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Introduction to :
Wheel and Tire Failure :
Particular Risk Analysis
1www.fiabtech.com
WTF
2www.fiabtech.com
WTF statistics
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1966 to 2005
1966 to 2005
3www.fiabtech.com
Learjet 60. Columbia Airport, USA
19 Sept 2008
4www.fiabtech.com
5www.fiabtech.com
Where do we start
from ?
6www.fiabtech.com
The Four WTF
PRA Models
7www.fiabtech.com
Four Models
GAS JET
Flailing Tread
Tread Shed
Rim Release
8www.fiabtech.com
Flailing Tread
9www.fiabtech.com
Flailing Tread Effects : A Whip.
• Mass : about 2 kg.
• Speed : about 270 km/h
=>Energy : about 5 kJ
10www.fiabtech.com
Flailing Tread Model
• Only applies to extended MLG
• Why ?
• Impact : Aft part of the Main Landing Gear
and the Braking System.
11www.fiabtech.com
Rim Release Model
Ref. Honeywell Report ERS-PROJ-WHAB-0000022
Dated 14 feb 2011.
12www.fiabtech.com
Rim Release Model
• Rim Release of retracted non-braked wheels
do not need to be considered. Why ?
• Example : Retracted Nose Landing Gear Wheel.
13www.fiabtech.com
Frequency of occurrence
=> Why ? => Stress on NLG Rim when
retracted : Low
14www.fiabtech.com
Tread Shed Model
15www.fiabtech.com
What to do with the PRA
Models ?
16www.fiabtech.com
17
•USE CATIA AND THE
DMU and a GOOD
Performance Computer.
www.fiabtech.com
18
Next :
www.fiabtech.com
What is a hit list ?
19www.fiabtech.com
20
Parameters
for position
of PRA
Model
Equipment
Lost
Effect on
System
Aircraft Level
Function Lost
EFFECT ON
AIRCRAFT
/CRITICALITY
HIT LIST EXAMPLE
UERF Fragment impacting Fuel System
α
β
FWSOV
Inability to
isolate fuel
to affected
engine
FHA
function
4.2.3.1 :
Engine /
Tire Burst
Protection
System
Inability
to isolate
fire
following
UERF
www.fiabtech.com
21
Parameters
for position
of PRA
Model
Equipment
Lost
Effect on
System
Aircraft
Level
Function
Lost
EFFECT ON
AIRCRAFT
α
β
FWSOV
How to fill-up the Hit List ?
? ? FHA
www.fiabtech.com
• Asking questions, Communication, Exchange
and Cross-Department Collaboration between
the System Designer and the PRA Specialist
with support of the DMU.
22
?
Source : Boeing & CATIA
www.fiabtech.com
Quiz
• How many Wheel and Tire Failure different
Models exist ?
• 3 ?
• 5 ?
• 6 ?
• 4 ?
23www.fiabtech.com
Quiz
• How many Wheel and Tire Failure different
Models exist ?
• 3
• 5
• 6
• 4
24www.fiabtech.com
Compilations of Hit-Lists
• Combines the effect of the PRA on the
relevant ATAs together.
• Provides the consequence of the PRA at the
Aircraft Level.
• When we hear talking about System
Integration, this is one way to do System
Integration.
25www.fiabtech.com
System Integration. WHY ?
• UERF on ATA 28 alone => Major
• UERF on ATA 29 alone => Major
• UERF on ATA 27 alone => Major
Put together => can be CAT.
26www.fiabtech.com
If you do not know what is impacted in
CATIA ?
27www.fiabtech.com
WTF Tread Shed Trajectories
• Only trajectories to hit components.
• CATIA COMPASS => Model Manipulation.
28www.fiabtech.com
HOW TO MANIPULATE THE MODELS IN
CATIA ?
29www.fiabtech.com
TREAD SHED MODEL APPLICABILITY
30
α
β
www.fiabtech.com
ON THE DMU
• Starting from β = 0 deg, do all the analysis for
• α to vary between 45 deg and 180 deg.
– Alpha increments : 10 degrees.
– Refine when hit something (but no lower than 5
degrees increments)
31www.fiabtech.com
If we believe there is too many
combinations of PRA WTF trajectories
to be performed with α and β …
32www.fiabtech.com
33www.fiabtech.com
Which WTF Model should we study
first ?
Distribution of Main and Nose Tire Failure
Main Tire Burst
Main Tire Flailing
Nose Tire Burst
Nose Tire Flailing
34www.fiabtech.com
•What happens to the
results we found in
the PRA analysis ?
35www.fiabtech.com
They Become Safety
Requirements
36www.fiabtech.com
Example
The Main Fuel Pump shall be protected so that
its functionality is maintained in case of a WTF
Tread Shed in the Lower Inner Wing Area.
37www.fiabtech.com
What to do with the Hit-List Analysis ?
• If it is critical => CAT => The Result of the Hit List Analysis will
become a Safety Requirement.
• Example : From CATIA, we see that UERF hits the FWSOV =>
Propose to the Fuel System Designer to move the FWSOV outside
of the UERF zone.
• HOW ?
• => Write a Safety Requirement :
<< The FWSOV shall be installed outside of the UERF area of its
associated engine. >>
38www.fiabtech.com
Quiz
• What is the average speed of ejection for the
Wheel Rim release model ?
• 20 m/s ?
• 100 m/s ?
• 400 m/s ?
39www.fiabtech.com
Quiz
• What is the average speed of ejection for the
Wheel Rim release model ?
• 20 m/s
• 100 m/s
• 400 m/s
40www.fiabtech.com
Why the Requirement
must be written in
English ?
41www.fiabtech.com
• Some of our safety requirements
need to be transmitted to our
Suppliers.
42www.fiabtech.com
What becomes to the requirement ?
43www.fiabtech.com
Requirement Management
• DOORS is one of the way to manage
requirements and to ensure they are properly
addressed to the right persons / departments.
• A requirement not allocated to someone is
useless…
44www.fiabtech.com
Why Do We Study WTF PRA ?
• Ensure Functionality of Critical Systems
around the landing gear, the Wing and in the
wheel wells.
• => Make Sure We do not loose safety-critical
systems because of a WTF event.
45www.fiabtech.com
Last Quiz
• What was the cause of the Learjet 60 Accident ?
– Landing Gear Bay Design Deficiencies ?
– Failure of Critical Systems in Wheel Well ?
– Inadequacy of Learjet Safety Analysis ?
– FAA failed to detect and correct the problem ?
– All of the above ?
46www.fiabtech.com
Last Quiz
• What was the cause of the Learjet 60 Accident ?
– Landing Gear Bay Design Deficiencies
– Failure of Critical Systems in Wheel Well
– Inadequacy of Learjet Safety Analysis
– FAA failed to detect and correct the problem
– All of the above
47www.fiabtech.com
About the author :
Frederic CONTENOT, Chartered Engineer, is an international expert in Aircraft Safety.
He has more than 25 years of experience in the Aerospace Industry.
Furthermore, he supported many major aircraft certification programs.
He is the founder and creator of Fiabtech Ltd :
48
Fiabtech Ltd provides engineering consultation, teaching and coaching to the aerospace industry, specializing- but not
limited to – Safety Analysis on modern Passenger, Business jet aircrafts and UAVs.
The expertise Fiabtech Ltd provides is based on more than 25 years of experience in certification to FAR/CS 25 requirements of aircraft systems
at major world class aircraft manufacturers.
Since 2005, Fiabtech Ltd developed a worldwide expertise in Particular Risk Analysis (PRA) and can provide expert assessments and
advise on FAR 25 Certification Compliance for, but not limited to :
– Uncontained Engine Rotor Failure (UERF) : Frederic CONTENOT has world-renowned expertise in the field of UERF.
– Bird Strike
– Wheel and Tire Failure
– Survivability of Systems
– Hydraulic Accumulator Burst
As these are complex subjects, please contact me for more information at: frederic@fiabtech.com
www.fiabtech.com

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Wheel and Tire Failure : Brief Introduction to this Particular Risk Analysis.

  • 1. Introduction to : Wheel and Tire Failure : Particular Risk Analysis 1www.fiabtech.com
  • 3. WTF statistics 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1966 to 2005 1966 to 2005 3www.fiabtech.com
  • 4. Learjet 60. Columbia Airport, USA 19 Sept 2008 4www.fiabtech.com
  • 6. Where do we start from ? 6www.fiabtech.com
  • 7. The Four WTF PRA Models 7www.fiabtech.com
  • 8. Four Models GAS JET Flailing Tread Tread Shed Rim Release 8www.fiabtech.com
  • 10. Flailing Tread Effects : A Whip. • Mass : about 2 kg. • Speed : about 270 km/h =>Energy : about 5 kJ 10www.fiabtech.com
  • 11. Flailing Tread Model • Only applies to extended MLG • Why ? • Impact : Aft part of the Main Landing Gear and the Braking System. 11www.fiabtech.com
  • 12. Rim Release Model Ref. Honeywell Report ERS-PROJ-WHAB-0000022 Dated 14 feb 2011. 12www.fiabtech.com
  • 13. Rim Release Model • Rim Release of retracted non-braked wheels do not need to be considered. Why ? • Example : Retracted Nose Landing Gear Wheel. 13www.fiabtech.com
  • 14. Frequency of occurrence => Why ? => Stress on NLG Rim when retracted : Low 14www.fiabtech.com
  • 16. What to do with the PRA Models ? 16www.fiabtech.com
  • 17. 17 •USE CATIA AND THE DMU and a GOOD Performance Computer. www.fiabtech.com
  • 19. What is a hit list ? 19www.fiabtech.com
  • 20. 20 Parameters for position of PRA Model Equipment Lost Effect on System Aircraft Level Function Lost EFFECT ON AIRCRAFT /CRITICALITY HIT LIST EXAMPLE UERF Fragment impacting Fuel System α β FWSOV Inability to isolate fuel to affected engine FHA function 4.2.3.1 : Engine / Tire Burst Protection System Inability to isolate fire following UERF www.fiabtech.com
  • 21. 21 Parameters for position of PRA Model Equipment Lost Effect on System Aircraft Level Function Lost EFFECT ON AIRCRAFT α β FWSOV How to fill-up the Hit List ? ? ? FHA www.fiabtech.com
  • 22. • Asking questions, Communication, Exchange and Cross-Department Collaboration between the System Designer and the PRA Specialist with support of the DMU. 22 ? Source : Boeing & CATIA www.fiabtech.com
  • 23. Quiz • How many Wheel and Tire Failure different Models exist ? • 3 ? • 5 ? • 6 ? • 4 ? 23www.fiabtech.com
  • 24. Quiz • How many Wheel and Tire Failure different Models exist ? • 3 • 5 • 6 • 4 24www.fiabtech.com
  • 25. Compilations of Hit-Lists • Combines the effect of the PRA on the relevant ATAs together. • Provides the consequence of the PRA at the Aircraft Level. • When we hear talking about System Integration, this is one way to do System Integration. 25www.fiabtech.com
  • 26. System Integration. WHY ? • UERF on ATA 28 alone => Major • UERF on ATA 29 alone => Major • UERF on ATA 27 alone => Major Put together => can be CAT. 26www.fiabtech.com
  • 27. If you do not know what is impacted in CATIA ? 27www.fiabtech.com
  • 28. WTF Tread Shed Trajectories • Only trajectories to hit components. • CATIA COMPASS => Model Manipulation. 28www.fiabtech.com
  • 29. HOW TO MANIPULATE THE MODELS IN CATIA ? 29www.fiabtech.com
  • 30. TREAD SHED MODEL APPLICABILITY 30 α β www.fiabtech.com
  • 31. ON THE DMU • Starting from β = 0 deg, do all the analysis for • α to vary between 45 deg and 180 deg. – Alpha increments : 10 degrees. – Refine when hit something (but no lower than 5 degrees increments) 31www.fiabtech.com
  • 32. If we believe there is too many combinations of PRA WTF trajectories to be performed with α and β … 32www.fiabtech.com
  • 34. Which WTF Model should we study first ? Distribution of Main and Nose Tire Failure Main Tire Burst Main Tire Flailing Nose Tire Burst Nose Tire Flailing 34www.fiabtech.com
  • 35. •What happens to the results we found in the PRA analysis ? 35www.fiabtech.com
  • 37. Example The Main Fuel Pump shall be protected so that its functionality is maintained in case of a WTF Tread Shed in the Lower Inner Wing Area. 37www.fiabtech.com
  • 38. What to do with the Hit-List Analysis ? • If it is critical => CAT => The Result of the Hit List Analysis will become a Safety Requirement. • Example : From CATIA, we see that UERF hits the FWSOV => Propose to the Fuel System Designer to move the FWSOV outside of the UERF zone. • HOW ? • => Write a Safety Requirement : << The FWSOV shall be installed outside of the UERF area of its associated engine. >> 38www.fiabtech.com
  • 39. Quiz • What is the average speed of ejection for the Wheel Rim release model ? • 20 m/s ? • 100 m/s ? • 400 m/s ? 39www.fiabtech.com
  • 40. Quiz • What is the average speed of ejection for the Wheel Rim release model ? • 20 m/s • 100 m/s • 400 m/s 40www.fiabtech.com
  • 41. Why the Requirement must be written in English ? 41www.fiabtech.com
  • 42. • Some of our safety requirements need to be transmitted to our Suppliers. 42www.fiabtech.com
  • 43. What becomes to the requirement ? 43www.fiabtech.com
  • 44. Requirement Management • DOORS is one of the way to manage requirements and to ensure they are properly addressed to the right persons / departments. • A requirement not allocated to someone is useless… 44www.fiabtech.com
  • 45. Why Do We Study WTF PRA ? • Ensure Functionality of Critical Systems around the landing gear, the Wing and in the wheel wells. • => Make Sure We do not loose safety-critical systems because of a WTF event. 45www.fiabtech.com
  • 46. Last Quiz • What was the cause of the Learjet 60 Accident ? – Landing Gear Bay Design Deficiencies ? – Failure of Critical Systems in Wheel Well ? – Inadequacy of Learjet Safety Analysis ? – FAA failed to detect and correct the problem ? – All of the above ? 46www.fiabtech.com
  • 47. Last Quiz • What was the cause of the Learjet 60 Accident ? – Landing Gear Bay Design Deficiencies – Failure of Critical Systems in Wheel Well – Inadequacy of Learjet Safety Analysis – FAA failed to detect and correct the problem – All of the above 47www.fiabtech.com
  • 48. About the author : Frederic CONTENOT, Chartered Engineer, is an international expert in Aircraft Safety. He has more than 25 years of experience in the Aerospace Industry. Furthermore, he supported many major aircraft certification programs. He is the founder and creator of Fiabtech Ltd : 48 Fiabtech Ltd provides engineering consultation, teaching and coaching to the aerospace industry, specializing- but not limited to – Safety Analysis on modern Passenger, Business jet aircrafts and UAVs. The expertise Fiabtech Ltd provides is based on more than 25 years of experience in certification to FAR/CS 25 requirements of aircraft systems at major world class aircraft manufacturers. Since 2005, Fiabtech Ltd developed a worldwide expertise in Particular Risk Analysis (PRA) and can provide expert assessments and advise on FAR 25 Certification Compliance for, but not limited to : – Uncontained Engine Rotor Failure (UERF) : Frederic CONTENOT has world-renowned expertise in the field of UERF. – Bird Strike – Wheel and Tire Failure – Survivability of Systems – Hydraulic Accumulator Burst As these are complex subjects, please contact me for more information at: frederic@fiabtech.com www.fiabtech.com