein – eye sight Genistein – hormone replacement in menopause Resveratrol has been identified as helping the cardiovascular system to stay healthy. Capsaicin – pain treatment, because Capsaicin numbs nerve cells and is used for pain treatment. http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/ComplementaryandAlternativeMedicine/HerbsVitaminsandMinerals/phytochemicals
  8. We are going to talk about some of the common groups of phytochemicals starting with flavonoids. Flavonoids are found in many fruits and vegetables. They are large molecules and add color to fruits and vegetables, particularly reds, blues and purple. The polyphenols include a large subgroup of chemicals called flavonoids. Flavonoids are plant chemicals found in a broad range of fruits, grains, and vegetables. Current studies will examine whether they can prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/ComplementaryandAlternativeMedicine/HerbsVitaminsandMinerals/phytochemicals
  9. Flavonoids that act as antioxidants and may protect against some cancers and heart disease. These get rid of the harmful molecules known as free radicals, which can damage a cell's DNA and may trigger some forms of cancer and other diseases. Quercetin, another flavonoid with antioxidant properties, is found in apples, onions, teas, and red wine. Some of the common flavonoids are quercetin in apples, red wine and teas,
  10. The isoflavones found in foods and supplements such as soy products, red clover, garbanzo beans and licorice, and the lignans found in flaxseed and whole grains may mimic the actions of the female hormone estrogen ( Licorice and Soybean ). These estrogen-like substances from these plant sources are called phytoestrogens. They may play a role in the development of and protection against some hormone-dependent cancers such as some types of breast and prostate cancer. Isoflavones are large molecules commonly found in large quantities in soy and licorice. They have estrogenic proteprties. Lignans are a type of isoflavone found in flaxseed. Plant phytoestrogens can mimic estrogenic properties in the body and can help estrogen withdrawal symptoms seen during menopause. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/soyiso/
  11. Phenolic acids are less well know, but important chemicals in berries. They have chemicals that stimulate enzymes involved in helping the body get rid of harmful compounds. Ellagic acid, found in raspberries, blackberries, cranberries, strawberries, and walnuts, also is said to have anti-cancer effects. Another called allyl sulfides, are found in garlic and onions. These compounds may stimulate enzymes that help the body get rid of harmful chemicals. They may also help strengthen the immune system. Kampa, M ET AL. Breast Cancer Res 2004, 6 :R63-R74
  12. Another large groups of molecules are the carotenoids. Carotenoids, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin, which give carrots, yams, cantaloupe, squash, and apricots their orange color, are also promoted as anticancer agents. Tomatoes, red peppers, and pink grapefruit contain lycopene, which proponents claim is a powerful antioxidant. The phytochemicals lutein and zeaxanthin , found in spinach, kale, and turnip greens, may reduce the risk of some cancers. http://www.aicr.org/foods-that-fight-cancer/foodsthatfightcancer_leafy_vegetables.html?gclid=CPrPu-TW3K0CFQGd7QodQhc_IA
  13. Blueberries have anthocyanins, which give blueberries their blue hue and help neutralize free radicals. An example is myricetin. They also have many other phytochemicals that have been shown to be helpful in preventing various conditions such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. These are ursolic acid and chlorogenic acid . Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (2005) 35 269-281 Breast Cancer Res 2004, 6:R63-R74M FEBS 299(3), 213-217. Cancer Letters 33, 279-285, 1986 Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 27 (3): 152–159, 2000.
  14. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples. A wide variety of foods has been tested using this methodology, with certain spices, berries and legumes rating highly. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=15866
  15. Orac values for common foods. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=15866
  16. Blueberries are low in calories, only 80 calories per cup and they are fat free. Blueberries have many vitamins and minerals and they contain many non-nutritive factors as well. They are an excellent source of vitamin C. In fact, a serving contains about 14 mg or almost 25 percent of the recommended daily value (DV). Blueberries are also a good source of dietary fiber, about 3.5 g per cup, and they are an excellent source of manganese, about 0.5g per cup. Manganese is important for carbohydrate and fat metabolism and is present in most cells in the body. Some of the other nutrients in blueberries are: calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. http://www.blueberrycouncil.org/health-benefits-of-blueberries/blueberry-nutrition/
  17. There is some evidence that certain phytochemicals may help prevent the formation of potential carcinogens (substances that cause cancer), block the action of carcinogens on their target organs or tissue, or act on cells to suppress cancer development. Many experts suggest that people can reduce their risk of cancer by eating significantly more fruits, vegetables, and other foods from plants that contain phytochemicals. Adams et al. J. Nutr. 141: 1805–1812, 2011
  18. Blueberry extracts can inhibit the growth of many types of cancers. Eating blueberries on a regular basis can reduce the incidence and risk for cancer. The extracts of several berries have been investigated, particularly blueberries, in regards to their role in cancer prevention of oral, breast, colon and prostate cancers. The anthocyanins are specifically effective in inhibiting cancerous cell growth the best, blueberry anthocyanins in particular are effective in killing certain cancer cells and preventing cancer development. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6:2591-2599 Am. J. Epidemiol. 166 (8): 924–31, 2007.  
  19. Chrologenic acid removes particularly toxic reactive species by scavenging alkylperoxyl radicals and may prevent carcinogenesis by reducing the DNA damage they cause. Laboratory tests show that kaempferol suppresses the growth of  a number of human malignancies. It does it by enhancing the cell chemistry which destroys the malignant cells. Its effectiveness is increased when combined with other flavonoids or molecules that are known to be toxic to cancer cells.   Quercetin enhances cancer cell death. Chemical Abstract 113, 12173y, 1990. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (2005) 35 269-281 Nutritional Journal 2005, 4:11 FEBS 299(3), 213-217, 1992. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6(9):2544–53. Cancer Letters 33, 279-285, 1986. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Sep 7;53(18):7320-9.
  20. Research has shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables lowers the risk for developing heart disease. A study examined the effects of blueberry consumption in relation to heart disease risk. Those who consumed blueberries on a regular basis had the greatest benefit and lowest risk factors for heart disease. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1995, 43, 2800-2802. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 6433-6442. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 27 (3): 152–159, 2000. Journal of Nutrition, March 1, 2007; 137(3): 718S - 737S. Journal of Nutrition, 2006 May;136(5):1178-84 Journal of Nutrition. 2000;130:2243-2250 J Nutr Biochem (2006) 17: 2. 109-116. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50 (26), 7731-7737
  21. In the cardiovascular system, blueberry antioxidants enhance the relaxation of the blood vessels, reduce platelet aggregation, protect against capillaries weakened by exposure to irradiation, reduce capillary permeability, and increase capillary resistance. Kaempferol prevents oxidative damage of our cells, lipids and DNA. It decreases the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduces the formation of platelets in the blood. Another way that it inhibits heart disease development is that it decreases a protein that begins the plaques formation in the arteries. Chlorogenic acid in blueberries can limit low-density lipid (LDL) oxidation, the major determinant of the initial events in atherosclerosis.
  22. In diabetes, blueberries improve capillaries and microaneurysms and lower glycemic index. Chlorogenic acid in blueberries is an antioxidant which may slow the release of glucose into the bloodstream after a meal. Blueberry extract also decreases glucose uptake by cells. Anthocyanin malvidin lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 33 to 51% in laboratory animals. Blueberry anthocyanins improve pancreatic beta cell function. Phytomedicine 16 (2009) 406–415. Phytomedicine 13 (2006) 612–623.
  23. In terms of vision, blueberry antioxidants reduce eye strain. Feeding laboratory animals with blueberries for 4 weeks prior to light exposure effectively reduced photodamage to the retinas. Blueberry protected retinal cells against chemical toxins. It increased cell viability, decreased oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis. After a 24-hour preincubation time, blueberry totally inhibited the effect of chemical toxins targeted to harm the retina. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011, 59, 356–363 Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Volume 53, Issue 6, pages 726–738, June 2009.
  24. The consumption of blueberries is believed to play a role in delaying the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Several studies in laboratory animals show promising results. Blueberry extract given to laboratory animals reversed some age related neuronal degeneration and resulted in better spatial recall. Andres-Lacueva C,  et al. Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(2):111-20 Willis L, et al. Cell Transplant. 2005;14(4):213-23. D. Allan Butterfield, et al. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 13 (2002) 444–461. Kara B. Duffy, et al. Neurobiology of Aging 29 (2008) 1680–1689. Galli RI. Et al. Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Apr 30 Galli RL, et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;959:128-32. James A. Josephet al. The Journal of Neuroscience, September 15, 1999, 19 (18):8114–8121. Ramirez MR, et al. Pharmacol Res. 2005; 52 (6): 457-62. M. I. Sweeney et al. Nutritional Neuroscience, Volume 5, Issue 6 2002, pages 427 – 431. Wang Y, et al. Exp Neurol. 2005 May;193(1):75-84 Kuresh A. Youdima; et al. Nutritional Neuroscience, Volume 3, Issue 6 December 2000, pages 383 – 397.
  25. In the brain, blueberry antioxidants help protect the brain from oxidative stress and may reduce the effects of age-related conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Blueberry supplementation may protect against neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment caused by oxidative stress.
  26. The consumption of berries has also been suggested to play a role in gastrointestinal (GI) health. Some of the components in blueberries can inhibit the growth of several intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Staphylococcus. All berries are effective in inhibiting the growth of Heliobacter pylori . H pylori is a bacterial infection that can lead to peptic ulcer disease. Kowalewski, Z., et. Al. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz) 24 (1), 115-119, 1976. Phytochemicals in nutrition and health ,  By Mark S. Meskin, 2002
  27. In the urinary track, blueberry antioxidants fight infection, prevent the adhesion of harmful bacteria in the urinary track and act as an antimicrobial agent. The large anthocyanin molecules in blueberries prevent adhesion and proliferation activity of E Coli bacteria in UTI. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1599
  28. Blueberries are available fresh, frozen, dried or canned as fruit or juices or ready made products such as jams and jellies. They are traditionally used in jellies, jams, and pies but also incorporated into many new foods today. They are baked into muffins and are an ingredient in many other snacks and delicacies. A more recent use of blueberries includes blueberry juice.
  29. Anthocyanins are large fat soluble molecules. Since they are fat soluble, their absorption is improved with added dietary fat. The absorption of blueberry anthocyanins was significantly increased when the consumption of juice and fresh blueberries was combined with fatty food. There was a measureable increase in the anthocyanin content in the blood of subjects that ate the fatty meal with blueberries.
  30. Fresh and frozen samples had similar levels of anthocyanins. Extracts did not differ from that of the fresh fruit. In a study, there was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between the anthocyanin extracts of the frozen or dried samples and the fresh fruit. Czech J. Food Sci.Vol. 27, 2009, S204. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2004:5 (2004) 248–252 J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 4638-4644.
  31. All About Blueberries website
  32. Blueberries can be considered as superfood with all the various health benefits they provide. Regular consumption can improve memory, visual acuity, reduce infections, reduce cancer, reduce diabetes and heart disease risk.