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A STUDENT-CENTERED CONSTRUCTION OF THE CRIT
COLIN M. GRAY
Iowa State University
“WHY ARE THEY
NOT RESPONDING
TO CRITIQUE?”
CRAIG D. HOWARD
Texas A&M University—Texarkana
CRITIQUE
is central to design education
[Anthony, 1991; Dannels & Martin, 2008; Klebesadel &
Kornetsky, 2009; Parnell, Sara, Doidge, & Parsons, 2012;
Schön, 1987; Shulman, 2005]
CRITIQUE
is central to design education
[Anthony, 1991; Dannels & Martin, 2008; Klebesadel &
Kornetsky, 2009; Parnell, Sara, Doidge, & Parsons, 2012;
Schön, 1987; Shulman, 2005]
instructor-centric
curriculum-centric
power-laden
[Anthony, 1991; Blythman, Orr, & Blair, 2007; Dutton,
1991; Gray, 2013, 2014; Gray & Howard 2014;
Webster, 2007; Willenbrock, 1991]
CRITICAL
FRAMING
what if we looked at critique in a
CRITIQUE & 

CRITICAL PEDAGOGY
CRITIQUE & 

CRITICAL PEDAGOGY
FROM
student as tabula rasa
TO
student as emerging 

proto-professional
CONTEXT
CONTEXT
Human-Computer
Interaction Master’s program
Introductory project-based
design course
Final project was based on
the 2014 ACM SIGCHI
Student Design Competition
CLASSROOM
CLASSROOM =
Physical Space
[~60 student capacity; 8 screens; decentralized layout]
Virtual Space
[Facebook; Google Docs; SMS]
+
MULTIMODAL
CRITIQUE
multiple critique conversations occur concurrently
around a single designed artifact (or presentation of that
artifact), in both physical and virtual modes, with
multiple classes or groupings of interlocutors
FIRST-YEAR STUDENT
FIRST-YEAR STUDENT (PRESENTING)
INSTRUCTOR
PROJECTOR/SCREEN
WHITEBOARD
MENTOR (SECOND-YEAR STUDENT)
LIVE MENTOR CRITIQUE IN GOOGLE DOC
verbally
virtually
COMMUNICATION DURING
PRESENTATION
virtually
verbally
verbally
COMMUNICATION DURING
CRITIQUE
verbally
COMMUNICATION PATTERNS
ANALYSIS TOOL
GOOGLE DOC BACKCHANNEL
# Turns Average Words
per turn (SD)
Total words # Turns Average Words
per turn (SD)
Total words
Team A 37
46.4054
(45.6369)
1717 13
5.1538 

(4.4695)
67
Team B 26
25.8462
(21.6079)
672 69
7.3043 

(5.7441)
504
Team C 38
37.1579
(28.9496)
1412 135
7.1852 

(6.6968)
970
TOTAL 101
37.6337
(35.5321)
3801 217
7.1014
(6.3113)
1541
DISCOURSE CHARACTERISTICS
PRESENTATION STUDENT CRITIQUE
MENTOR
CRITIQUE
INSTRUCTOR
CRITIQUE
GOOGLE DOC
CRITIQUE STRUCTURE
TEAM A TEAM B TEAM C
TEAM A
TEAM A
BACKCHANNEL
BC [9:34]

BV: Why are they not responding to
critique?

BC [9:35]

RO: no clue maybe trying to get the most
critique?

RK: I susepect they just want more to
write down 

BQ: i think to get more comments in 

RK: LOL SUSEPECT 

UD: thats fine. 

RI: That was my thought. (+BQ)

BV: But I feel like they have no meat
behind all of this—leaving too many
unaswered questions 

RO: yeah

RK: agreed

BQ: it flopped :(

RI: I agree. It’s they’re funeral

RO: awe
TEAM A
GOOGLE DOC
GD [9:40]
RK: What is your core? (BQ +infinity)(+1
TA) (+Zen Dog) (+1 UD, +1 VE) (+1 NI,
addendum: I just completely don’t get it,
the entire project doesn’t make sense to
me anymore) Remember the RESEARCH!!!
(especially if you are aiming for CHI)
(+500000 RK)
TEAM A
CLASSROOM
CL [9:48]
NI: This is not ___. So, we’ve been talking,
we’ve been talking in our doc. And, we
kinda wanna, I have been elected as it
were, [laugh] because it is kinda harsh. We
don’t—we lost your core. We have no idea
what your project is about anymore. We
can’t figure it out. We just don’t get it. We
don’t see the core anymore. And your
presentation has almost no rationale or
research to get us on board with what
you're doing. We don’t know why these
things exist, what's motivating them, what
the point it, or why we should know more
about it. Um, [long pause].
TEAM A TEAM B TEAM C
TEAM C
TEAM C
TEAM C
GOOGLE DOC
GD [9:59]
RK: How does the texture change to
wood? Is your design to give people acid?
(+1 TL +1 BV) (Oh shit, it’s real! http://
www.disneyresearch.com/project/revel-
programming-the-sense-of-touch/ TL) (RK:
I wish you guys would have said this
before. The whole time I kept thinking
about how impossible this was going to
be, and honestly it detracted from the
presentation for me. I have never heard of
these things.)
TEAM C
GOOGLE DOC
GD [10:03]
BV: Perceptual cameras do not offer
resistance for me to actually feel. And that
is a ton of tech I have never heard of
needs some deeper explanation. (+1 TA
too much hand waving is bad? the next
step after designing is implementation,
how are you going to do it..) 

RK: What are Revel and Aireal? 

[GD comment, 10:04] RO: disney
experience tech

[GD comment, 10:04] RK: Did they say
that?

[GD comment, 10:04] RO: nope http://
www.disneyresearch.com/research-areas/
human-computer-interaction
TEAM C
BACKCHANNEL
BC [10:06]
RK: unfortunately I don't think it was
stellar because since it was backwards,
the whole time I kept thinking NO
FUCKING WAY. WTF ARE YOU GUYS
DOING ARE OYU ON CRACK?

BQ: agreed if they had clarified how this
happens at the moment, i would have
listened more 

NI: I wouldn't say backwards, necessarily,
I think it would have been possible to tell
that story while interspersing some of this
argumentation so that it's not all one thing
then all the other.

RI: It is a very... psychedelic experience
TEAM C
GOOGLE DOC
GD [10:06]
TL: I think the “presentation preview” slide
at the beginning was brilliant. You could
have very easily leveraged this to better
include your research early on. Make your
research the equivalent of the “turn off
your cell phones” announcement.
Whatever it may be, but briefly explaining
that “the tech you are about to see is
fantastical, but be assured - it is
feasible.” (RK: super awesome wicked
great suggestion)
TEAM C
CLASSROOM
CL [10:19]
TL: [...] And then also, the second critique
is more of a presentation structure. You
chose to have the technology explanation
at the end. And—which that's definitely
one way to do it. But I know for a lot of
mentors, what we experienced was, when
you started describing like touching the
walls and feeling things, like at that point,
one of the comments like was are you
giving ___ before they walk in? [laughter]
And to me, and to several others, that sort
of discredited the rest of the presentation
because we just had no idea how that was
even possible. And when you mention that
and you look it up, it's very clearly
possible and it's definitely something
worth pursuing. [...]
[from Gray, 2014]
CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD
CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD
STRUCTURES
COMMUNICATIVE ACTS
ROLES
INTERACTIVE SETTINGS
TYPIFICATIONS
CRITICAL QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
[IN 60 SECONDS]
TYPIFICATION
less permeable; specifies
norms, audiences, rhythm
ROLE
more permeable; can cross
typifications
[Carspecken, 1996; Carspecken & MacGillivray, 1998]
CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD
CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD
STRUCTURES
COMMUNICATIVE ACTS
ROLES
INTERACTIVE SETTINGS
TYPIFICATIONS
CRITICAL QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
[IN 60 SECONDS]
VIRTUAL GD:
POISED
PROFESSIONAL
PHYSICAL:
INSTRUCTIONAL
TUTOR
VIRTUAL BC:
RELAXED
PROFESSIONAL
RK: unfortunately I don't think it was
stellar because since it was backwards,
the whole time I kept thinking NO
FUCKING WAY. WTF ARE YOU GUYS
DOING ARE OYU ON CRACK?
TYPIFICATIONS
VIRTUAL GD:
POISED
PROFESSIONAL
PHYSICAL:
INSTRUCTIONAL
TUTOR
VIRTUAL BC:
RELAXED
PROFESSIONAL
BV: Perceptual cameras do not offer
resistance for me to actually feel. […]
too much hand waving is bad? the next step
after designing is implementation, how are
you going to do it..)
TYPIFICATIONS
VIRTUAL GD:
POISED
PROFESSIONAL
PHYSICAL:
INSTRUCTIONAL
TUTOR
VIRTUAL BC:
RELAXED
PROFESSIONAL
And to me, and to several others, that
sort of discredited the rest of the
presentation because we just had no
idea how that was even possible.
TYPIFICATIONS
DISCUSSION
colingray.me
THANK YOU

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“Why are they not responding to critique?”: A student-centered construction of the crit

  • 1. A STUDENT-CENTERED CONSTRUCTION OF THE CRIT COLIN M. GRAY Iowa State University “WHY ARE THEY NOT RESPONDING TO CRITIQUE?” CRAIG D. HOWARD Texas A&M University—Texarkana
  • 2. CRITIQUE is central to design education [Anthony, 1991; Dannels & Martin, 2008; Klebesadel & Kornetsky, 2009; Parnell, Sara, Doidge, & Parsons, 2012; Schön, 1987; Shulman, 2005]
  • 3. CRITIQUE is central to design education [Anthony, 1991; Dannels & Martin, 2008; Klebesadel & Kornetsky, 2009; Parnell, Sara, Doidge, & Parsons, 2012; Schön, 1987; Shulman, 2005] instructor-centric curriculum-centric power-laden
  • 4. [Anthony, 1991; Blythman, Orr, & Blair, 2007; Dutton, 1991; Gray, 2013, 2014; Gray & Howard 2014; Webster, 2007; Willenbrock, 1991] CRITICAL FRAMING what if we looked at critique in a
  • 6. CRITIQUE & 
 CRITICAL PEDAGOGY FROM student as tabula rasa TO student as emerging 
 proto-professional
  • 8. CONTEXT Human-Computer Interaction Master’s program Introductory project-based design course Final project was based on the 2014 ACM SIGCHI Student Design Competition
  • 10. CLASSROOM = Physical Space [~60 student capacity; 8 screens; decentralized layout] Virtual Space [Facebook; Google Docs; SMS] +
  • 11. MULTIMODAL CRITIQUE multiple critique conversations occur concurrently around a single designed artifact (or presentation of that artifact), in both physical and virtual modes, with multiple classes or groupings of interlocutors
  • 12. FIRST-YEAR STUDENT FIRST-YEAR STUDENT (PRESENTING) INSTRUCTOR PROJECTOR/SCREEN WHITEBOARD MENTOR (SECOND-YEAR STUDENT)
  • 13. LIVE MENTOR CRITIQUE IN GOOGLE DOC
  • 16. GOOGLE DOC BACKCHANNEL # Turns Average Words per turn (SD) Total words # Turns Average Words per turn (SD) Total words Team A 37 46.4054 (45.6369) 1717 13 5.1538 
 (4.4695) 67 Team B 26 25.8462 (21.6079) 672 69 7.3043 
 (5.7441) 504 Team C 38 37.1579 (28.9496) 1412 135 7.1852 
 (6.6968) 970 TOTAL 101 37.6337 (35.5321) 3801 217 7.1014 (6.3113) 1541 DISCOURSE CHARACTERISTICS
  • 18. TEAM A TEAM B TEAM C
  • 20. TEAM A BACKCHANNEL BC [9:34] BV: Why are they not responding to critique? BC [9:35] RO: no clue maybe trying to get the most critique? RK: I susepect they just want more to write down BQ: i think to get more comments in RK: LOL SUSEPECT UD: thats fine. RI: That was my thought. (+BQ) BV: But I feel like they have no meat behind all of this—leaving too many unaswered questions RO: yeah RK: agreed BQ: it flopped :( RI: I agree. It’s they’re funeral RO: awe
  • 21. TEAM A GOOGLE DOC GD [9:40] RK: What is your core? (BQ +infinity)(+1 TA) (+Zen Dog) (+1 UD, +1 VE) (+1 NI, addendum: I just completely don’t get it, the entire project doesn’t make sense to me anymore) Remember the RESEARCH!!! (especially if you are aiming for CHI) (+500000 RK)
  • 22. TEAM A CLASSROOM CL [9:48] NI: This is not ___. So, we’ve been talking, we’ve been talking in our doc. And, we kinda wanna, I have been elected as it were, [laugh] because it is kinda harsh. We don’t—we lost your core. We have no idea what your project is about anymore. We can’t figure it out. We just don’t get it. We don’t see the core anymore. And your presentation has almost no rationale or research to get us on board with what you're doing. We don’t know why these things exist, what's motivating them, what the point it, or why we should know more about it. Um, [long pause].
  • 23. TEAM A TEAM B TEAM C
  • 26. TEAM C GOOGLE DOC GD [9:59] RK: How does the texture change to wood? Is your design to give people acid? (+1 TL +1 BV) (Oh shit, it’s real! http:// www.disneyresearch.com/project/revel- programming-the-sense-of-touch/ TL) (RK: I wish you guys would have said this before. The whole time I kept thinking about how impossible this was going to be, and honestly it detracted from the presentation for me. I have never heard of these things.)
  • 27. TEAM C GOOGLE DOC GD [10:03] BV: Perceptual cameras do not offer resistance for me to actually feel. And that is a ton of tech I have never heard of needs some deeper explanation. (+1 TA too much hand waving is bad? the next step after designing is implementation, how are you going to do it..) RK: What are Revel and Aireal? [GD comment, 10:04] RO: disney experience tech [GD comment, 10:04] RK: Did they say that? [GD comment, 10:04] RO: nope http:// www.disneyresearch.com/research-areas/ human-computer-interaction
  • 28. TEAM C BACKCHANNEL BC [10:06] RK: unfortunately I don't think it was stellar because since it was backwards, the whole time I kept thinking NO FUCKING WAY. WTF ARE YOU GUYS DOING ARE OYU ON CRACK? BQ: agreed if they had clarified how this happens at the moment, i would have listened more NI: I wouldn't say backwards, necessarily, I think it would have been possible to tell that story while interspersing some of this argumentation so that it's not all one thing then all the other. RI: It is a very... psychedelic experience
  • 29. TEAM C GOOGLE DOC GD [10:06] TL: I think the “presentation preview” slide at the beginning was brilliant. You could have very easily leveraged this to better include your research early on. Make your research the equivalent of the “turn off your cell phones” announcement. Whatever it may be, but briefly explaining that “the tech you are about to see is fantastical, but be assured - it is feasible.” (RK: super awesome wicked great suggestion)
  • 30. TEAM C CLASSROOM CL [10:19] TL: [...] And then also, the second critique is more of a presentation structure. You chose to have the technology explanation at the end. And—which that's definitely one way to do it. But I know for a lot of mentors, what we experienced was, when you started describing like touching the walls and feeling things, like at that point, one of the comments like was are you giving ___ before they walk in? [laughter] And to me, and to several others, that sort of discredited the rest of the presentation because we just had no idea how that was even possible. And when you mention that and you look it up, it's very clearly possible and it's definitely something worth pursuing. [...]
  • 31. [from Gray, 2014] CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD STRUCTURES COMMUNICATIVE ACTS ROLES INTERACTIVE SETTINGS TYPIFICATIONS CRITICAL QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS [IN 60 SECONDS]
  • 32. TYPIFICATION less permeable; specifies norms, audiences, rhythm ROLE more permeable; can cross typifications [Carspecken, 1996; Carspecken & MacGillivray, 1998] CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD CONTENT INFERENCE FIELD STRUCTURES COMMUNICATIVE ACTS ROLES INTERACTIVE SETTINGS TYPIFICATIONS CRITICAL QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS [IN 60 SECONDS]
  • 33. VIRTUAL GD: POISED PROFESSIONAL PHYSICAL: INSTRUCTIONAL TUTOR VIRTUAL BC: RELAXED PROFESSIONAL RK: unfortunately I don't think it was stellar because since it was backwards, the whole time I kept thinking NO FUCKING WAY. WTF ARE YOU GUYS DOING ARE OYU ON CRACK? TYPIFICATIONS
  • 34. VIRTUAL GD: POISED PROFESSIONAL PHYSICAL: INSTRUCTIONAL TUTOR VIRTUAL BC: RELAXED PROFESSIONAL BV: Perceptual cameras do not offer resistance for me to actually feel. […] too much hand waving is bad? the next step after designing is implementation, how are you going to do it..) TYPIFICATIONS
  • 35. VIRTUAL GD: POISED PROFESSIONAL PHYSICAL: INSTRUCTIONAL TUTOR VIRTUAL BC: RELAXED PROFESSIONAL And to me, and to several others, that sort of discredited the rest of the presentation because we just had no idea how that was even possible. TYPIFICATIONS