SlideShare a Scribd company logo
This work is licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.<br />What do academic libraries have to do with Open Educational Resources?Theme: Long term sustainability of open education projectsR. John Robertson, <br />CETIS (Centre for Educational Technology and Interoperability Standards) <br />Centre for Academic Practice and Learning Enhancement<br />University of Strathclyde<br />50 George Street<br />G1 1QE<br />United Kingdom<br />robert.robertson@strath.ac.uk<br />Biography<br />John works for CETIS (Centre for Educational Technology and Interoperability Standards) - one of the Innovation Support Centres funded by JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) to: represent Further and Higher Education in the development of relevant standards and specifications, nurture relevant developer communities and innovation, and provide guidance and support for JISC development programmes. John currently supports JISC’s work in Open Educational Resources. A librarian by training, his professional background is in development and support projects around the management of digital assets, repositories, digital libraries, and metadata; he also has an ongoing interest in the role of community and personal formation in education.<br />Abstract<br />This paper will discuss the possible roles of academic libraries in promoting, supporting, and sustaining institutional Open Educational Resource initiatives. It will note areas in which libraries or librarians have skills and knowledge that intersect with some of the needs of academic staff and students as they use and release OERs. It will also present the results of a brief survey of the views of some OER initiatives on the current and potential role of academic libraries.<br />Keywords<br />OER; Libraries; UKOER; Open Education; Universities<br />Introduction<br />Open Education and Open Educational Resource (OER) initiatives looking at the release and use of open educational content are related efforts at different stages of maturity which are attempting to find operating models that will allow them to be both sustainable and scalable. There are a number of possible models which could be developed some, but not all, of which assume a role for universities and related academic institutions. This paper will focus on the current and possible roles of academic libraries in support of the release and use of OERs. As such it assumes some ongoing role for institutions in OER and Open Education initiatives. There are related possibilities for other types of libraries but they are outside the immediate scope of the paper.<br />Last year JISC and the Higher Education Academy ran the UK Open Educational Resources programme a major pilot programme to explore different approaches to embedding of the release of OERs and this year a second programme is underway. In the context of my role providing support and guidance to these programmes I have wondered about the possible role of libraries in embedding and sustaining some of the efforts around OERs, what follows is an exploration of possible points of contact between OER initiatives and academic libraries, some very brief illustrations of these connections from the UKOER programme, an initial discussion of the results of survey about this topic, and some thoughts on the possible future development of such connections. Substantive parts of this publication have previously been released on my blog for comment (Robertson, 2010). <br />Institutions, openness and change<br />The growth of the Open Access movement is transforming how institutions view, manage, publish, and access their research outputs – irrespective of any local commitment to Open Access. Funding bodies often now that require publications based on publicly funded work are made openly available (University of Nottingham, 2010); often this requirement is fulfilled through the use of an institutional repository. Institutions are also exploring the value of making their research more visible and investigating what other benefits or possibilities arise through managing and making available their research outputs. <br />In a similar manner the growth of freely available learning materials from institutions around the world is, like Open Access, an opportunity, a challenge, and a potential catalyst for institutional change. It offers the institution an opportunity to showcase their courses to potential students, enhance the reputation and visibility of the university among its peers and the general public, be seen to providing value for any public funding they receive by making knowledge more accessible, and promote a more flexible pattern of learning for enrolled students. They also, however, present challenges as the process of providing OERs is not straightforward and it accelerates the shift from understanding a university as a place where one goes to receive knowledge to understanding a university as a context for a community of learning in which students construct knowledge and a context for a student experience in which good facilities, pedagogy, and accreditation combine. If a student can access resources from many universities to support their learning, the quality of what a single institution adds to that content is crucial.<br />Despite occasional protestations that self-archiving should be the norm, academic libraries play a vital role in the Open Access movement and often provide skills, training, advocacy and may manage the required infrastructure. They are playing a role in challenging pricing models for electronic resources and helping explore alternative models of publication through Open Access journals. This is not to say that Open Access is fully mature, nor to say that libraries have whole heartedly embraced it, but rather to make the point that libraries have played a significant role in helping Open Access move from a niche activity carried out by sections of the physics community to a more mainstream and institutionally embedded approach to scholarly publication.  Libraries are also beginning to play a role in the emerging world of Open Data and Open Science, but their involvement in the OER movement has thus far been limited, as has their involvement more generally in the management of learning materials. <br />Open educational resources and libraries<br />With a primary focus on research materials and textbooks, Libraries often don’t have very much to do with the management of teaching materials as such.  They may hold syllabi, and past exam papers and may offer materials supporting information literacy and research skills, but they often play a lesser role in the management of lecture notes, presentations, or formative assessment materials. Such materials are often held only by the lecturer, tutor, or department providing the course. Where they are available digitally they are often in virtual learning environments to which the library may not have access. Furthermore learning materials, where they are available, may be poorly integrated into the user’s view of library resources (Tony Hirst, 2009). There may be plenty of legitimate historical reasons for this divide but as the range of digitally available materials increases, and in particular as the range and number of OERs increase libraries have an opportunity to capitalise on their already important role in the student’s studies, the academic’s professional development, and institution’s public portfolio.<br />There are signs that librarians are beginning to engage with the Open Educational movement, most notably an ACRL Forum on the issue at a recent ALA Midwinter. In summarizing the panel’s views, Belliston (2009) states:<br />Librarians can help by contributing their own OERs to the commons; screening for, indexing, and archiving quality OERs; using OERs in their own teaching; and participating in discussions leading toward responsible intellectual property policies and useful standards.<br />This summary highlights some of the key ways in which librarians can begin to be involved, but, perhaps, fails to consider how librarians can engage in the wider issues around the creation of OERs and their use. It interacts with Open Education in a way that parallels (to a degree) how librarians interact with Open Access, without considering the different challenges educational resources offer and without yet considering the active role librarians can play in the initial description, management, and distribution of OERs, as well as in supporting their use. For example, In CETIS’s engagement with many of the institutional projects in Open Educational Resources programme we observed that many are engaging with their university libraries, not only to seek advice about resource description and the application of metadata standards but also to consider the long term role institutional repositories might play in managing these assets and the possible role of the library in the OER production workflow (an observation reflected to some degree by the survey results which follow).<br />How could libraries support OERs?<br />Although many academics in the releasing OERs have thus far had success making their learning materials available informally on personal websites or through tools like SlideShare or YouTube, the process is more complex for an institution – especially if it is considering how it might maximise the return on its investment in openness (whether that return be in terms of publicity, goodwill, efficiency, or an improved student experience). It is also not without cost: for example, both MIT and Oxford have taken the approach of developing production workflows around a centralised unit which is responsible for branding and checking rights (and may be considering how to offset this cost Parry, 2010).<br />Whichever way an institution chooses to approach sharing resources, the general failure of a Learning Object economy points to the need to develop less complex, more scalable and sustainable approaches to sharing OERs (Downes, 2002). Approaches to sharing and processes use need to be informed by an understanding  of resource description and metadata standards as they apply to the specific tools intended to disseminate the resources – whether that be a proprietary application (iTunesU), a generic search engine, a repository, or some combination of the above. Libraries can fill in parts of this picture – though library advice needs to be tempered with the context of learning materials and current working practices.<br />As the ACRL panel also outlines OERs become additional resources that subject librarians can reference in supporting students; they are also, however, a new form of resource which students need appropriate information literacy skills to assess (skills such as assessing the quality of the material, its origin, currency, and fit with the student’s current learning patterns) and they introduce (or will introduce) a new set of discovery tools for students and staff to be familiar with (such as Jorum – a national learning object repository in the UK, or aggregator services like OERCommons or DiscoverEd). <br />To review what has been discussed so far, it is suggested that libraries can offer advice to institutions, academic staff, and students as they engage with OERs in the following areas:<br />Metadata and resource description
Information management and resource dissemination
Digital or Information literacy (finding and evaluating OERs)
Subject-based guides to finding resources
Managing Intellectual Property Rights and promoting appropriate open licensing Having set out these possible points of contact between libraries and OER initiatives, it is worth considering the example of digital literacy in some more detail, before outlining briefly the results of a survey. <br />Digital Literacy<br />One of the ways in which libraries might be involved with OERs (and more widely in Open Education) would be through extending some of the work they already often do in the provision of information literacy classes to encompass supporting students in selecting and evaluating OERs. This isn’t to suggest a new thing called ‘OER Literacy’ but rather to place the discovery and use of OERs within an existing framework – as the skills needed to find and use OERs draw on a number of recognised skills relating to information literacy, to study skills, and the promotion of self-regulated learning. <br />The digital literacy skills required for OERs include:<br />Evaluating the resource
Where does the resource come from?
Who produced it?
Does it have use appropriate sources?
How current is it?
Is it coherent/ self-contained?
What cultural context does it assume?
What legal jurisdiction does it assume?

More Related Content

What's hot

The Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and Stewardship
The Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and StewardshipThe Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and Stewardship
The Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and Stewardship
Constance Malpas
 
Library Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trends
Library Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trendsLibrary Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trends
Library Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trends
Constance Malpas
 
Redefining the Academic Library
Redefining the Academic LibraryRedefining the Academic Library
Redefining the Academic Library
Ted Lin (林泰宏)
 
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Lynn Connaway
 
Academic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to research
Academic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to researchAcademic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to research
Academic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to research
Lynn Connaway
 
Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'
Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'     Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'
Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'
Academic & Special Libraries section (A&SL) of the Library Association of Ireland
 
The Evolving Collection and Shift to Open
The Evolving Collection and Shift to OpenThe Evolving Collection and Shift to Open
The Evolving Collection and Shift to Open
Lynn Connaway
 
Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011
Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011
Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011
mthomas123
 
Ebook usage-report-k12
Ebook usage-report-k12Ebook usage-report-k12
Ebook usage-report-k12
Ally
 
Finding value for the library
Finding value for the libraryFinding value for the library
Opal case study 50 cccoer canada
Opal case study 50 cccoer canadaOpal case study 50 cccoer canada
Opal case study 50 cccoer canada
OPAL2010
 
ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描
ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描
ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描
Ted Lin (林泰宏)
 
LIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDS
LIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDSLIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDS
LIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDS
Philippine Association of Academic/Research Librarians
 
Abstract harnessing the internet for authentic learning
Abstract   harnessing the internet for authentic learningAbstract   harnessing the internet for authentic learning
Abstract harnessing the internet for authentic learning
Abel Nyamapfene
 
Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...
Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...
Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...
IFLAAcademicandResea
 
New facets of library management
New facets of library managementNew facets of library management

What's hot (16)

The Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and Stewardship
The Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and StewardshipThe Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and Stewardship
The Evolving Scholarly Record: Scope, Stakeholders and Stewardship
 
Library Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trends
Library Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trendsLibrary Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trends
Library Roles in Research Information Management: some emerging trends
 
Redefining the Academic Library
Redefining the Academic LibraryRedefining the Academic Library
Redefining the Academic Library
 
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
 
Academic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to research
Academic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to researchAcademic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to research
Academic library impact: Improving practice and essential areas to research
 
Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'
Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'     Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'
Hugh Murphy & Michael Leigh '3d Printing @Maynooth Library'
 
The Evolving Collection and Shift to Open
The Evolving Collection and Shift to OpenThe Evolving Collection and Shift to Open
The Evolving Collection and Shift to Open
 
Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011
Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011
Getting to the Heart - Charleston Conf 2011
 
Ebook usage-report-k12
Ebook usage-report-k12Ebook usage-report-k12
Ebook usage-report-k12
 
Finding value for the library
Finding value for the libraryFinding value for the library
Finding value for the library
 
Opal case study 50 cccoer canada
Opal case study 50 cccoer canadaOpal case study 50 cccoer canada
Opal case study 50 cccoer canada
 
ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描
ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描
ACRL 2015年大學圖書館環境掃描
 
LIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDS
LIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDSLIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDS
LIBRARY COLLECTION MANAGERS IN HIGHER GROUNDS: WEIGHING THE ODDS
 
Abstract harnessing the internet for authentic learning
Abstract   harnessing the internet for authentic learningAbstract   harnessing the internet for authentic learning
Abstract harnessing the internet for authentic learning
 
Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...
Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...
Academic Libraries Engaging in Publishing: A Burgeoning Service Model in the ...
 
New facets of library management
New facets of library managementNew facets of library management
New facets of library management
 

Similar to What do academic libraries have to do with open educational resources

Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010
Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010
Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010
R. John Robertson
 
Reaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open Scholar
Reaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open ScholarReaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open Scholar
Reaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open Scholar
eLearning Papers
 
Resources on open textbooks
Resources on open textbooksResources on open textbooks
Resources on open textbooks
CSAPSubjectCentre
 
ARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstracts
ARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstractsARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstracts
ARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstracts
CILIP ARLG
 
Sip tel innovation report 1
Sip tel innovation report 1Sip tel innovation report 1
Sip tel innovation report 1
Tony Toole
 
Educause 7 things you should know about oer
Educause 7 things you should know about oerEducause 7 things you should know about oer
Educause 7 things you should know about oer
Dillard University Library
 
Innovations in E-Resources
Innovations in E-ResourcesInnovations in E-Resources
Innovations in E-Resources
Libraries Thriving
 
Open access projects and libraries
Open access projects and librariesOpen access projects and libraries
Open access projects and libraries
Iryna Kuchma
 
Faculty librarian partnership-in_information_age
Faculty librarian partnership-in_information_ageFaculty librarian partnership-in_information_age
Faculty librarian partnership-in_information_age
Sudesh Sood
 
Changing role of faculty librarians in open access
Changing role of faculty librarians in open accessChanging role of faculty librarians in open access
Changing role of faculty librarians in open access
Iryna Kuchma
 
Challenges and opportunities for academic libraries
Challenges and opportunities for academic librariesChallenges and opportunities for academic libraries
Challenges and opportunities for academic libraries
lisld
 
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
myspacelibrarian
 
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
myspacelibrarian
 
OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...
OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...
OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...
Liz Masterman
 
From Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open Pedagogy
From Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open PedagogyFrom Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open Pedagogy
From Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open Pedagogy
Regina Gong
 
Role of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid Hussain
Role of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid HussainRole of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid Hussain
Role of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid Hussain
Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI)
 
Opal case study 52 CCOT
Opal case study 52 CCOTOpal case study 52 CCOT
Opal case study 52 CCOT
OPAL2010
 
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
OCLC
 
Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...
Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...
Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...
CSAPSubjectCentre
 
Alevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentation
Alevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentationAlevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentation
Alevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentation
Open University
 

Similar to What do academic libraries have to do with open educational resources (20)

Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010
Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010
Academic libraries and OER? OpenEd2010
 
Reaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open Scholar
Reaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open ScholarReaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open Scholar
Reaching Out with OER: The New Role of Public-Facing Open Scholar
 
Resources on open textbooks
Resources on open textbooksResources on open textbooks
Resources on open textbooks
 
ARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstracts
ARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstractsARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstracts
ARLG 2014 conference workshop detail with abstracts
 
Sip tel innovation report 1
Sip tel innovation report 1Sip tel innovation report 1
Sip tel innovation report 1
 
Educause 7 things you should know about oer
Educause 7 things you should know about oerEducause 7 things you should know about oer
Educause 7 things you should know about oer
 
Innovations in E-Resources
Innovations in E-ResourcesInnovations in E-Resources
Innovations in E-Resources
 
Open access projects and libraries
Open access projects and librariesOpen access projects and libraries
Open access projects and libraries
 
Faculty librarian partnership-in_information_age
Faculty librarian partnership-in_information_ageFaculty librarian partnership-in_information_age
Faculty librarian partnership-in_information_age
 
Changing role of faculty librarians in open access
Changing role of faculty librarians in open accessChanging role of faculty librarians in open access
Changing role of faculty librarians in open access
 
Challenges and opportunities for academic libraries
Challenges and opportunities for academic librariesChallenges and opportunities for academic libraries
Challenges and opportunities for academic libraries
 
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
 
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
Moo cs and libraries bc faculty day 2014
 
OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...
OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...
OER 15 presentation: Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice in a Research Un...
 
From Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open Pedagogy
From Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open PedagogyFrom Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open Pedagogy
From Resources to Practice: Leveraging the Power of OER for Open Pedagogy
 
Role of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid Hussain
Role of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid HussainRole of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid Hussain
Role of librarians in faculty learning community by Abid Hussain
 
Opal case study 52 CCOT
Opal case study 52 CCOTOpal case study 52 CCOT
Opal case study 52 CCOT
 
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
Demonstrating the Value of Academic Libraries in Times of Uncertainty: A Rese...
 
Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...
Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...
Social research methods and open educational resources: a literature review (...
 
Alevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentation
Alevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentationAlevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentation
Alevizou MeCCSA 2010_presentation
 

More from R. John Robertson

Principles of Instructional Design
Principles of Instructional DesignPrinciples of Instructional Design
Principles of Instructional Design
R. John Robertson
 
Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...
Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...
Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...
R. John Robertson
 
LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...
LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...
LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...
R. John Robertson
 
LTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a year
LTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a yearLTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a year
LTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a year
R. John Robertson
 
From 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4online
From 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4onlineFrom 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4online
From 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4online
R. John Robertson
 
Osw Open Textbooks
Osw Open TextbooksOsw Open Textbooks
Osw Open Textbooks
R. John Robertson
 
Osw Moocs in your course
Osw Moocs in your courseOsw Moocs in your course
Osw Moocs in your course
R. John Robertson
 
Ltdc Open Badges Tech
Ltdc Open Badges TechLtdc Open Badges Tech
Ltdc Open Badges Tech
R. John Robertson
 
Osw Digital Humanities
Osw Digital HumanitiesOsw Digital Humanities
Osw Digital Humanities
R. John Robertson
 
University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...
University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...
University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...
R. John Robertson
 
Social media in education
Social media in educationSocial media in education
Social media in education
R. John Robertson
 
Eportfolios bus111v2 3
Eportfolios bus111v2 3Eportfolios bus111v2 3
Eportfolios bus111v2 3
R. John Robertson
 
Student engagement in online learning
Student engagement in online learningStudent engagement in online learning
Student engagement in online learning
R. John Robertson
 
EPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors Workshop
EPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors WorkshopEPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors Workshop
EPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors Workshop
R. John Robertson
 
UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012
UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012
UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012
R. John Robertson
 
UWOePortfoliopilot1
UWOePortfoliopilot1UWOePortfoliopilot1
UWOePortfoliopilot1
R. John Robertson
 
Openness as a catalyst for innovation in education
Openness as a catalyst for innovation in educationOpenness as a catalyst for innovation in education
Openness as a catalyst for innovation in education
R. John Robertson
 
Oer11 developing tech patterns
Oer11 developing tech patternsOer11 developing tech patterns
Oer11 developing tech patterns
R. John Robertson
 
Oer11 cathedral bazaar
Oer11 cathedral bazaarOer11 cathedral bazaar
Oer11 cathedral bazaar
R. John Robertson
 
How do I aggregate oers
How do I aggregate oersHow do I aggregate oers
How do I aggregate oers
R. John Robertson
 

More from R. John Robertson (20)

Principles of Instructional Design
Principles of Instructional DesignPrinciples of Instructional Design
Principles of Instructional Design
 
Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...
Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...
Reflecting evidence and integration: highlighting a spectrum of ePortfolio us...
 
LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...
LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...
LTDC: Professional networks, gin, and pretty pictures: social media communiti...
 
LTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a year
LTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a yearLTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a year
LTDC. Do or not do. Supporting ePortfolio adoption in a year
 
From 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4online
From 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4onlineFrom 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4online
From 80-1800, reflections on the process of ePortfolio adoption. Et4online
 
Osw Open Textbooks
Osw Open TextbooksOsw Open Textbooks
Osw Open Textbooks
 
Osw Moocs in your course
Osw Moocs in your courseOsw Moocs in your course
Osw Moocs in your course
 
Ltdc Open Badges Tech
Ltdc Open Badges TechLtdc Open Badges Tech
Ltdc Open Badges Tech
 
Osw Digital Humanities
Osw Digital HumanitiesOsw Digital Humanities
Osw Digital Humanities
 
University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...
University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...
University Studies: embedding High Impact Practices and ePortfolios at UW Osh...
 
Social media in education
Social media in educationSocial media in education
Social media in education
 
Eportfolios bus111v2 3
Eportfolios bus111v2 3Eportfolios bus111v2 3
Eportfolios bus111v2 3
 
Student engagement in online learning
Student engagement in online learningStudent engagement in online learning
Student engagement in online learning
 
EPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors Workshop
EPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors WorkshopEPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors Workshop
EPortfolio for Quest3: Instructors Workshop
 
UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012
UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012
UW Oshkosh ePortfolio Oct 2012
 
UWOePortfoliopilot1
UWOePortfoliopilot1UWOePortfoliopilot1
UWOePortfoliopilot1
 
Openness as a catalyst for innovation in education
Openness as a catalyst for innovation in educationOpenness as a catalyst for innovation in education
Openness as a catalyst for innovation in education
 
Oer11 developing tech patterns
Oer11 developing tech patternsOer11 developing tech patterns
Oer11 developing tech patterns
 
Oer11 cathedral bazaar
Oer11 cathedral bazaarOer11 cathedral bazaar
Oer11 cathedral bazaar
 
How do I aggregate oers
How do I aggregate oersHow do I aggregate oers
How do I aggregate oers
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
The Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdf
The Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdfThe Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdf
The Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdf
luzmilaglez334
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
HappieMontevirgenCas
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
Niranjan Bapat
 
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
artenzmartenkai
 
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfC# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdfThe Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
JackieSparrow3
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
NurFitriah45
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
MJDuyan
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
MJDuyan
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Abhik Roychoudhury
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
KlettWorldLanguages
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Celine George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
The Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdf
The Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdfThe Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdf
The Cruelty of Animal Testing in the Industry.pdf
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
 
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
 
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfC# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
 
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdfThe Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
(T.L.E.) Agriculture: Essentials of Gardening
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
 
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On FacebookOdoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
Odoo 17 Social Marketing - Lead Generation On Facebook
 

What do academic libraries have to do with open educational resources

  • 1. This work is licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.<br />What do academic libraries have to do with Open Educational Resources?Theme: Long term sustainability of open education projectsR. John Robertson, <br />CETIS (Centre for Educational Technology and Interoperability Standards) <br />Centre for Academic Practice and Learning Enhancement<br />University of Strathclyde<br />50 George Street<br />G1 1QE<br />United Kingdom<br />robert.robertson@strath.ac.uk<br />Biography<br />John works for CETIS (Centre for Educational Technology and Interoperability Standards) - one of the Innovation Support Centres funded by JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) to: represent Further and Higher Education in the development of relevant standards and specifications, nurture relevant developer communities and innovation, and provide guidance and support for JISC development programmes. John currently supports JISC’s work in Open Educational Resources. A librarian by training, his professional background is in development and support projects around the management of digital assets, repositories, digital libraries, and metadata; he also has an ongoing interest in the role of community and personal formation in education.<br />Abstract<br />This paper will discuss the possible roles of academic libraries in promoting, supporting, and sustaining institutional Open Educational Resource initiatives. It will note areas in which libraries or librarians have skills and knowledge that intersect with some of the needs of academic staff and students as they use and release OERs. It will also present the results of a brief survey of the views of some OER initiatives on the current and potential role of academic libraries.<br />Keywords<br />OER; Libraries; UKOER; Open Education; Universities<br />Introduction<br />Open Education and Open Educational Resource (OER) initiatives looking at the release and use of open educational content are related efforts at different stages of maturity which are attempting to find operating models that will allow them to be both sustainable and scalable. There are a number of possible models which could be developed some, but not all, of which assume a role for universities and related academic institutions. This paper will focus on the current and possible roles of academic libraries in support of the release and use of OERs. As such it assumes some ongoing role for institutions in OER and Open Education initiatives. There are related possibilities for other types of libraries but they are outside the immediate scope of the paper.<br />Last year JISC and the Higher Education Academy ran the UK Open Educational Resources programme a major pilot programme to explore different approaches to embedding of the release of OERs and this year a second programme is underway. In the context of my role providing support and guidance to these programmes I have wondered about the possible role of libraries in embedding and sustaining some of the efforts around OERs, what follows is an exploration of possible points of contact between OER initiatives and academic libraries, some very brief illustrations of these connections from the UKOER programme, an initial discussion of the results of survey about this topic, and some thoughts on the possible future development of such connections. Substantive parts of this publication have previously been released on my blog for comment (Robertson, 2010). <br />Institutions, openness and change<br />The growth of the Open Access movement is transforming how institutions view, manage, publish, and access their research outputs – irrespective of any local commitment to Open Access. Funding bodies often now that require publications based on publicly funded work are made openly available (University of Nottingham, 2010); often this requirement is fulfilled through the use of an institutional repository. Institutions are also exploring the value of making their research more visible and investigating what other benefits or possibilities arise through managing and making available their research outputs. <br />In a similar manner the growth of freely available learning materials from institutions around the world is, like Open Access, an opportunity, a challenge, and a potential catalyst for institutional change. It offers the institution an opportunity to showcase their courses to potential students, enhance the reputation and visibility of the university among its peers and the general public, be seen to providing value for any public funding they receive by making knowledge more accessible, and promote a more flexible pattern of learning for enrolled students. They also, however, present challenges as the process of providing OERs is not straightforward and it accelerates the shift from understanding a university as a place where one goes to receive knowledge to understanding a university as a context for a community of learning in which students construct knowledge and a context for a student experience in which good facilities, pedagogy, and accreditation combine. If a student can access resources from many universities to support their learning, the quality of what a single institution adds to that content is crucial.<br />Despite occasional protestations that self-archiving should be the norm, academic libraries play a vital role in the Open Access movement and often provide skills, training, advocacy and may manage the required infrastructure. They are playing a role in challenging pricing models for electronic resources and helping explore alternative models of publication through Open Access journals. This is not to say that Open Access is fully mature, nor to say that libraries have whole heartedly embraced it, but rather to make the point that libraries have played a significant role in helping Open Access move from a niche activity carried out by sections of the physics community to a more mainstream and institutionally embedded approach to scholarly publication. Libraries are also beginning to play a role in the emerging world of Open Data and Open Science, but their involvement in the OER movement has thus far been limited, as has their involvement more generally in the management of learning materials. <br />Open educational resources and libraries<br />With a primary focus on research materials and textbooks, Libraries often don’t have very much to do with the management of teaching materials as such. They may hold syllabi, and past exam papers and may offer materials supporting information literacy and research skills, but they often play a lesser role in the management of lecture notes, presentations, or formative assessment materials. Such materials are often held only by the lecturer, tutor, or department providing the course. Where they are available digitally they are often in virtual learning environments to which the library may not have access. Furthermore learning materials, where they are available, may be poorly integrated into the user’s view of library resources (Tony Hirst, 2009). There may be plenty of legitimate historical reasons for this divide but as the range of digitally available materials increases, and in particular as the range and number of OERs increase libraries have an opportunity to capitalise on their already important role in the student’s studies, the academic’s professional development, and institution’s public portfolio.<br />There are signs that librarians are beginning to engage with the Open Educational movement, most notably an ACRL Forum on the issue at a recent ALA Midwinter. In summarizing the panel’s views, Belliston (2009) states:<br />Librarians can help by contributing their own OERs to the commons; screening for, indexing, and archiving quality OERs; using OERs in their own teaching; and participating in discussions leading toward responsible intellectual property policies and useful standards.<br />This summary highlights some of the key ways in which librarians can begin to be involved, but, perhaps, fails to consider how librarians can engage in the wider issues around the creation of OERs and their use. It interacts with Open Education in a way that parallels (to a degree) how librarians interact with Open Access, without considering the different challenges educational resources offer and without yet considering the active role librarians can play in the initial description, management, and distribution of OERs, as well as in supporting their use. For example, In CETIS’s engagement with many of the institutional projects in Open Educational Resources programme we observed that many are engaging with their university libraries, not only to seek advice about resource description and the application of metadata standards but also to consider the long term role institutional repositories might play in managing these assets and the possible role of the library in the OER production workflow (an observation reflected to some degree by the survey results which follow).<br />How could libraries support OERs?<br />Although many academics in the releasing OERs have thus far had success making their learning materials available informally on personal websites or through tools like SlideShare or YouTube, the process is more complex for an institution – especially if it is considering how it might maximise the return on its investment in openness (whether that return be in terms of publicity, goodwill, efficiency, or an improved student experience). It is also not without cost: for example, both MIT and Oxford have taken the approach of developing production workflows around a centralised unit which is responsible for branding and checking rights (and may be considering how to offset this cost Parry, 2010).<br />Whichever way an institution chooses to approach sharing resources, the general failure of a Learning Object economy points to the need to develop less complex, more scalable and sustainable approaches to sharing OERs (Downes, 2002). Approaches to sharing and processes use need to be informed by an understanding of resource description and metadata standards as they apply to the specific tools intended to disseminate the resources – whether that be a proprietary application (iTunesU), a generic search engine, a repository, or some combination of the above. Libraries can fill in parts of this picture – though library advice needs to be tempered with the context of learning materials and current working practices.<br />As the ACRL panel also outlines OERs become additional resources that subject librarians can reference in supporting students; they are also, however, a new form of resource which students need appropriate information literacy skills to assess (skills such as assessing the quality of the material, its origin, currency, and fit with the student’s current learning patterns) and they introduce (or will introduce) a new set of discovery tools for students and staff to be familiar with (such as Jorum – a national learning object repository in the UK, or aggregator services like OERCommons or DiscoverEd). <br />To review what has been discussed so far, it is suggested that libraries can offer advice to institutions, academic staff, and students as they engage with OERs in the following areas:<br />Metadata and resource description
  • 2. Information management and resource dissemination
  • 3. Digital or Information literacy (finding and evaluating OERs)
  • 4. Subject-based guides to finding resources
  • 5. Managing Intellectual Property Rights and promoting appropriate open licensing Having set out these possible points of contact between libraries and OER initiatives, it is worth considering the example of digital literacy in some more detail, before outlining briefly the results of a survey. <br />Digital Literacy<br />One of the ways in which libraries might be involved with OERs (and more widely in Open Education) would be through extending some of the work they already often do in the provision of information literacy classes to encompass supporting students in selecting and evaluating OERs. This isn’t to suggest a new thing called ‘OER Literacy’ but rather to place the discovery and use of OERs within an existing framework – as the skills needed to find and use OERs draw on a number of recognised skills relating to information literacy, to study skills, and the promotion of self-regulated learning. <br />The digital literacy skills required for OERs include:<br />Evaluating the resource
  • 6. Where does the resource come from?
  • 8. Does it have use appropriate sources?
  • 10. Is it coherent/ self-contained?
  • 11. What cultural context does it assume?
  • 12. What legal jurisdiction does it assume?
  • 13. Is it specific to any given accreditation process?
  • 14. What can I do with resource?
  • 15. Are there any licence restrictions?
  • 16. Is the resource format suitable for adaptation?
  • 17. Resources assumed to use the resource
  • 18. Does it require access to particular digital resources (course readings)?
  • 19. Does it require access to particular software
  • 20. Does it require access to particular tools/ infrastructure?
  • 21. Type of interaction assumed by the resource
  • 22. Does it assume any particular type of interaction (group work?)
  • 23. Does it assume any form of online interaction/ community?
  • 24. Does it assume expert assistance?
  • 25. How does it fit with my patterns of learning?Some of this information addresses the types of question which heavyweight elearning metadata standards tried to capture and to universally abstract into metadata. Even when implemented properly, the actual use of such standards is often erratic – however, all the careful reflection that went into creating such standards does highlight that there is a need to ask that type of question of a resource when we go to use it. The burden of understanding is though, not in cataloguing and metadata but rather in the digital literacy skills of the student or lecturer. <br />It should be noted that there are other skillsets involved as well - OER require more than information literacy to use. Discovering, selecting, and using OERs should, on some level, also consider with the design of materials and required study skills. These ‘literacies’ are probably covered by study skills courses offered by teaching and learning support services. Consequently supporting the use of OERs becomes an area in which libraries and teaching and learning centres collaborate in supporting students and academic staff (On a related note, the Solstice Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at Edge Hill University has developed an Open Content Literacy Framework for those seeking to release OERs based on the work of the ReForm project: http://www.edgehill.ac.uk/solstice/docs/OpenContentLiteracy.pdf <br />Investigating library involvement<br />I’ve proposed that academic libraries have a role to play in embedding sustainable OER initiatives and I’m planning to explore this more fully in the coming year but, as part of developing this paper and in collaboration with Open.Michigan, I carried out a brief survey this summer targeted at OER projects and initiatives. The anonymised data is available: https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AuN3UUVNPUJ1dEdkY0k0dU9kRG9PMHpLYTBsUGtoRnc&hl=en <br />Audience<br />The survey was designed for those involved in OER initiatives and it initially went out to a number of specific email lists, but was subsequently tweeted more widely. One consequence of this was that as time progressed there was a marked increase in the number of incomplete responses; at the time of data analysis there were 37 incompletes for 36 complete ( incomplete results excluded from the results that follow) .<br />The responses were predominantly from the United Kingdom (13) and United States (12) but as illustrated in Figure 1 a broader geographic coverage was achieved. The organisations involved were predominantly from higher education (86%) and included four university libraries. The full range of organisations is shown in Figure 2. The Educational Initiatives noted are Higher Education Academy Subject Centres. The responses from both an Open Access publisher and Company developing software connected to OERs highlight that any discussion of OER initiatives will need to consider a wide range of participants who are contributing to the process of embedding. <br />53% of respondents were based in libraries and were librarians; there were no responses from non-librarians in libraries or librarians not in libraries. Given the dissemination channels this survey went through this was a higher number of librarians than expected. <br />In considering the respondents involvement in OER initiatives there was also a good range of types of involvement. Figure 3 shows the results (respondents could choose multiple answers; three skipped this question). Just under 2/5 of the respondents were involved in project-based OER initiatives (nine of whom were from the UKOER programme), so the results reflect a wider view than purely project-based attitudes.<br />Viewpoints<br />The survey considered four further questions to gather information about respondents views; a set of three questions addressing the degree of involvement of libraries and librarians and a more complex grid of potential or actual types of involvement.<br />In considering how involved libraries are in the release of OERs (Figure 4 below) there is a broad distribution of involvement from leading initiatives to probably not being aware of them. The neutral answer was chosen by the most respondents (10; supporting OER as institutional effort but especially not involved) but 12 respondents indicated active library partnership of some form (and 12 indicated little library support). Allowing for the 2 skips this is a little more than a third of respondents with active library involvement in the release of OERs.<br />Figure 5 considers the library’s role in the use of OERs and Figure 6 considers the role of individual librarians in the use of OERs. Both sets of results are dominated by support for OERs in so much as for other digital resources and in both cases this answer was chosen by around half the respondents. This raises an interesting question – is it enough to support the use of OERs in the same way as other resources or do users need OER specific support – the discussion of digital literacy above has suggested that they might need additional support but the results of this survey suggest this isn’t (yet?) happening in practice. One difference between the results for libraries and those for librarians are the secondary choices – there is a lack of engagement with OERs recorded in the library results but more engagement recorded for individual librarians. These results may indicate that the view proposed earlier that libraries don’t have much to do with the management of teaching materials has some validity. It also indicates a degree of involvement by individual librarians that could indicate some ‘early adopters’ and the beginning of a wider involvement in supporting OERs or it may reflect a niche interest – hopefully the former.<br />The final survey question (aside from comments and feedback) was a grid asking respondents to comment on a number of potential ways in which libraries might be involved in OER initiatives. It asked respondents to identify which of these areas they were working in, which they thought libraries could be involved in, and which they knew of actual library involvement in. As illustrated in Figure 7 the proportions of the results a pattern that might be expected from the previous answers – with much less actual library involvement than possible involvement or areas of work by the responding OER initiative. It should be noted the format (chosen to reduce repetition) caused some confusion- respondents treated the actual and possible columns as mutually exclusive. Looking at the results for possible library involvement there is a clear expectation that libraries could support tagging and metadata, identify and index quality OERs, and more generally support discovery and use of OERs by academic staff and students. Figure 8 is an overview of just the responses about actual library involvement. For any given activity the identified involvement ranges from 2 out of 32 to 10 out of 32 responses. There was most library involvement in the provision of IPR guidance, and least involvement in identifying and indexing quality OERs and in providing guidance about metadata. The lack of library involvement in these two areas fits to an extent with the survey participants being established OER projects who would have had to put in place ways to address these issues prior to any library involvement. The wider question about a library role in helping with IPR is perhaps a question of sustainability rather than necessity, and may depend on the exisiting university provision for such matters.<br />Conclusions<br />There are indentified points of contact between libraries and OER initiatives and ways in which they could collaborate to better support academic staff and students. This paper has sought to sketch out some ideas and report on a preliminary survey exploring the views and practice of OER initiatives in this area. It is clearly only the first stages of any investigation into the roles of libraries and there are some critical questions, outside the scope of this study, around the compatibility of teaching and library cultures and the differences in how teaching materials are found and used that would need to shape that future work. The survey results as they stand, however, demonstrate that there is some library involvement in OER initiatives and common areas of interest that a greater role for libraries is one route that could be explored in making OER initiatives more sustainable.<br />Bibliography<br />Belliston, C. Jeffrey. Open Educational Resources: Creating the instruction commons C&RL News, May 2009 Vol. 70, No. 5 http://tinyurl.com/yhoezak <br />Downes, Stephen. (2002) The Learning Object Economy http://www.slideshare.net/Downes/the-learning-object-economy <br />Hirst, Tony. (2009) ouseful.info, the blog ‘Open Educational Resources and the Library Website’ August 10th 2009 http://tinyurl.com/yfkzq8g <br />Parry, Marc. (2010) “MIT Looks to Make Money Online, but Not With an OpenCourseWare Paywall” The Chronicle of Higher Education http://chronicle.com/blogPost/MIT-Looks-to-Make-Money/26958/<br />Robertson, R. John. (2010) Libraries, Institutions, and Open Educational Resources: Possible Connections? http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/johnr/2010/03/17/librariesandoers/<br />Robertson, R. John. (2010) OER Literacies? http://blogs.cetis.ac.uk/johnr/2010/03/18/oer-literacies/<br />University of Nottingham. (2010) Sherpa Juliet – Research Funders Open Access Policies http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/juliet/ <br />Figures<br />Figure 1 Survey respondents by country<br />Figure 2 Survey respondents by organisation type<br />Figure 3 Types of Involvement in OER Initiatives<br />Figure 4 involvement of the library in OER release<br />Figure 5 Involvement of the library in OER use<br />Figure 6 Involvement of individual librarians in the use of OERs<br />Figure 7 Library roles<br />Figure SEQ Figure ARABIC 8 Actual library involvement<br />