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Whanau Connections At Work And Home and Whanau Support: A 3-Way Interaction Study of Maori Employees Associate Professor Jarrod HaarUniversity of Waikato &Maree Roche, WinTec
AcknowledgementThis research was funded by a Marsden Grant “The Role of Maori Cultural Support for Employees and Employers” (X957)
Maori in New ZealandNew Zealand is typically considered a Western and individualistic society, while Maori the indigenous population, who live alongside European New Zealanders, are predominately centered on collectivistic beliefs.Maori - collectivist beliefs.TikangaWhakapapaWhanauWhakawhanaungatanga
Maori EmployeesMaori make up 14.6% of the population and around 13% of the workforce. Maori work income is 22% lower than Europeans March 2010: 14.2% unemployment rate for Maori compared to 4.4% for Europeans only  (a 323% difference!!)Maori also over-represented in mental health: highest levels of anxiety and depressionCultural renaissance, with 24% of Maori able to hold an everyday conversation in Te Reo Maori (Maori language)
WhanauWhanau is not a simple ‘alternative’ term for the nuclear family. Whanau may include intergenerational, extended family structures, possible foster-relationships and other family and community connections and obligationsWhanau is a crucial concept for Maori because choices and decision-making processes focus around the implications of these towards whanau   Therefore, whanau are given priority in deciding what action to take, with  benefits to the whole whanau rather than just some individuals
Working with WhanauThis paper explores whanau connectedness as a measure of exploring Maori employee’s relationships with their whanau in the workplaceConnections through sharing work, interactions, and stories, regarding both work and home issues, with whanau are likely to build confidence and satisfaction amongst Maori employees such that their wellbeing is enhanced. “Weekend effect” as a benefit towards well-being. Why? Interacting with family…Hence the potential benefits for Maori
HypothesesDirect Effects:Higher whanau connections will be related to higher (1) life satisfaction and (2) career satisfactionHigher whanau connections will be related to lower (3) stressPotential moderating effect:Whanau supportwhanau connections (work and family)3-way interaction btwn whanau connections (work and family) & whanau support
MethodData were collected from 13 NZ organizations in the same regional location (high population of Maori employees). From 304 Maori employees, a total of 192 responded to surveys 1 (predictors) & 2 (outcomes, for a 63.2% response rate. On average, the participants were 38.8 years old, married (73%), parents (77%) and male (55%), working 38.3 hours per week and had tenure of 3.9 years. By education levels, 18.3% held high school qualifications, 39.3% held a technical college qualification, 35.1% held a university degree, and 7.3% had a graduate qualification. Compared to the NZ Maori population, the levels of degree and postgraduate qualifications are over represented.
Exploratory Factor Analysis
Results: Life Sat
Results: Career Sat
Results: Stress
3-Way Interaction: Career Satisfaction
3-Way Interaction: Stress
DiscussionMeasure of whanau connections split between work and homeWhanau connections had distinct influences on outcomes (work towards life sat, and home towards career sat & stress)Accounted for modest amounts of variance towards stress, but large towards satisfactionWhanau support important direct influence, especially towards career satisfaction
Discussion3-way interactions supported Towards career sat: highest benefits for high whanau work & home connections and high whanau support and least benefits those with low connections and supportTowards stress: highest benefits [lowest stress] when high whanau home connections & low/high whanau work connections and high whanau support and least benefits those with low connections and support
Limitations & ConclusionsLimitations: cross-sectional data  But, data collected at two time periods ([1] predictors & [2] outcomes)Narrow number of Maori organizations – further studies extending data collection…Further testing of whanau connections measure needed and the role of whanau supportConclusion: working with whanau is beneficial for Maori employees, especially towards life and career satisfaction. Furthermore, support from whanau is important directly and indirectly!

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Whanau connectedness prez, Jarrod Haar

  • 1. Whanau Connections At Work And Home and Whanau Support: A 3-Way Interaction Study of Maori Employees Associate Professor Jarrod HaarUniversity of Waikato &Maree Roche, WinTec
  • 2. AcknowledgementThis research was funded by a Marsden Grant “The Role of Maori Cultural Support for Employees and Employers” (X957)
  • 3. Maori in New ZealandNew Zealand is typically considered a Western and individualistic society, while Maori the indigenous population, who live alongside European New Zealanders, are predominately centered on collectivistic beliefs.Maori - collectivist beliefs.TikangaWhakapapaWhanauWhakawhanaungatanga
  • 4. Maori EmployeesMaori make up 14.6% of the population and around 13% of the workforce. Maori work income is 22% lower than Europeans March 2010: 14.2% unemployment rate for Maori compared to 4.4% for Europeans only (a 323% difference!!)Maori also over-represented in mental health: highest levels of anxiety and depressionCultural renaissance, with 24% of Maori able to hold an everyday conversation in Te Reo Maori (Maori language)
  • 5. WhanauWhanau is not a simple ‘alternative’ term for the nuclear family. Whanau may include intergenerational, extended family structures, possible foster-relationships and other family and community connections and obligationsWhanau is a crucial concept for Maori because choices and decision-making processes focus around the implications of these towards whanau Therefore, whanau are given priority in deciding what action to take, with benefits to the whole whanau rather than just some individuals
  • 6. Working with WhanauThis paper explores whanau connectedness as a measure of exploring Maori employee’s relationships with their whanau in the workplaceConnections through sharing work, interactions, and stories, regarding both work and home issues, with whanau are likely to build confidence and satisfaction amongst Maori employees such that their wellbeing is enhanced. “Weekend effect” as a benefit towards well-being. Why? Interacting with family…Hence the potential benefits for Maori
  • 7. HypothesesDirect Effects:Higher whanau connections will be related to higher (1) life satisfaction and (2) career satisfactionHigher whanau connections will be related to lower (3) stressPotential moderating effect:Whanau supportwhanau connections (work and family)3-way interaction btwn whanau connections (work and family) & whanau support
  • 8. MethodData were collected from 13 NZ organizations in the same regional location (high population of Maori employees). From 304 Maori employees, a total of 192 responded to surveys 1 (predictors) & 2 (outcomes, for a 63.2% response rate. On average, the participants were 38.8 years old, married (73%), parents (77%) and male (55%), working 38.3 hours per week and had tenure of 3.9 years. By education levels, 18.3% held high school qualifications, 39.3% held a technical college qualification, 35.1% held a university degree, and 7.3% had a graduate qualification. Compared to the NZ Maori population, the levels of degree and postgraduate qualifications are over represented.
  • 15. DiscussionMeasure of whanau connections split between work and homeWhanau connections had distinct influences on outcomes (work towards life sat, and home towards career sat & stress)Accounted for modest amounts of variance towards stress, but large towards satisfactionWhanau support important direct influence, especially towards career satisfaction
  • 16. Discussion3-way interactions supported Towards career sat: highest benefits for high whanau work & home connections and high whanau support and least benefits those with low connections and supportTowards stress: highest benefits [lowest stress] when high whanau home connections & low/high whanau work connections and high whanau support and least benefits those with low connections and support
  • 17. Limitations & ConclusionsLimitations: cross-sectional data  But, data collected at two time periods ([1] predictors & [2] outcomes)Narrow number of Maori organizations – further studies extending data collection…Further testing of whanau connections measure needed and the role of whanau supportConclusion: working with whanau is beneficial for Maori employees, especially towards life and career satisfaction. Furthermore, support from whanau is important directly and indirectly!

Editor's Notes

  1. Te Aro Maori (the Maori world), and recognising and valuing Maori Tikanga (customs) and traditions (Harris 2007; Walker 2006). Two significant aspects for Maori are (1) whakapapa and (2) whanau. Whakapapa includes being able to relate to people with whom a common ancestry is shared and relates to maintaining this sense of shared history and community. Whakapapa includes the notion of valuing shared ancestry and how thiscommunity share a common home (marae) as the symbolic place/home for family and ancestors. Mihi and Maoridom
  2. Two significant aspects for Maori are (1) whakapapa and (2) whanau. Whakapapa includes being able to relate to people with whom a common ancestry is shared and relates to maintaining this sense of shared history and community. Whakapapa includes the notion of valuing shared ancestry and how thiscommunity share a common home (marae) as the symbolic place/home for family and ancestors.  Whanau relates to the extended, intergenerational family, and is a crucial concept for Maori because choices and decision-making processes can focus around the implications of these towards whanau. Consequently, these ‘family bonds’ are given priority over all other considerations in deciding what action to take, with whanau discussions focusing on benefits to the whole whanau rather than just some individuals. For example, Harris (2007) acknowledged that career choices for Maori employees can be made at the whanau level. Furthermore, critics note that whanau is not a simple ‘alternative’ term for the nuclear family, as this fails to recognise the vastly different structure for Maori and importance of whanau, which may include intergenerational family structures, possible foster-relationships and other family and community connections and obligations (Edwards, McCreanor & Moewaka-Barnes 2007; Metge 1990). Given the embedded nature of traditional cultural values for Maori, the role of traditions, custom and values are likely to be significant for understanding indigenous workers wellbeing (Csikszentmihalyi 2009). The present study tests the relationship of working with whanau amongst Maori employees, .For example, Harris (2007) acknowledged that career choices for Maori employees can be made at the whanau level . 
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  4. Purposeful sampling due to NZ Maori making up only 13% of the workforce – hence, selected a region with high concentration and 11 orgs with high Maori workforce
  5. Purposeful sampling due to NZ Maori making up only 13% of the workforce – hence, selected a region with high concentration and 11 orgs with high Maori workforce
  6. Purposeful sampling due to NZ Maori making up only 13% of the workforce – hence, selected a region with high concentration and 11 orgs with high Maori workforce
  7. Purposeful sampling due to NZ Maori making up only 13% of the workforce – hence, selected a region with high concentration and 11 orgs with high Maori workforce
  8. Purposeful sampling due to NZ Maori making up only 13% of the workforce – hence, selected a region with high concentration and 11 orgs with high Maori workforce