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WHAT HAPPENED TO THE
SEMANTIC WEB?Peter Mika, Sr. Director of Engineering
ACM Hypertext, July 5, 2017
Agenda
• Brief history
• Impact
• (Web) search
• Media
• E-commerce
• Where next?
• Threats and Opportunities
• Q&A
BRIEF HISTORY
The Semantic Web
• Part of Berners–Lee’s original vision for the Web
• Described in more detail in Weaving the Web (1999)
• Popularized by the Scientific American article,
The Semantic Web (2001)
• An extension of the Hypertext Web (”A web for machines”)
• Concepts (“Things”) as first class citizens of the Web
• Typed links between concepts
RDF in a nutshell
• Assign URIs to concepts (“things”)
• Example: Joe the Person has the URI ns:Joe
• Link concepts using typed links (triples)
• Example: (ns:Joe, type, Person),
• An RDF model is a set of triples in a machine-
readable format
• Publish on the Web
ns:Joe
“John Doe”
foaf:name
foaf:Personrdf:type
rdfs:subclassOf
foaf:Agent
Linking information across the Web
Joe’s homepage
Joe’s blog
Mary’s homepage
(#name, #type, #Property)
(#name, #domain, #Person)
Schema (ontology)
(#joe, #name, “Joe A.”)
(#joe, #email, mailto:joe@joe.com)
(#joe, #loves, #mary)
(#mary, name, “Mary B.”)
(#mary, gender, “female”)
The promise: machine intelligence
• “At the doctor's office, Lucy instructed her Semantic
Web agent through her handheld Web browser. The
agent promptly retrieved information about Mom's
prescribed treatment from the doctor's agent,
looked up several lists of providers, and checked for
the ones in-plan for Mom's insurance within a 20-
mile radius of her home and with a rating of
excellent or very good on trusted rating services. It
then began trying to find a match between available
appointment times (supplied by the agents of
individual providers through their Web sites) and
Pete's and Lucy's busy schedules.”
• (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose
semantics, or meaning, were defined for the agent
through the Semantic Web.)
7/5/2017 7
The Semantic Web off to a feverish start (2001-2004)
• New research community
• ISWC conference series starting in 2001
• Built around the Knowledge Representation &
Reasoning community
• Informal, developer community
• People hanging out on the #swig IRC channel
• Standardization at a neck-braking pace
• W3C Semantic Web Activity
• URI, RDF, RDF/XML, RDFa, JSON-LD,
OWL, RIF, SPARQL, OWL-S, POWDER …
… but adoption lagging behind
• Chicken and egg problem
• No applications, hence no incentive to publish data
• No data means no interesting applications to build
• Research and standardization ahead of adoption
• “Build it and they will come”
• Example: Semantic Web Services (OWL-S)
Chicken
farm
Back to basics: the Linked (Open) Data movement (2006)
• Simplify the technology stack
• The four rules of Linked Data
• Seed with interesting public data sets (open data)
• Dbpedia
• Provide a set of re-usable vocabularies
• Vocamp, later schema.org
• Make it developer friendly
• SPARQL: SQL-like query language
• RDFa: embedded metadata in HTML
• JSON-LD: JSON-based RDF variant
Additional incentives (2011)
• Google/Bing/Yahoo start making use of
metadata in HTML for “rich snippets” and
vertical search
• Publish schema.org as shared ontology
• Example: Google’s recipe search
• Other companies supporting similar web
markup
• Facebook Open Graph Protocol
• Twitter Cards
• Apple Web Content markup
• Pinterest Rich Pins
Current status (2017)
• Reduced standardization (part of W3C Data Activity)
• Narrower research focus
• Light(er) query and inference
• Information extraction and integration
• Ontology-based data access (ODBA)
• Application tracks
• SW Challenge, “In Use” and Industry tracks at ISWC/ESWC
• Closer integration with IR, IE/NLP, Databases
• Maturing technology
• Open source triple stores and graph databases
• Neo4j, OpenLink’s Virtuoso, Franz Inc.’s Allegrograph …
• Graph extensions to RDBMs
• Oracle’s RDF Semantic Graph, Microsoft’s Azure Cosmos DB
IMPACT ON WEB SEARCH
Why is web search hard?
What it’s like to be a machine?
Roi Blanco
What it’s like to be a machine?
↵⏏☐ģ
✜Θ♬♬ţğ√∞§®ÇĤĪ✜★♬☐✓✓
ţğ★✜
✪✚✜ΔΤΟŨŸÏĞÊϖυτρ℠≠⅛⌫
≠=⅚©§★✓♪ΒΓΕ℠
✖Γ♫⅜±⏎↵⏏☐ģğğğμλκσςτ
⏎⌥°¶§ΥΦΦΦ✗✕☐
What it’s like to be a machine?
<roi>↵⏏☐ģ</roi>
✜Θ♬♬ţğ√∞§®ÇĤĪ✜★♬☐✓✓
ţğ★✜
✪✚✜ΔΤΟŨŸÏĞÊϖυτρ℠≠⅛⌫
≠=⅚©§★✓♪ΒΓΕ℠
✖Γ♫⅜±<roi>⏎↵⏏☐ģ</roi>ğğğμλκσςτ
⏎⌥°¶§ΥΦΦΦ✗✕☐
<roi>
New research field: Semantic Search
• Study of retrieval methods where the user
intent and resources are represented in a
semantic representation
• A set of concepts or topics that generalize
over tokens/phrases
• Additional structure such as a hierarchy
among concepts, relationships among
concepts etc.
• Series of workshops at IR, SW, DB
conferences
• ESAIR (2008-2014) at CIKM, Semantic
Search (SemSearch) workshop series
(2008-2011) at ESWC/WWW, EOS
workshop (2010-2011) at SIGIR, JIWES
workshop (2012) at SIGIR, Semantic Search
Workshop (2011-2014) at VLDB
18
Positive impact on Web Search
• Web search providers start to build Knowledge Graphs
• Curation for head entities
• Freebase, Dbpedia, Wikidata
• Automated extraction for tail entities
• schema.org + machine learned Inf. Extraction
• Applications
• Small improvements to text retrieval (Dalton, SIGIR 2014)
• Entity search
• Vertical search
• Related entity recommendations
Yahoo Knowledge Graph
20
… but did not lead to the Semantic Web we envisioned
• Annotations are driven by a single application (SEO)
• Limited set of types and attributes are used
• No incentives to link to related items
• Centralization of the ontology effort
• schema.org
• Data privately held by search providers
• KGs are not public, nor distributed
• No significant use of Linked Data
• Lack of trust
IMPACT ON MEDIA
Early social media on the Web (pre-2004)
• Social media followed web architecture
• Links, blogrolls, pingbacks etc. between individual homepages and blogs
• First SNSs (e.g. LiveJournal) simply implemented the same within one system
• Typical usage is browsing from blog to blog or profile to profile
• Rich interlinking between social media and traditional media
Alice’s blog
Bob’s blog
Charlie’s blog
reads reads
links to links to
The promise of the Social-Semantic Web
• The Semantic Web as the ideal platform for distributed social networks and social media
• Connect digital identities across networks (sameAs)
• Connect distributed conversations across networks
• Having a profile in one network, and linking it to content elsewhere
• Fine-grained access control through existing web protocols
• Competition in services, e.g. search over social content
• As an aside, also a boon to Online Social Science
• Tools for data acquisition, data fusion, storage and querying
• Significantly increase the size, frequency and longitude of social studies through digital data
collection
• Contribute to the improvement of technology by the study of technology usage
24
Advancement of the Social-Semantic Web
• Standards
• Representations
• Profile data and content
• FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) ontology
(2000) for profile information
• SIOC (Semantically Interlinked Online
communities) ontology (2004) for blogs,
forums, Q&A sites
• Activities/actions
• ActivityStreams 2.0
• Later: schema.org Actions vocabulary
• Authentication and authorization
• OpenID & Oauth
• Implementations
• LiveJournal
• Drupal 7
25
The social network services (SNS) revolution
26
The impact of SNSs (post-2004)
• Commercial interests in social networks lead to data silos
• Publishing moves from individual home pages and blogs to social networks
• Analysis of online social media limited by terms of service
• Data portability possible (e.g. Google’s Takeout), but no interlinking
• Larger networks dominate
• New entries are special purpose (dating, health), target different demography, or enterprise
Alice’s profile
Bob’s profile
Charlie’s profilefollows follows
internally link to
Facebook
Alice’s profile
Bob’s profile
Charlie’s profilefollows follows
internally link to
Twitter
Alice’s profile
Bob’s profile
Charlie’s profilefollowsfollows
internally link to
Alice’s profile
Bob’s profile
Charlie’s profilefollows follows
internally link to
Alice’s profile
Bob’s profile
Charlie’s profilefollows follows
internally link to
The loss of the hyperlink
The hyperlink was my currency six years ago. Stemming from the idea of the hypertext, the hyperlink
provided a diversity and decentralisation that the real world lacked. The hyperlink represented the open,
interconnected spirit of the world wide web — a vision that started with its inventor, Tim Berners-Lee.
The hyperlink was a way to abandon centralization — all the links, lines and hierarchies — and replace
them with something more distributed, a system of nodes and networks.
…
On the other hand, the most powerful web pages are those that have many eyes upon them. Just like
celebrities who draw a kind of power from the millions of human eyes gazing at them any given time,
web pages can capture and distribute their power through hyperlinks.
…
But apps like Instagram are blind — or almost blind. Their gaze goes nowhere except inwards, reluctant
to transfer any of their vast powers to others, leading them into quiet deaths. The consequence is that
web pages outside social media are dying.
Source: BusinessInsider
Impact on traditional media
• Media consumption moves to the Web, and SNSs
• SNSs control much of the activity/interaction data
• Criticism for taking personalization too far (cf.
filter bubbles)
• Practicing too much or too little editorial control
• Controversially, SNSs attempt to become the
exclusive publishing platform for all media
• Facebook Instant Articles
• Along the same lines: Apple News, Google AMP
Combining editorial control with automated personalization (Yahoo)
• Personalization
• Articles are classified by broad topics
• Named entities are extracted and linked to the KG
• Recommend other articles based on the extracted entities/topics
30
Show me less
stories about this
entity or topic
Continued work on distributed social networks and social media
• Standardization
• W3C Social Activity
• W3C Social Interest Group
• Use cases TF
• Vocabularies TF
• W3C Social Web Working Group
• W3C WebID Community Group
• WebID and WebID + TLS
• Free, open source software
• Mastodon
• SoLiD: Social Linked Data platform
31
IMPACT ON E-COMMERCE
Online shopping and related advertizing supports the Web as a business
• The main source of revenue for all major internet companies
• Traditional retail moved from brick-and-mortar to online
• Amazon and Alibaba dominate
• New marketplaces for peer-to-peer buying and selling
• eBay, Craigslist, Schibsted and Naspers sites
• No major changes in technology since early Web shops
Semantic Web for e-commerce
'Intention': DSLR Camera
Constraints:
Deadline: 90 days
Budget: €900-€2000
Specifications:
Body Weight: < 700g
Full-frame sensor
24+ megapixels
Review score: 80+ %
Search
Agent
Online
maps
Get
local
directions
/ Find
nearest
Sort /display
supplier by
proximity
Price-comparison
websites
e.g. Google Shopping
Find/alert
about best price
Sort by
total price
Web retail stores
(online-only
or online presence
of high street stores)
Check availability
(local / delivery)
Check
lead time
Domain-specific
review sites
e.g. www.dpreview.com
www.tripadvisor.com
Check independent
reviews and ratings
Sort by
ratings, features
discover alternatives
Manufacturer
websites
e.g. Nikon,
Canon, Sony,
etc.
Check brochure
Check features,
technical specs
OfferProduct ID
(GTIN)
Product ID
(GTIN)
Supplier
ID (GLN)
Best Options
Source: Mark Harrison
Semantic Web for e-commerce
• Sharing product data on the Web
• GoodRelations vocabulary (incorporated into schema.org)
• Standards such as GS1 for product identification
• Applications
• Better product meta-search and price comparison
• Surfacing content from the long tail
• Searching across marketplaces
• Easier matching of product offers across shops/marketplaces
• Integration of partners across the supply chain
• E.g. sharing specification data between the manufacturer and retailer
Limited impact so far
• Limited data publishing
• Incentives limited to SEO
• Still, Product is the most commonly used object type in schema.org
• Competitive pressure
• Public crawls are outdated
• WebDataCommons
• Vertical integration use cases haven’t materialized yet
• Doesn’t make for sexy research?
WHAT’S NEXT
Threats
• Threats to the Web
• Centralization
• Monopoly (or oligopoly) of attention, content,
and/or computational resources
• Interface disruption
• Augmented/Virtual Reality
• Intelligent agents
• via chat and physical devices
Source: Schibsted Future Report
Opportunities
• Standards in place to build powerful
distributed, open, dynamic data platforms
• Standards for sharing user preferences/profiles
• Read/Write content
• Trust through identity
• Mature implementations of Semantic Web
technology
• Some useful data on the Semantic Web
• Schema.org
• Dbpedia and Wikidata
• Advances in Machine Learning
• More natural interaction via NLU, Computer
Vision
• Data portability
• General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
• Potential applications
• Sharing content and reading preferences
across services
• Open alternatives to
Siri/Alexa/Cortana/Google Now that connect
to any (semantic) web service
• Trading across marketplaces on the Web
• Distributed fact-checking
• Your idea!
Open (and exciting!) research questions
• Deep Learning
• Connecting the ”senses” with knowledge
• Language, vision, sensor information
• Example: Andrew McCallum’s work on “universal schema”
• Combining statistical approaches with logic
• Going beyond representing domain knowledge about entities
• Common sense knowledge
• Representing actions
• Back to intelligent agents
• AI planning
• Dialogue systems
• Example: agents representing buyers and sellers in Marketplaces
Q&A
• Thank you!
• Feel free to contact me
• pmika@schibsted.com
• @pmika
• http://www.slideshare.net/pmika/
What happened to the Semantic Web?

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What happened to the Semantic Web?

  • 1. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SEMANTIC WEB?Peter Mika, Sr. Director of Engineering ACM Hypertext, July 5, 2017
  • 2. Agenda • Brief history • Impact • (Web) search • Media • E-commerce • Where next? • Threats and Opportunities • Q&A
  • 4. The Semantic Web • Part of Berners–Lee’s original vision for the Web • Described in more detail in Weaving the Web (1999) • Popularized by the Scientific American article, The Semantic Web (2001) • An extension of the Hypertext Web (”A web for machines”) • Concepts (“Things”) as first class citizens of the Web • Typed links between concepts
  • 5. RDF in a nutshell • Assign URIs to concepts (“things”) • Example: Joe the Person has the URI ns:Joe • Link concepts using typed links (triples) • Example: (ns:Joe, type, Person), • An RDF model is a set of triples in a machine- readable format • Publish on the Web ns:Joe “John Doe” foaf:name foaf:Personrdf:type rdfs:subclassOf foaf:Agent
  • 6. Linking information across the Web Joe’s homepage Joe’s blog Mary’s homepage (#name, #type, #Property) (#name, #domain, #Person) Schema (ontology) (#joe, #name, “Joe A.”) (#joe, #email, mailto:joe@joe.com) (#joe, #loves, #mary) (#mary, name, “Mary B.”) (#mary, gender, “female”)
  • 7. The promise: machine intelligence • “At the doctor's office, Lucy instructed her Semantic Web agent through her handheld Web browser. The agent promptly retrieved information about Mom's prescribed treatment from the doctor's agent, looked up several lists of providers, and checked for the ones in-plan for Mom's insurance within a 20- mile radius of her home and with a rating of excellent or very good on trusted rating services. It then began trying to find a match between available appointment times (supplied by the agents of individual providers through their Web sites) and Pete's and Lucy's busy schedules.” • (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose semantics, or meaning, were defined for the agent through the Semantic Web.) 7/5/2017 7
  • 8. The Semantic Web off to a feverish start (2001-2004) • New research community • ISWC conference series starting in 2001 • Built around the Knowledge Representation & Reasoning community • Informal, developer community • People hanging out on the #swig IRC channel • Standardization at a neck-braking pace • W3C Semantic Web Activity • URI, RDF, RDF/XML, RDFa, JSON-LD, OWL, RIF, SPARQL, OWL-S, POWDER …
  • 9. … but adoption lagging behind • Chicken and egg problem • No applications, hence no incentive to publish data • No data means no interesting applications to build • Research and standardization ahead of adoption • “Build it and they will come” • Example: Semantic Web Services (OWL-S) Chicken farm
  • 10. Back to basics: the Linked (Open) Data movement (2006) • Simplify the technology stack • The four rules of Linked Data • Seed with interesting public data sets (open data) • Dbpedia • Provide a set of re-usable vocabularies • Vocamp, later schema.org • Make it developer friendly • SPARQL: SQL-like query language • RDFa: embedded metadata in HTML • JSON-LD: JSON-based RDF variant
  • 11. Additional incentives (2011) • Google/Bing/Yahoo start making use of metadata in HTML for “rich snippets” and vertical search • Publish schema.org as shared ontology • Example: Google’s recipe search • Other companies supporting similar web markup • Facebook Open Graph Protocol • Twitter Cards • Apple Web Content markup • Pinterest Rich Pins
  • 12. Current status (2017) • Reduced standardization (part of W3C Data Activity) • Narrower research focus • Light(er) query and inference • Information extraction and integration • Ontology-based data access (ODBA) • Application tracks • SW Challenge, “In Use” and Industry tracks at ISWC/ESWC • Closer integration with IR, IE/NLP, Databases • Maturing technology • Open source triple stores and graph databases • Neo4j, OpenLink’s Virtuoso, Franz Inc.’s Allegrograph … • Graph extensions to RDBMs • Oracle’s RDF Semantic Graph, Microsoft’s Azure Cosmos DB
  • 13. IMPACT ON WEB SEARCH
  • 14. Why is web search hard?
  • 15. What it’s like to be a machine? Roi Blanco
  • 16. What it’s like to be a machine? ↵⏏☐ģ ✜Θ♬♬ţğ√∞§®ÇĤĪ✜★♬☐✓✓ ţğ★✜ ✪✚✜ΔΤΟŨŸÏĞÊϖυτρ℠≠⅛⌫ ≠=⅚©§★✓♪ΒΓΕ℠ ✖Γ♫⅜±⏎↵⏏☐ģğğğμλκσςτ ⏎⌥°¶§ΥΦΦΦ✗✕☐
  • 17. What it’s like to be a machine? <roi>↵⏏☐ģ</roi> ✜Θ♬♬ţğ√∞§®ÇĤĪ✜★♬☐✓✓ ţğ★✜ ✪✚✜ΔΤΟŨŸÏĞÊϖυτρ℠≠⅛⌫ ≠=⅚©§★✓♪ΒΓΕ℠ ✖Γ♫⅜±<roi>⏎↵⏏☐ģ</roi>ğğğμλκσςτ ⏎⌥°¶§ΥΦΦΦ✗✕☐ <roi>
  • 18. New research field: Semantic Search • Study of retrieval methods where the user intent and resources are represented in a semantic representation • A set of concepts or topics that generalize over tokens/phrases • Additional structure such as a hierarchy among concepts, relationships among concepts etc. • Series of workshops at IR, SW, DB conferences • ESAIR (2008-2014) at CIKM, Semantic Search (SemSearch) workshop series (2008-2011) at ESWC/WWW, EOS workshop (2010-2011) at SIGIR, JIWES workshop (2012) at SIGIR, Semantic Search Workshop (2011-2014) at VLDB 18
  • 19. Positive impact on Web Search • Web search providers start to build Knowledge Graphs • Curation for head entities • Freebase, Dbpedia, Wikidata • Automated extraction for tail entities • schema.org + machine learned Inf. Extraction • Applications • Small improvements to text retrieval (Dalton, SIGIR 2014) • Entity search • Vertical search • Related entity recommendations
  • 21. … but did not lead to the Semantic Web we envisioned • Annotations are driven by a single application (SEO) • Limited set of types and attributes are used • No incentives to link to related items • Centralization of the ontology effort • schema.org • Data privately held by search providers • KGs are not public, nor distributed • No significant use of Linked Data • Lack of trust
  • 23. Early social media on the Web (pre-2004) • Social media followed web architecture • Links, blogrolls, pingbacks etc. between individual homepages and blogs • First SNSs (e.g. LiveJournal) simply implemented the same within one system • Typical usage is browsing from blog to blog or profile to profile • Rich interlinking between social media and traditional media Alice’s blog Bob’s blog Charlie’s blog reads reads links to links to
  • 24. The promise of the Social-Semantic Web • The Semantic Web as the ideal platform for distributed social networks and social media • Connect digital identities across networks (sameAs) • Connect distributed conversations across networks • Having a profile in one network, and linking it to content elsewhere • Fine-grained access control through existing web protocols • Competition in services, e.g. search over social content • As an aside, also a boon to Online Social Science • Tools for data acquisition, data fusion, storage and querying • Significantly increase the size, frequency and longitude of social studies through digital data collection • Contribute to the improvement of technology by the study of technology usage 24
  • 25. Advancement of the Social-Semantic Web • Standards • Representations • Profile data and content • FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) ontology (2000) for profile information • SIOC (Semantically Interlinked Online communities) ontology (2004) for blogs, forums, Q&A sites • Activities/actions • ActivityStreams 2.0 • Later: schema.org Actions vocabulary • Authentication and authorization • OpenID & Oauth • Implementations • LiveJournal • Drupal 7 25
  • 26. The social network services (SNS) revolution 26
  • 27. The impact of SNSs (post-2004) • Commercial interests in social networks lead to data silos • Publishing moves from individual home pages and blogs to social networks • Analysis of online social media limited by terms of service • Data portability possible (e.g. Google’s Takeout), but no interlinking • Larger networks dominate • New entries are special purpose (dating, health), target different demography, or enterprise Alice’s profile Bob’s profile Charlie’s profilefollows follows internally link to Facebook Alice’s profile Bob’s profile Charlie’s profilefollows follows internally link to Twitter Alice’s profile Bob’s profile Charlie’s profilefollowsfollows internally link to Alice’s profile Bob’s profile Charlie’s profilefollows follows internally link to Alice’s profile Bob’s profile Charlie’s profilefollows follows internally link to
  • 28. The loss of the hyperlink The hyperlink was my currency six years ago. Stemming from the idea of the hypertext, the hyperlink provided a diversity and decentralisation that the real world lacked. The hyperlink represented the open, interconnected spirit of the world wide web — a vision that started with its inventor, Tim Berners-Lee. The hyperlink was a way to abandon centralization — all the links, lines and hierarchies — and replace them with something more distributed, a system of nodes and networks. … On the other hand, the most powerful web pages are those that have many eyes upon them. Just like celebrities who draw a kind of power from the millions of human eyes gazing at them any given time, web pages can capture and distribute their power through hyperlinks. … But apps like Instagram are blind — or almost blind. Their gaze goes nowhere except inwards, reluctant to transfer any of their vast powers to others, leading them into quiet deaths. The consequence is that web pages outside social media are dying. Source: BusinessInsider
  • 29. Impact on traditional media • Media consumption moves to the Web, and SNSs • SNSs control much of the activity/interaction data • Criticism for taking personalization too far (cf. filter bubbles) • Practicing too much or too little editorial control • Controversially, SNSs attempt to become the exclusive publishing platform for all media • Facebook Instant Articles • Along the same lines: Apple News, Google AMP
  • 30. Combining editorial control with automated personalization (Yahoo) • Personalization • Articles are classified by broad topics • Named entities are extracted and linked to the KG • Recommend other articles based on the extracted entities/topics 30 Show me less stories about this entity or topic
  • 31. Continued work on distributed social networks and social media • Standardization • W3C Social Activity • W3C Social Interest Group • Use cases TF • Vocabularies TF • W3C Social Web Working Group • W3C WebID Community Group • WebID and WebID + TLS • Free, open source software • Mastodon • SoLiD: Social Linked Data platform 31
  • 33. Online shopping and related advertizing supports the Web as a business • The main source of revenue for all major internet companies • Traditional retail moved from brick-and-mortar to online • Amazon and Alibaba dominate • New marketplaces for peer-to-peer buying and selling • eBay, Craigslist, Schibsted and Naspers sites • No major changes in technology since early Web shops
  • 34. Semantic Web for e-commerce 'Intention': DSLR Camera Constraints: Deadline: 90 days Budget: €900-€2000 Specifications: Body Weight: < 700g Full-frame sensor 24+ megapixels Review score: 80+ % Search Agent Online maps Get local directions / Find nearest Sort /display supplier by proximity Price-comparison websites e.g. Google Shopping Find/alert about best price Sort by total price Web retail stores (online-only or online presence of high street stores) Check availability (local / delivery) Check lead time Domain-specific review sites e.g. www.dpreview.com www.tripadvisor.com Check independent reviews and ratings Sort by ratings, features discover alternatives Manufacturer websites e.g. Nikon, Canon, Sony, etc. Check brochure Check features, technical specs OfferProduct ID (GTIN) Product ID (GTIN) Supplier ID (GLN) Best Options Source: Mark Harrison
  • 35. Semantic Web for e-commerce • Sharing product data on the Web • GoodRelations vocabulary (incorporated into schema.org) • Standards such as GS1 for product identification • Applications • Better product meta-search and price comparison • Surfacing content from the long tail • Searching across marketplaces • Easier matching of product offers across shops/marketplaces • Integration of partners across the supply chain • E.g. sharing specification data between the manufacturer and retailer
  • 36. Limited impact so far • Limited data publishing • Incentives limited to SEO • Still, Product is the most commonly used object type in schema.org • Competitive pressure • Public crawls are outdated • WebDataCommons • Vertical integration use cases haven’t materialized yet • Doesn’t make for sexy research?
  • 38. Threats • Threats to the Web • Centralization • Monopoly (or oligopoly) of attention, content, and/or computational resources • Interface disruption • Augmented/Virtual Reality • Intelligent agents • via chat and physical devices Source: Schibsted Future Report
  • 39. Opportunities • Standards in place to build powerful distributed, open, dynamic data platforms • Standards for sharing user preferences/profiles • Read/Write content • Trust through identity • Mature implementations of Semantic Web technology • Some useful data on the Semantic Web • Schema.org • Dbpedia and Wikidata • Advances in Machine Learning • More natural interaction via NLU, Computer Vision • Data portability • General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) • Potential applications • Sharing content and reading preferences across services • Open alternatives to Siri/Alexa/Cortana/Google Now that connect to any (semantic) web service • Trading across marketplaces on the Web • Distributed fact-checking • Your idea!
  • 40. Open (and exciting!) research questions • Deep Learning • Connecting the ”senses” with knowledge • Language, vision, sensor information • Example: Andrew McCallum’s work on “universal schema” • Combining statistical approaches with logic • Going beyond representing domain knowledge about entities • Common sense knowledge • Representing actions • Back to intelligent agents • AI planning • Dialogue systems • Example: agents representing buyers and sellers in Marketplaces
  • 41. Q&A • Thank you! • Feel free to contact me • pmika@schibsted.com • @pmika • http://www.slideshare.net/pmika/