SlideShare a Scribd company logo
The Website Manager’s Handbook




The Website Manager’s Handbook
This document contains an abridged extract from “Chapter 2: Website
Maintenance” of The Website Manager’s Handbook by Shane Diffily.

The Website Manager’s Handbook gives you
a practical model for the management and
maintenance of your website or intranet.
Through it you can learn about all the
processes, people, technology and other
resources you need to manage a successful
site.

Join the hundreds of web professionals
and universities who rely on The Website Manager’s Handbook for
advice about online operations.

Visit www.diffily.com/book for more.

The Website Manager’s Handbook
ISBN: 978-1-4116-8529-1
© Copyright Shane Diffily


Praise for The Website Manager’s Handbook

"Very clear and well written…a lot of practical depth…I'm sure that
someone managing—particularly a large website—would find it
genuinely useful to help them think through the key issues in website
management."
Gerry McGovern. Author of Content Critical.




                                                                         i
Table of Contents
What is Website Maintenance?..........................................1
                      Website Maintenance Team ........................................... 2
                      How many staff you need ............................................... 2

Activity 1 Website Publishing .................................................................... 7
                      Website Publishing Team ............................................... 7
                      Website Publishing Process ......................................... 10
                      Publishing Resources ................................................... 11

Activity 2 Website Quality Assurance ..................................................... 13
                      Data Collection.............................................................. 13

Activity 3 Website Feedback Monitoring ................................................. 15

Activity 4 Website Performance Monitoring ............................................ 19
                      Website Activity............................................................. 19
                      Subscriber/Sponsor Opinions ....................................... 21

Activity 5 Website Infrastructure Performance Monitoring...................... 22
                      Technical Support Team............................................... 22

Activity 6 Website Change Control ......................................................... 25
                      Change Control Process............................................... 25




ii
The Website Manager’s Handbook




What is Website Maintenance?
Website Maintenance comprises all the activities needed to ensure the
operational integrity of your website or intranet. In other words, it is
about doing all the things needed to make sure your site runs smoothly
and according to plan.

The activities from which Website Maintenance is composed are:

   •   Website Publishing: To keep content up-to-date.

   •   Website Quality Assurance: To spot errors on a site.

   •   Website Feedback Monitoring: To manage communication with
       website visitors.

   •   Website Performance Monitoring: To measure success.

   •   Website Infrastructure Monitoring: To supervise hosting.

   •   Change Control: To manage technical and other changes in a co-
       ordinated way.

These activities are usually carried out by members of a Website
Maintenance Team.




                                                                        1
Website Maintenance




Website Maintenance Team
A Website Maintenance Team is responsible for expediting the tasks of
site maintenance.

The variety of roles on such a team is usually quite broad and may
include the following:

    •   Website Maintenance Team Leader

    •   Publishing Representative (Editor)

    •   Quality Assurance Representative

    •   Feedback Monitoring Representative

    •   Website Performance Representative

    •   Infrastructure Monitoring Representative

    •   Change Control Representative

It is worth bearing in mind that if your site is small, you may not have to
allocate one person for each activity. Instead, you could combine several
roles together.

For example, an Editor could also act as a Team Leader, as well as look
after Quality Assurance or Feedback Monitoring.

Yet, even such small teams must still have all necessary skills
represented. This is because each one is vital for maintaining a quality
web presence.



How many staff you need
A useful device for deciding the number of people you need for your
maintenance team is ‘Website Scale’.




2
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Figure 1. The Website Maintenance Team.


Website Scale is a means of classifying a site in terms of three parameters:

    •    Size

    •    Complexity

    •    Levels of activity

Any site can be represented in this way—from a small, plain text website
to a massive corporate intranet.




                                                                           3
Website Maintenance



Website Size
A website’s size is an estimate of the total man-hours required to produce
and maintain all the content that it contains. This can then be used to
calculate the number of people required for support—particularly the
activities of Website Publishing and Quality Assurance.


Small Website              Content Man Hours per Annum : 1,500–4,000

                           Staffing Levels for Content Publishing and Quality
                           Assurance: About 1–2 people.

Medium Website             Content Man Hours per Annum : 4,000–10,000

                           Staffing Levels for Content Publishing and Quality
                           Assurance: About 2-3 people.

Large Website              Content Man Hours per Annum : 10,000+

                           Staffing Levels for Content Publishing and Quality
                           Assurance: From 2-3 people upwards.

Figure 2. The three levels of Website Size.



Website Complexity
Complexity is a function of the intricacy of the technology used to
develop a site. There are three levels of website complexity:


Basic Website

Such ‘brochureware’ sites simply contain plain text with perhaps a few
supporting images and downloads, e.g. PDFs.


Dynamic Website

On a Dynamic site content is stored in a database and published
according to the requirements of site visitors. Some also offer basic
interactive services, e.g. Discussion Forums.




4
The Website Manager’s Handbook



Transactional Website

A Transactional website is one that uses the internet for facilitating
business operations or generating revenue. Sites of this type rely on
databases and other advanced technology for collecting and processing
orders.

Some indicative figures for the staffing of a Technical Team are indicated
in the following table:


Basic Website             Content: Plain content (HTML/XHTML).

                          Staffing Level for Infrastructure Monitoring and
                          Change Control: 1 person (for a small to medium sized
                          site).

Dynamic Website           Content: Dynamically generated from a database.

                          Staffing Level for Infrastructure Monitoring and
                          Change Control: 1 or 2 people (or more on a very large or
                          busy site).

Transactional             Content: Fully transactional content, e.g. eCommerce.
Website
                          Staffing Level for Infrastructure Monitoring and
                          Change Control: From 1 or 2 people upwards (many
                          more on a large or busy site).

Figure 3. The three levels of Website Complexity.



Website Activity
Website Activity is a measure of the traffic experienced by a site, e.g.
Page Impressions, Visitors, Visits, etc. A website with heavy activity is
unlikely to function properly without a full complement of maintenance
personnel.

A Busy site that is also Large in size and Transactional in nature may
need dozens of staff to keep it going.




                                                                                  5
Website Maintenance



Quiet Website            Page Impressions: 0–100,000 a month

                         Total Team Staffing: Between 1 and 3 people.

Intermediate             Page Impressions: 100,000–1,000,000 a month.
Website
                         Total Team Staffing: About 2-3 people.

Busy Website             Page Impressions: 1,000,000+ a month.

                         Total Team Staffing: From 3 people upwards (many more
                         on a very busy Transactional site).

Figure 4. The three levels of Website Activity.




6
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Activity 1
Website Publishing
There is no point in having great information online if you have no
mechanism for looking after it. As we will now see, a good system of this
type must be built on the twin pillars of a well resourced team and an
orderly process.



Website Publishing Team
A Publishing Team is the group of people responsible for managing the
lifecycle of online content. Such a team is typically composed of an Editor
and representatives from each major areas of publishing activity,
including:

    •   Content Contributors

    •   Designer

    •   Developer

    •   Moderator

    •   Legal Reviewer



                                                                          7
Website Maintenance




Figure 5. The Website Publishing Team.



Website Editor
A Website Editor is answerable for everything that is published on a site,
e.g. accuracy of information, suitability of images, etc. The core activities
for which she is accountable are concerned with the lifecycle of content,
such as:

    •      Reviewing and editing work-in-progress

    •      Maintaining existing content

    •      Responding to user comments about existing content

    •      Planning and commissioning new content




8
The Website Manager’s Handbook



To co-ordinate these activities the Editor may convene a regular Website
Publishing Meeting at which everyone involved in the creation, review
and approval of online content is gathered.


Content Contributor
Content Contributors are commissioned to produce new features or
update existing content for a website, based on the requirements of a
Publishing Schedule. Ideally, Contributors should be experienced
professionals (e.g. journalists) who have been specially recruited for their
skills.


Moderator
A Moderator is responsible for the regulation of User Generated Content,
e.g. wikis, discussion forums, user contributed video or imagery, etc.
Websites with vulnerable audiences (e.g. children) need particularly
detailed oversight.


Legal Reviewer
The role of a Legal Reviewer is to ensure that all content intended for
publication on the web is in compliance with the law (and any other
regulations or policies). In a small organisation where no legal
department exists, the Editor may adopt this function.


Designer
The role of a Designer is to find the optimum solution for the visual and
interactive presentation of content on the web. Designers usually work
closely with Content Contributors, Developers and the Editor to create an
agreed outcome.




                                                                           9
Website Maintenance



Developer
A Developer converts content and design into a web-readable format and
then publishes it on the internet.

The traditional approach for making web pages is to build a HTML file
into which text, images and other media are inserted. Medium-to-large
scale sites may also use other ‘server-side’ and ‘client-side’ scripting
languages such as ASP, PHP, Ruby, JavaScript, etc.


Website Content Management

In recent years some Developer activities have been superseded by
Website Content Management (WCM).

The advantage of WCM is that it allows Content Contributors to publish
directly to the web—bypassing the coding ‘bottleneck’. WCM also results
in great savings of time for Developers themselves and allows them to
focus on more valuable activities.



Website Publishing Process
The objective of a Publishing Process is to ensure content is created,
reviewed and approved in a controlled manner. A typical process of this
type could reflect the following steps:


Step        Roles                    Description

Step 1      Content                  Content is produced by a Content
            Contributor              Contributor in accordance with the
                                     stipulations of a Briefing Document.

Step 2      Editor                   When received by the Editor, he reviews it
                                     and makes whatever changes are necessary.

Step 3      Legal/Regulatory         When approved by the Editor, the completed
            Reviewer                 content is sent for Legal/Regulatory Review.



10
The Website Manager’s Handbook



Step 4        Designer &             Following Legal/Regulatory clearance, it is
              Developer              prepared by the Designer and the Developer.

Step 5        Editor                 When the content is complete, it is common
                                     for the Editor to have a final review. In the
                                     case of sensitive items, e.g. homepage, the
                                     Website Management Team may wish to
                                     clear changes before they golive.

Step 6        Developer              The content is returned to the Developer
                                     who places it on the live website.

Step 7        Editor                 When the content is live the Editor conducts
                                     a final review to ensure it is presented as
                                     intended.


There are several benefits to such a system. These include:

    •      It prevents unauthorised content being published.

    •      It allows work to be monitored and scheduled more effectively.

    •      It allows publishers to anticipate the stages through which work
           must pass before going live. (This helps shape expectations about
           how soon items can be expedited.)

    •      It has the knock on effect of encouraging Content Contributors to
           produce better quality content (as they know it will be reviewed
           before being released).


Publishing Resources
Each member of a Website Publishing Team needs some form of toolkit
to help them produce good content.


Editor’s Publishing Pack

The Editor’s Publishing Pack contains all the resources required to ensure
rules for language, style and design can be properly adhered to. These
include:



                                                                                 11
Website Maintenance



     •   Website Standard

     •   Website Style Guide

     •   Company Policies

     •   Organisational Identity Manual

     •   Dictionary

     •   Thesaurus

     •   Grammar Guide


Content Contributor’s Publishing Pack

The Content Contributor’s Pack generally contains all of the same
elements as the Editor's Pack, though some may be abridged form only.


Legal Reviewer’s Publishing Pack

This consists of extracts from legislation and regulations, as well as a
collection of company policies against which web content must be
compared.


Designer’s Publishing Pack

The Designer’s Pack contains much the same resources as found in the
Editor’s Pack, though other specialist items are also included.

This includes a library of images, typefaces and audio-visual material, as
well as the design software needed to develop them.


Developer’s Publishing Pack

A Developer’s Pack contains the software needed to create and edit
website code.




12
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Activity 2
Website Quality Assurance
Quality Assurance is the activity that makes sure a website is
operationally sound and in conformance with an organisation’s
standards.

The two main activities of Website Quality Assurance are Data
Collection and Data Analysis.



Data Collection
The aim of this task is to collect the data against which a website can be
examined for issues of quality. This includes:

    •   Checking for broken links

    •   Checking for missing content, e.g. images

    •   Checking for missing browser titles

    •   Checking the spelling and grammar of content

    •   Checking for missing metadata

    •   Checking the file sizes of pages to ensure they are not too large

                                                                            13
Website Maintenance



     •   Checking for browser compatibility

     •   Checking that applications are functioning correctly, e.g. an
         online hotel reservation form

     •   Checking that legal and regulatory guidelines are being adhered
         to, e.g. data protection and privacy

     •   Checking that pages conform to your organisation’s Web
         Accessibility standard (if any)

     •   Checking that the Website Design standard is maintained

A variety of automated tools are now available that make data collection
much faster and easier.


Data Analysis
Data Analysis examines all the information that has been collected and
from that an Issues Log is compiled. The purpose of this log is to list
items that are in violation of a QA checkpoint, e.g. broken links,
oversized images, etc. These can then be allocated to Developers for
adjustment.




14
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Activity 3
Website Feedback Monitoring
Website Feedback Monitoring is a process for regulating and responding
to communications from your site’s visitors in a controlled and timely
manner. This process is often overseen by a Feedback Co-ordinator.

The role of a Feedback Co-ordinator is to ensure customer messages are
acknowledged and responded to in a timely manner. His duties include
the following:

1.   Collect the feedback

2.   Acknowledge receipt of the query

3.   Investigate (if appropriate)

4.   Make a full response and manage any follow-up correspondence

5.   Archive

The manner in which feedback is managed can differ based on the
channel through which correspondence is received. This includes:



                                                                       15
Website Maintenance



     •   Email

     •   Bulletin Board

     •   Chat

     •   Instant Messaging

     •   Satisfaction Ratings

     •   Telephone

     •   Post


Email
Where feedback is received by email, receipt of customers’ messages
should be acknowledged either immediately or within 24 hours.
Acknowledgement emails may also be automated if large numbers are
received.




Figure 6. Web form from Wired.com showing how feedback can be sorted by type.



Feedback Bulletin Board or Discussion Forum
Bulletin boards are sometimes used to gather feedback. Feedback
received in this way may be responded to in a manner similar to email.




16
The Website Manager’s Handbook



That is, acknowledgements and subsequent messages are posted on the
board for the attention of all users.


Online Chat
Chat is resource intensive and is only recommended for websites that
have appropriate levels of staffing. Where communication is authorised
by this method, the most important requirement is to set the times
during which service is available.




Figure 7. Online chat service from the self-publishing firm, Lulu.



Instant Messaging
Instant Messaging follows much the same model as Online Chat. The
drawback is that website visitors must have appropriate software
available on their computers.


Satisfaction Ratings
Many websites now include in-page features that allow visitors to rate
content and provide comments about it. Such ratings are then sent to
authors, who use them as a basis for improving information.




                                                                                     17
Website Maintenance




Figure 8. Satisfaction rating form from Microsoft.com



Telephone
In the event that your website is unavailable, one of the few remaining
feedback channels is the telephone. Contact in this way may be necessary
if, for example, a website is undergoing maintenance and needs to be
shut-down temporarily.


Post
Good old ‘snail mail’ can also be used to submit feedback. As such, you
must make sure a postal address is published somewhere on your
website.




18
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Activity 4
Website Performance Monitoring
Website Performance Monitoring is the activity that gathers and analyses
data against which the success of a website can be evaluated.

To this end, it is important that your Maintenance Team know the Key
Performance Indicators (KPIs) against which their site is being
evaluated.

KPIs are the targets that have been selected by management for
determining online success. The three most commonly used are:

    •   Website Activity (traffic)

    •   Visitor Feedback (this was explored in Activity 3)

    •   Subscriber/Sponsor Feedback


Website Activity
Website Activity is a measure of the traffic experienced by a site. The
three most frequently monitored figures include:



                                                                         19
Website Maintenance



     •   Visits: A visit is an instance of a unique visitor accessing a
         website.

     •   Visitors: A visitor is the originator of a visit, i.e. the person who
         browses a website.

     •   Page Impressions: A Page Impression is a ‘hit’ on a page that
         contains content. (The recent growth of Rich Internet
         Applications built on AJAX and Flash means there is now less
         emphasis on this as a metric of success.)

Financial KPIs are of great importance for many firms. Such measures
encompass the following themes:

     •   Acquisition: The cost and value of attracting visitors.

     •   Conversion: The cost and value of making a sale.

     •   Retention: The cost and value of customer loyalty.


The Tools of Website Traffic Analytics
A huge market has grown around technology called Website Traffic
Analytics. These are tools that extract and analyse data about web traffic.

Many products of this type are free and can be downloaded from the
internet. However, high quality analysis usually requires investment in a
professional system. These come in two forms:

     •   Standalone Solution: Where software is installed directly on the
         computer that hosts the website and then analyses its activity
         logfile, e.g. WebTrends.

     •   Application Service Provider Solution: Where measurements
         are gathered over the internet using ‘tags’ that are placed into
         every page on a website, e.g. Google Analytics.




20
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Figure 9. A screengrab from the website of Google Analytics.




Subscriber/Sponsor Opinions
As seen already, Feedback Monitoring is crucial for any site that wishes
to maintain a happy audience.

However, the opinions of ordinary site visitors are only part of the story.
There are two classes of user whose comments and suggestions are of
even greater significance. These are:

     •    Subscribers: A subscriber is a power-user of a site, e.g. someone
          who has registered as a member of a discussion forum and who
          uses it very regularly.

     •    Sponsors: A sponsor is someone who is willing to pay for the
          services provided by a website, e.g. by paying a fee to post an
          advertisement online. They therefore constitute an important
          stakeholder group whose opinions must be listened to.
Many Dynamic and Transactional websites boast large audiences of both
subscribers and sponsors.




                                                                                   21
Website Maintenance




Activity 5
Website Infrastructure
Performance Monitoring
The aim of Infrastructure Performance Monitoring is to create procedures
for the supervision of site hosting. Website hosting refers to the service
that allows a website to be stored on and accessed from the internet.

Typically, the group of people in charge of this area is called the
Technical Support Team.



Technical Support Team
The size of your Technical Support Team and the range of skills
represented on it depends on the complexity of the infrastructure you
have in place. For example, a single person with rudimentary skills may
be all that is needed to look after a small Basic site. However, a big, busy
Transactional website will require many more personnel.

The most common skills included on a Technical Team are:




22
The Website Manager’s Handbook



    •    Software Management: The maintenance of the software used to
         host a site.

    •    Hardware Management: The maintenance of hosting hardware.

    •    Information Systems Security: Web security.

    •    Data Maintenance.




Figure 10. Website Technical Support Team.



Service Level Agreement
An SLA is a document that stipulates metrics by which the technical
performance of a site can be assessed. The most common measures
represented within an SLA include:

    •    Website Availability: The percentage of time that a website is up
         and running.

    •    Website Reliability: The number of unplanned outages that
         occur on a website.

                                                                         23
Website Maintenance



     •   Website Responsiveness: The speed with which a website
         responds to traffic.

A range of technology is available to monitor site Availability, Reliability
and Responsiveness. Among the analysis they provide is:

     •   Server response times

     •   End-User response times

     •   Server error rates and types

     •   Processor loads

     •   Hard disk utilisation

     •   Bandwidth utilisation

     •   Traffic patterns

     •   Queue sizes

     •   Timeouts

Performance Monitoring tools like these are essential for sites that aim to
provide a high level of service.




24
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Activity 6
Website Change Control
The responsibilities of site maintenance extend beyond issues of
immediate operations. They are also concerned with developments that
have the potential to affect future integrity. In this sense, a mechanism is
needed by which the impact of amendments can be managed.

Change Control is a process for implementing technical and other
updates to a website in a timely and non-disruptive manner.



Change Control Process
The process by which Change Control is managed comprises four steps.
These are:

1.   Identify the nature of the change

2.   Identify the scale of the change

3.   Identify any possible impact

4.   Proceed or re-evaluate


                                                                          25
Website Maintenance



1. The Nature of the Change
The most common amendments covered by Change Control concern the
infrastructure of site hosting and the technology used to deliver content 1 .
These can be grouped into four categories:

       •    Changes arising as a result of software maintenance.

       •    Changes arising as a result of hardware maintenance.

       •    Changes arising as a result of the initial release of content using a
            new technology.

       •    Changes arising as a result of marketing activity.


2. The Scale of the Change
The scale of a change measures the amount of an existing infrastructure
that is affected by it. It also determines the quantity of resources required
to make the change happen.


3. The Impact of the Change
The impact of a change is a measure of its effect on site visitors, business
operations or site administration. Managing impact is all about
minimising the risk that any of these will be affected.

There are a number of attributes that should be reviewed before any
activity commences. These provide a means of identifying elements that
are particularly vulnerable to adjustment, such as:

       •    Event Sensitive Applications

       •    Business Critical Content

       •    Frequently Used Content



1   Amendments that arise from the ordinary activities of Publishing or Quality Assurance
    are excluded (unless they involve significant new technology).

26
The Website Manager’s Handbook



4. Proceed or Re-evaluate
Once all the facts have been considered, the decision to proceed with the
change (or not) must be taken.

Where the evidence suggests that the risk of a negative impact is within
acceptable limits, the project can proceed as planned. However, where
the risk is unacceptable, the change itself or the process of
implementation must be reconsidered.


Contingency and Testing

In case things go wrong, a contingency plan should be put in place for
every change that occurs. For example, if a software upgrade fails, it
must be possible to halt the implementation and revert to a previous
state with no loss of data.

Finally, once a change has been made, website testing must ensue to
make sure the site continues to function as intended. The affected site
should also be closely monitored for several weeks. This is because the
full impact of a change may not become obvious for some time
afterward.




                                                                        27
About the Author
Shane Diffily has many years experience in website
management. He is currently employed as a Senior
Analyst with iQ Content—one of Europe’s leading
web consultancies (www.iqcontent.com).

As an experienced writer, Shane has published
several articles for the respected design journal
Alistpart.com. He has also written numerous case
studies on technology and business for The Irish Times ‘Business2000’
(Ireland's leading broadsheet newspaper).

Shane lives in Dublin, Ireland.

Visit www.diffily.com for more articles and advice about website
management and maintenance.




28
The Website Manager’s Handbook




Index
Activity, website, 5, 19                   maintenance, 26
Analytics, website, 19, 24                 management, 23
   tools, 20                            HTML, 10
Applications, web, 14                   Identity manual, 12
ASP                                     Infrastructure
Application Service Provider (website      performance monitoring, 22
  analytics), 20
                                        Instant Messaging, 17
Bandwidth, 24
                                        Intranet, 3
Browser
                                        Key performance indicators, (KPIs), 19,
   compatibility, 14                      20
Bulletin board, 16                      Law, 9
Change control, 25                      Legal reviewer, 7
   process of, 25                       Links
Chat, 17                                   broken, 13
Complexity, website, 4, 22              Mail
Content                                    feedback, 18
   contributor, 7, 9                    Maintenance, 1
   maintenance, 4                       Maintenance, team, 2
   publishing, 7                           skills, 2
Database, 4                             Management
Designer, 7, 9                             server hardware, 23
Developer, 7, 10                           server software, 23
Dictionary, 12                          Management, website
Editor, 8, 9, 11                           content, 10
Email                                   Moderator, 7, 9
   feedback, 16                         Page Impression, 5
Error. See Quality Assurance            PDF, 4
   server, 24                           Performance measurement, 19
Feedback, 15                               infrastructure, 23
   co-ordinator, 15                     Post
   email, 16                               feedback, 18
Grammar, 12                             Publishing, 7
Hardware                                   meeting, 9



                                                                             29
pack, 11, 12                     Sponsor, 21
     process, 10                      Staffing. See Skills
     resources, 11                    Standard, website, 12
Quality Assurance, 13                 Style guide, 12
     activities of, 13                Subscriber, 21
Rating                                Team
     performance monitoring, 20          staffing, 3
     visitor satisfaction, 17            technical support, 22
Reliability, website, 23, 24             website maintenance, 2
Responsiveness, website, 24              website publishing, 7
Review                                Telephone
     legal, 9                            feedback, 18
Satisfaction                          Testing, website, 27
     feedback, 17                     Text
Security                                 publishing, 7
     information systems, 23          Thesaurus, 12
Service Level Agreement (SLA), 23     Traffic, website, 24
Size                                     analytics, 20
     website, 4                       Visitor, website
Skills                                   feedback, 16
     technical team, 22                  satisfaction rating, 17
Software, 27                             sponsor, 21
     feedback monitoring, 15             subscriber, 21
     infrastructure performance       Website publishing
        monitoring, 24
                                         team, 7
     management, 23
                                      Website scale
     website analytics, 20
                                         factors of, 3
     website content management, 10
                                      Website standard, 12




30

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...
II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...
II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...
ecommerce poland expo
 
Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1
Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1
Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1
qianghistory
 
Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)
Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)
Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)
Jesse Vincent
 
William B White Cv Mar 2011
William B White Cv Mar 2011William B White Cv Mar 2011
William B White Cv Mar 2011
offwhite
 
China's Younger Architects 2014
China's Younger Architects 2014China's Younger Architects 2014
China's Younger Architects 2014
Joe Carter
 
แก้ข้อสอบ..
แก้ข้อสอบ..แก้ข้อสอบ..
แก้ข้อสอบ..
palmchanita
 
Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"
Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"
Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"
PerformanceIN
 
Chapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdf
Chapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdfChapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdf
Chapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdf
Pipit Sitthisak
 
Bab 5 9d
Bab 5 9dBab 5 9d
Bab 5 9d
puspitafatmala
 

Viewers also liked (10)

II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...
II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...
II Kongres eHandlu: Piotr Chmielewski, Social Media Now - "Kampanie reklamowe...
 
Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1
Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1
Qiang 羌 references in the book of han 汉书 part 1
 
Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)
Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)
Hacking your Kindle (OSCON Lightning Talk)
 
William B White Cv Mar 2011
William B White Cv Mar 2011William B White Cv Mar 2011
William B White Cv Mar 2011
 
China's Younger Architects 2014
China's Younger Architects 2014China's Younger Architects 2014
China's Younger Architects 2014
 
แก้ข้อสอบ..
แก้ข้อสอบ..แก้ข้อสอบ..
แก้ข้อสอบ..
 
米羅
米羅米羅
米羅
 
Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"
Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"
Create - Day 2 - 11:15 - "Six Secrets to Overcoming Social Marketing Hurdles"
 
Chapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdf
Chapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdfChapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdf
Chapter7 6-pr5-exporting movies-pdf
 
Bab 5 9d
Bab 5 9dBab 5 9d
Bab 5 9d
 

Similar to Website Maintenance Explained (abridged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")

Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...
Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...
Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...
Shane Diffily
 
Website management model
Website management modelWebsite management model
Website management model
adgclarke
 
A Practical Web Governance Framework
A Practical Web Governance FrameworkA Practical Web Governance Framework
A Practical Web Governance Framework
Shane Diffily
 
[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it
[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it
[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it
Shane Diffily
 
Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")
Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")
Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")
Shane Diffily
 
5 ways to better web governance in Local Government
5 ways to better web governance in Local Government5 ways to better web governance in Local Government
5 ways to better web governance in Local Government
Shane Diffily
 
Group-9.pptx
Group-9.pptxGroup-9.pptx
Group-9.pptx
MohammedDostogirAlam
 
Website Governance Document
Website Governance DocumentWebsite Governance Document
Website Governance Document
Demand Metric
 
10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support
10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support
10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support
APPSeCONNECT
 
Magento maintenance
Magento maintenanceMagento maintenance
Magento maintenance
salvishreya11
 
How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)
How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)
How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)
Neil Allison
 
Website designing company in mumbai
Website designing company in mumbaiWebsite designing company in mumbai
Website designing company in mumbai
Css Founder
 
CMS By Ethical Web Solutions
CMS By Ethical Web SolutionsCMS By Ethical Web Solutions
CMS By Ethical Web Solutions
nishant987
 
Cms by ethical_web_solutions
Cms by ethical_web_solutionsCms by ethical_web_solutions
Cms by ethical_web_solutions
nishant987
 
Website Development
Website DevelopmentWebsite Development
Website Development
Sanganak Technologies
 
Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)
Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)
Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)
Future Insights
 
What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?
What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?
What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?
JamesParker406701
 
Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006
Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006
Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006
Marco Cimino
 
Website development basic guidelines
Website development basic guidelinesWebsite development basic guidelines
Website development basic guidelines
nishakapoor991
 
Web Designing Kit
Web Designing KitWeb Designing Kit
Web Designing Kit
actanimation
 

Similar to Website Maintenance Explained (abridged from "The Website Manager's Handbook") (20)

Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...
Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...
Website Governance - A Framework Model (abridged from "The Website Manager's ...
 
Website management model
Website management modelWebsite management model
Website management model
 
A Practical Web Governance Framework
A Practical Web Governance FrameworkA Practical Web Governance Framework
A Practical Web Governance Framework
 
[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it
[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it
[Infographic] Web Governance is broken - but there is a way to fix it
 
Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")
Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")
Website Development Explained (abriged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")
 
5 ways to better web governance in Local Government
5 ways to better web governance in Local Government5 ways to better web governance in Local Government
5 ways to better web governance in Local Government
 
Group-9.pptx
Group-9.pptxGroup-9.pptx
Group-9.pptx
 
Website Governance Document
Website Governance DocumentWebsite Governance Document
Website Governance Document
 
10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support
10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support
10 Best Practices for Magento Maintenance and Support
 
Magento maintenance
Magento maintenanceMagento maintenance
Magento maintenance
 
How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)
How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)
How to get a grip of your website (and then keep hold)
 
Website designing company in mumbai
Website designing company in mumbaiWebsite designing company in mumbai
Website designing company in mumbai
 
CMS By Ethical Web Solutions
CMS By Ethical Web SolutionsCMS By Ethical Web Solutions
CMS By Ethical Web Solutions
 
Cms by ethical_web_solutions
Cms by ethical_web_solutionsCms by ethical_web_solutions
Cms by ethical_web_solutions
 
Website Development
Website DevelopmentWebsite Development
Website Development
 
Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)
Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)
Re-imagining How We Design Responsively (Jonathan Fielding)
 
What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?
What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?
What are the Three Main Stages of Web Development?
 
Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006
Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006
Wwcm 6.0 Customer Presentation.12152006
 
Website development basic guidelines
Website development basic guidelinesWebsite development basic guidelines
Website development basic guidelines
 
Web Designing Kit
Web Designing KitWeb Designing Kit
Web Designing Kit
 

More from Shane Diffily

Effective web content for better government
Effective web content for better governmentEffective web content for better government
Effective web content for better government
Shane Diffily
 
Framework of Web Governance
Framework of Web GovernanceFramework of Web Governance
Framework of Web Governance
Shane Diffily
 
Web Governance for Government Websites
Web Governance for Government WebsitesWeb Governance for Government Websites
Web Governance for Government Websites
Shane Diffily
 
Roles & Responsibilities on a Web Team
Roles & Responsibilities on a Web TeamRoles & Responsibilities on a Web Team
Roles & Responsibilities on a Web Team
Shane Diffily
 
Web Governance in Higher Education
Web Governance in Higher EducationWeb Governance in Higher Education
Web Governance in Higher Education
Shane Diffily
 
The New Analytics of Web Governance
The New Analytics of Web GovernanceThe New Analytics of Web Governance
The New Analytics of Web Governance
Shane Diffily
 
A New Framework for Web Governance
A New Framework for Web GovernanceA New Framework for Web Governance
A New Framework for Web Governance
Shane Diffily
 
Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)
Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)
Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)
Shane Diffily
 
Being Successful Online
Being Successful OnlineBeing Successful Online
Being Successful Online
Shane Diffily
 
Web Governance Explained
Web Governance ExplainedWeb Governance Explained
Web Governance Explained
Shane Diffily
 
4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management
4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management
4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management
Shane Diffily
 

More from Shane Diffily (11)

Effective web content for better government
Effective web content for better governmentEffective web content for better government
Effective web content for better government
 
Framework of Web Governance
Framework of Web GovernanceFramework of Web Governance
Framework of Web Governance
 
Web Governance for Government Websites
Web Governance for Government WebsitesWeb Governance for Government Websites
Web Governance for Government Websites
 
Roles & Responsibilities on a Web Team
Roles & Responsibilities on a Web TeamRoles & Responsibilities on a Web Team
Roles & Responsibilities on a Web Team
 
Web Governance in Higher Education
Web Governance in Higher EducationWeb Governance in Higher Education
Web Governance in Higher Education
 
The New Analytics of Web Governance
The New Analytics of Web GovernanceThe New Analytics of Web Governance
The New Analytics of Web Governance
 
A New Framework for Web Governance
A New Framework for Web GovernanceA New Framework for Web Governance
A New Framework for Web Governance
 
Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)
Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)
Using the Web Arms Race to your advantage - sell more via a better site :)
 
Being Successful Online
Being Successful OnlineBeing Successful Online
Being Successful Online
 
Web Governance Explained
Web Governance ExplainedWeb Governance Explained
Web Governance Explained
 
4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management
4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management
4 Essentials Of Successful Website Management
 

Recently uploaded

Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
saastr
 
Choosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptx
Choosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptxChoosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptx
Choosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptx
Brandon Minnick, MBA
 
Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS at Code Europe 2024
Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS  at Code Europe 2024Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS  at Code Europe 2024
Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS at Code Europe 2024
Hiroshi SHIBATA
 
Freshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-Efficiency
Freshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-EfficiencyFreshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-Efficiency
Freshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-Efficiency
ScyllaDB
 
Apps Break Data
Apps Break DataApps Break Data
Apps Break Data
Ivo Velitchkov
 
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
Edge AI and Vision Alliance
 
Dandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity server
Dandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity serverDandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity server
Dandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity server
Antonios Katsarakis
 
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptxThe Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
operationspcvita
 
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptxPrinciple of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
BibashShahi
 
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAUHCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
panagenda
 
Skybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoption
Skybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoptionSkybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoption
Skybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoption
Tatiana Kojar
 
Harnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid Research
Harnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid ResearchHarnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid Research
Harnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid Research
Neo4j
 
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
DanBrown980551
 
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAUHCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
panagenda
 
June Patch Tuesday
June Patch TuesdayJune Patch Tuesday
June Patch Tuesday
Ivanti
 
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Jakub Marek
 
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented ChatbotsMutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Pablo Gómez Abajo
 
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup SlidesProgramming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Zilliz
 
Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024
Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024
Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024
Jason Packer
 
Nordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptx
Nordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptxNordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptx
Nordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptx
MichaelKnudsen27
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
Deep Dive: AI-Powered Marketing to Get More Leads and Customers with HyperGro...
 
Choosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptx
Choosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptxChoosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptx
Choosing The Best AWS Service For Your Website + API.pptx
 
Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS at Code Europe 2024
Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS  at Code Europe 2024Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS  at Code Europe 2024
Introduction of Cybersecurity with OSS at Code Europe 2024
 
Freshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-Efficiency
Freshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-EfficiencyFreshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-Efficiency
Freshworks Rethinks NoSQL for Rapid Scaling & Cost-Efficiency
 
Apps Break Data
Apps Break DataApps Break Data
Apps Break Data
 
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
“Temporal Event Neural Networks: A More Efficient Alternative to the Transfor...
 
Dandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity server
Dandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity serverDandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity server
Dandelion Hashtable: beyond billion requests per second on a commodity server
 
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptxThe Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
The Microsoft 365 Migration Tutorial For Beginner.pptx
 
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptxPrinciple of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
Principle of conventional tomography-Bibash Shahi ppt..pptx
 
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAUHCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
 
Skybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoption
Skybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoptionSkybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoption
Skybuffer SAM4U tool for SAP license adoption
 
Harnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid Research
Harnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid ResearchHarnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid Research
Harnessing the Power of NLP and Knowledge Graphs for Opioid Research
 
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
5th LF Energy Power Grid Model Meet-up Slides
 
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAUHCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
 
June Patch Tuesday
June Patch TuesdayJune Patch Tuesday
June Patch Tuesday
 
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
Main news related to the CCS TSI 2023 (2023/1695)
 
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented ChatbotsMutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
Mutation Testing for Task-Oriented Chatbots
 
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup SlidesProgramming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
Programming Foundation Models with DSPy - Meetup Slides
 
Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024
Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024
Columbus Data & Analytics Wednesdays - June 2024
 
Nordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptx
Nordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptxNordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptx
Nordic Marketo Engage User Group_June 13_ 2024.pptx
 

Website Maintenance Explained (abridged from "The Website Manager's Handbook")

  • 1.
  • 2. The Website Manager’s Handbook The Website Manager’s Handbook This document contains an abridged extract from “Chapter 2: Website Maintenance” of The Website Manager’s Handbook by Shane Diffily. The Website Manager’s Handbook gives you a practical model for the management and maintenance of your website or intranet. Through it you can learn about all the processes, people, technology and other resources you need to manage a successful site. Join the hundreds of web professionals and universities who rely on The Website Manager’s Handbook for advice about online operations. Visit www.diffily.com/book for more. The Website Manager’s Handbook ISBN: 978-1-4116-8529-1 © Copyright Shane Diffily Praise for The Website Manager’s Handbook "Very clear and well written…a lot of practical depth…I'm sure that someone managing—particularly a large website—would find it genuinely useful to help them think through the key issues in website management." Gerry McGovern. Author of Content Critical. i
  • 3. Table of Contents What is Website Maintenance?..........................................1 Website Maintenance Team ........................................... 2 How many staff you need ............................................... 2 Activity 1 Website Publishing .................................................................... 7 Website Publishing Team ............................................... 7 Website Publishing Process ......................................... 10 Publishing Resources ................................................... 11 Activity 2 Website Quality Assurance ..................................................... 13 Data Collection.............................................................. 13 Activity 3 Website Feedback Monitoring ................................................. 15 Activity 4 Website Performance Monitoring ............................................ 19 Website Activity............................................................. 19 Subscriber/Sponsor Opinions ....................................... 21 Activity 5 Website Infrastructure Performance Monitoring...................... 22 Technical Support Team............................................... 22 Activity 6 Website Change Control ......................................................... 25 Change Control Process............................................... 25 ii
  • 4. The Website Manager’s Handbook What is Website Maintenance? Website Maintenance comprises all the activities needed to ensure the operational integrity of your website or intranet. In other words, it is about doing all the things needed to make sure your site runs smoothly and according to plan. The activities from which Website Maintenance is composed are: • Website Publishing: To keep content up-to-date. • Website Quality Assurance: To spot errors on a site. • Website Feedback Monitoring: To manage communication with website visitors. • Website Performance Monitoring: To measure success. • Website Infrastructure Monitoring: To supervise hosting. • Change Control: To manage technical and other changes in a co- ordinated way. These activities are usually carried out by members of a Website Maintenance Team. 1
  • 5. Website Maintenance Website Maintenance Team A Website Maintenance Team is responsible for expediting the tasks of site maintenance. The variety of roles on such a team is usually quite broad and may include the following: • Website Maintenance Team Leader • Publishing Representative (Editor) • Quality Assurance Representative • Feedback Monitoring Representative • Website Performance Representative • Infrastructure Monitoring Representative • Change Control Representative It is worth bearing in mind that if your site is small, you may not have to allocate one person for each activity. Instead, you could combine several roles together. For example, an Editor could also act as a Team Leader, as well as look after Quality Assurance or Feedback Monitoring. Yet, even such small teams must still have all necessary skills represented. This is because each one is vital for maintaining a quality web presence. How many staff you need A useful device for deciding the number of people you need for your maintenance team is ‘Website Scale’. 2
  • 6. The Website Manager’s Handbook Figure 1. The Website Maintenance Team. Website Scale is a means of classifying a site in terms of three parameters: • Size • Complexity • Levels of activity Any site can be represented in this way—from a small, plain text website to a massive corporate intranet. 3
  • 7. Website Maintenance Website Size A website’s size is an estimate of the total man-hours required to produce and maintain all the content that it contains. This can then be used to calculate the number of people required for support—particularly the activities of Website Publishing and Quality Assurance. Small Website Content Man Hours per Annum : 1,500–4,000 Staffing Levels for Content Publishing and Quality Assurance: About 1–2 people. Medium Website Content Man Hours per Annum : 4,000–10,000 Staffing Levels for Content Publishing and Quality Assurance: About 2-3 people. Large Website Content Man Hours per Annum : 10,000+ Staffing Levels for Content Publishing and Quality Assurance: From 2-3 people upwards. Figure 2. The three levels of Website Size. Website Complexity Complexity is a function of the intricacy of the technology used to develop a site. There are three levels of website complexity: Basic Website Such ‘brochureware’ sites simply contain plain text with perhaps a few supporting images and downloads, e.g. PDFs. Dynamic Website On a Dynamic site content is stored in a database and published according to the requirements of site visitors. Some also offer basic interactive services, e.g. Discussion Forums. 4
  • 8. The Website Manager’s Handbook Transactional Website A Transactional website is one that uses the internet for facilitating business operations or generating revenue. Sites of this type rely on databases and other advanced technology for collecting and processing orders. Some indicative figures for the staffing of a Technical Team are indicated in the following table: Basic Website Content: Plain content (HTML/XHTML). Staffing Level for Infrastructure Monitoring and Change Control: 1 person (for a small to medium sized site). Dynamic Website Content: Dynamically generated from a database. Staffing Level for Infrastructure Monitoring and Change Control: 1 or 2 people (or more on a very large or busy site). Transactional Content: Fully transactional content, e.g. eCommerce. Website Staffing Level for Infrastructure Monitoring and Change Control: From 1 or 2 people upwards (many more on a large or busy site). Figure 3. The three levels of Website Complexity. Website Activity Website Activity is a measure of the traffic experienced by a site, e.g. Page Impressions, Visitors, Visits, etc. A website with heavy activity is unlikely to function properly without a full complement of maintenance personnel. A Busy site that is also Large in size and Transactional in nature may need dozens of staff to keep it going. 5
  • 9. Website Maintenance Quiet Website Page Impressions: 0–100,000 a month Total Team Staffing: Between 1 and 3 people. Intermediate Page Impressions: 100,000–1,000,000 a month. Website Total Team Staffing: About 2-3 people. Busy Website Page Impressions: 1,000,000+ a month. Total Team Staffing: From 3 people upwards (many more on a very busy Transactional site). Figure 4. The three levels of Website Activity. 6
  • 10. The Website Manager’s Handbook Activity 1 Website Publishing There is no point in having great information online if you have no mechanism for looking after it. As we will now see, a good system of this type must be built on the twin pillars of a well resourced team and an orderly process. Website Publishing Team A Publishing Team is the group of people responsible for managing the lifecycle of online content. Such a team is typically composed of an Editor and representatives from each major areas of publishing activity, including: • Content Contributors • Designer • Developer • Moderator • Legal Reviewer 7
  • 11. Website Maintenance Figure 5. The Website Publishing Team. Website Editor A Website Editor is answerable for everything that is published on a site, e.g. accuracy of information, suitability of images, etc. The core activities for which she is accountable are concerned with the lifecycle of content, such as: • Reviewing and editing work-in-progress • Maintaining existing content • Responding to user comments about existing content • Planning and commissioning new content 8
  • 12. The Website Manager’s Handbook To co-ordinate these activities the Editor may convene a regular Website Publishing Meeting at which everyone involved in the creation, review and approval of online content is gathered. Content Contributor Content Contributors are commissioned to produce new features or update existing content for a website, based on the requirements of a Publishing Schedule. Ideally, Contributors should be experienced professionals (e.g. journalists) who have been specially recruited for their skills. Moderator A Moderator is responsible for the regulation of User Generated Content, e.g. wikis, discussion forums, user contributed video or imagery, etc. Websites with vulnerable audiences (e.g. children) need particularly detailed oversight. Legal Reviewer The role of a Legal Reviewer is to ensure that all content intended for publication on the web is in compliance with the law (and any other regulations or policies). In a small organisation where no legal department exists, the Editor may adopt this function. Designer The role of a Designer is to find the optimum solution for the visual and interactive presentation of content on the web. Designers usually work closely with Content Contributors, Developers and the Editor to create an agreed outcome. 9
  • 13. Website Maintenance Developer A Developer converts content and design into a web-readable format and then publishes it on the internet. The traditional approach for making web pages is to build a HTML file into which text, images and other media are inserted. Medium-to-large scale sites may also use other ‘server-side’ and ‘client-side’ scripting languages such as ASP, PHP, Ruby, JavaScript, etc. Website Content Management In recent years some Developer activities have been superseded by Website Content Management (WCM). The advantage of WCM is that it allows Content Contributors to publish directly to the web—bypassing the coding ‘bottleneck’. WCM also results in great savings of time for Developers themselves and allows them to focus on more valuable activities. Website Publishing Process The objective of a Publishing Process is to ensure content is created, reviewed and approved in a controlled manner. A typical process of this type could reflect the following steps: Step Roles Description Step 1 Content Content is produced by a Content Contributor Contributor in accordance with the stipulations of a Briefing Document. Step 2 Editor When received by the Editor, he reviews it and makes whatever changes are necessary. Step 3 Legal/Regulatory When approved by the Editor, the completed Reviewer content is sent for Legal/Regulatory Review. 10
  • 14. The Website Manager’s Handbook Step 4 Designer & Following Legal/Regulatory clearance, it is Developer prepared by the Designer and the Developer. Step 5 Editor When the content is complete, it is common for the Editor to have a final review. In the case of sensitive items, e.g. homepage, the Website Management Team may wish to clear changes before they golive. Step 6 Developer The content is returned to the Developer who places it on the live website. Step 7 Editor When the content is live the Editor conducts a final review to ensure it is presented as intended. There are several benefits to such a system. These include: • It prevents unauthorised content being published. • It allows work to be monitored and scheduled more effectively. • It allows publishers to anticipate the stages through which work must pass before going live. (This helps shape expectations about how soon items can be expedited.) • It has the knock on effect of encouraging Content Contributors to produce better quality content (as they know it will be reviewed before being released). Publishing Resources Each member of a Website Publishing Team needs some form of toolkit to help them produce good content. Editor’s Publishing Pack The Editor’s Publishing Pack contains all the resources required to ensure rules for language, style and design can be properly adhered to. These include: 11
  • 15. Website Maintenance • Website Standard • Website Style Guide • Company Policies • Organisational Identity Manual • Dictionary • Thesaurus • Grammar Guide Content Contributor’s Publishing Pack The Content Contributor’s Pack generally contains all of the same elements as the Editor's Pack, though some may be abridged form only. Legal Reviewer’s Publishing Pack This consists of extracts from legislation and regulations, as well as a collection of company policies against which web content must be compared. Designer’s Publishing Pack The Designer’s Pack contains much the same resources as found in the Editor’s Pack, though other specialist items are also included. This includes a library of images, typefaces and audio-visual material, as well as the design software needed to develop them. Developer’s Publishing Pack A Developer’s Pack contains the software needed to create and edit website code. 12
  • 16. The Website Manager’s Handbook Activity 2 Website Quality Assurance Quality Assurance is the activity that makes sure a website is operationally sound and in conformance with an organisation’s standards. The two main activities of Website Quality Assurance are Data Collection and Data Analysis. Data Collection The aim of this task is to collect the data against which a website can be examined for issues of quality. This includes: • Checking for broken links • Checking for missing content, e.g. images • Checking for missing browser titles • Checking the spelling and grammar of content • Checking for missing metadata • Checking the file sizes of pages to ensure they are not too large 13
  • 17. Website Maintenance • Checking for browser compatibility • Checking that applications are functioning correctly, e.g. an online hotel reservation form • Checking that legal and regulatory guidelines are being adhered to, e.g. data protection and privacy • Checking that pages conform to your organisation’s Web Accessibility standard (if any) • Checking that the Website Design standard is maintained A variety of automated tools are now available that make data collection much faster and easier. Data Analysis Data Analysis examines all the information that has been collected and from that an Issues Log is compiled. The purpose of this log is to list items that are in violation of a QA checkpoint, e.g. broken links, oversized images, etc. These can then be allocated to Developers for adjustment. 14
  • 18. The Website Manager’s Handbook Activity 3 Website Feedback Monitoring Website Feedback Monitoring is a process for regulating and responding to communications from your site’s visitors in a controlled and timely manner. This process is often overseen by a Feedback Co-ordinator. The role of a Feedback Co-ordinator is to ensure customer messages are acknowledged and responded to in a timely manner. His duties include the following: 1. Collect the feedback 2. Acknowledge receipt of the query 3. Investigate (if appropriate) 4. Make a full response and manage any follow-up correspondence 5. Archive The manner in which feedback is managed can differ based on the channel through which correspondence is received. This includes: 15
  • 19. Website Maintenance • Email • Bulletin Board • Chat • Instant Messaging • Satisfaction Ratings • Telephone • Post Email Where feedback is received by email, receipt of customers’ messages should be acknowledged either immediately or within 24 hours. Acknowledgement emails may also be automated if large numbers are received. Figure 6. Web form from Wired.com showing how feedback can be sorted by type. Feedback Bulletin Board or Discussion Forum Bulletin boards are sometimes used to gather feedback. Feedback received in this way may be responded to in a manner similar to email. 16
  • 20. The Website Manager’s Handbook That is, acknowledgements and subsequent messages are posted on the board for the attention of all users. Online Chat Chat is resource intensive and is only recommended for websites that have appropriate levels of staffing. Where communication is authorised by this method, the most important requirement is to set the times during which service is available. Figure 7. Online chat service from the self-publishing firm, Lulu. Instant Messaging Instant Messaging follows much the same model as Online Chat. The drawback is that website visitors must have appropriate software available on their computers. Satisfaction Ratings Many websites now include in-page features that allow visitors to rate content and provide comments about it. Such ratings are then sent to authors, who use them as a basis for improving information. 17
  • 21. Website Maintenance Figure 8. Satisfaction rating form from Microsoft.com Telephone In the event that your website is unavailable, one of the few remaining feedback channels is the telephone. Contact in this way may be necessary if, for example, a website is undergoing maintenance and needs to be shut-down temporarily. Post Good old ‘snail mail’ can also be used to submit feedback. As such, you must make sure a postal address is published somewhere on your website. 18
  • 22. The Website Manager’s Handbook Activity 4 Website Performance Monitoring Website Performance Monitoring is the activity that gathers and analyses data against which the success of a website can be evaluated. To this end, it is important that your Maintenance Team know the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) against which their site is being evaluated. KPIs are the targets that have been selected by management for determining online success. The three most commonly used are: • Website Activity (traffic) • Visitor Feedback (this was explored in Activity 3) • Subscriber/Sponsor Feedback Website Activity Website Activity is a measure of the traffic experienced by a site. The three most frequently monitored figures include: 19
  • 23. Website Maintenance • Visits: A visit is an instance of a unique visitor accessing a website. • Visitors: A visitor is the originator of a visit, i.e. the person who browses a website. • Page Impressions: A Page Impression is a ‘hit’ on a page that contains content. (The recent growth of Rich Internet Applications built on AJAX and Flash means there is now less emphasis on this as a metric of success.) Financial KPIs are of great importance for many firms. Such measures encompass the following themes: • Acquisition: The cost and value of attracting visitors. • Conversion: The cost and value of making a sale. • Retention: The cost and value of customer loyalty. The Tools of Website Traffic Analytics A huge market has grown around technology called Website Traffic Analytics. These are tools that extract and analyse data about web traffic. Many products of this type are free and can be downloaded from the internet. However, high quality analysis usually requires investment in a professional system. These come in two forms: • Standalone Solution: Where software is installed directly on the computer that hosts the website and then analyses its activity logfile, e.g. WebTrends. • Application Service Provider Solution: Where measurements are gathered over the internet using ‘tags’ that are placed into every page on a website, e.g. Google Analytics. 20
  • 24. The Website Manager’s Handbook Figure 9. A screengrab from the website of Google Analytics. Subscriber/Sponsor Opinions As seen already, Feedback Monitoring is crucial for any site that wishes to maintain a happy audience. However, the opinions of ordinary site visitors are only part of the story. There are two classes of user whose comments and suggestions are of even greater significance. These are: • Subscribers: A subscriber is a power-user of a site, e.g. someone who has registered as a member of a discussion forum and who uses it very regularly. • Sponsors: A sponsor is someone who is willing to pay for the services provided by a website, e.g. by paying a fee to post an advertisement online. They therefore constitute an important stakeholder group whose opinions must be listened to. Many Dynamic and Transactional websites boast large audiences of both subscribers and sponsors. 21
  • 25. Website Maintenance Activity 5 Website Infrastructure Performance Monitoring The aim of Infrastructure Performance Monitoring is to create procedures for the supervision of site hosting. Website hosting refers to the service that allows a website to be stored on and accessed from the internet. Typically, the group of people in charge of this area is called the Technical Support Team. Technical Support Team The size of your Technical Support Team and the range of skills represented on it depends on the complexity of the infrastructure you have in place. For example, a single person with rudimentary skills may be all that is needed to look after a small Basic site. However, a big, busy Transactional website will require many more personnel. The most common skills included on a Technical Team are: 22
  • 26. The Website Manager’s Handbook • Software Management: The maintenance of the software used to host a site. • Hardware Management: The maintenance of hosting hardware. • Information Systems Security: Web security. • Data Maintenance. Figure 10. Website Technical Support Team. Service Level Agreement An SLA is a document that stipulates metrics by which the technical performance of a site can be assessed. The most common measures represented within an SLA include: • Website Availability: The percentage of time that a website is up and running. • Website Reliability: The number of unplanned outages that occur on a website. 23
  • 27. Website Maintenance • Website Responsiveness: The speed with which a website responds to traffic. A range of technology is available to monitor site Availability, Reliability and Responsiveness. Among the analysis they provide is: • Server response times • End-User response times • Server error rates and types • Processor loads • Hard disk utilisation • Bandwidth utilisation • Traffic patterns • Queue sizes • Timeouts Performance Monitoring tools like these are essential for sites that aim to provide a high level of service. 24
  • 28. The Website Manager’s Handbook Activity 6 Website Change Control The responsibilities of site maintenance extend beyond issues of immediate operations. They are also concerned with developments that have the potential to affect future integrity. In this sense, a mechanism is needed by which the impact of amendments can be managed. Change Control is a process for implementing technical and other updates to a website in a timely and non-disruptive manner. Change Control Process The process by which Change Control is managed comprises four steps. These are: 1. Identify the nature of the change 2. Identify the scale of the change 3. Identify any possible impact 4. Proceed or re-evaluate 25
  • 29. Website Maintenance 1. The Nature of the Change The most common amendments covered by Change Control concern the infrastructure of site hosting and the technology used to deliver content 1 . These can be grouped into four categories: • Changes arising as a result of software maintenance. • Changes arising as a result of hardware maintenance. • Changes arising as a result of the initial release of content using a new technology. • Changes arising as a result of marketing activity. 2. The Scale of the Change The scale of a change measures the amount of an existing infrastructure that is affected by it. It also determines the quantity of resources required to make the change happen. 3. The Impact of the Change The impact of a change is a measure of its effect on site visitors, business operations or site administration. Managing impact is all about minimising the risk that any of these will be affected. There are a number of attributes that should be reviewed before any activity commences. These provide a means of identifying elements that are particularly vulnerable to adjustment, such as: • Event Sensitive Applications • Business Critical Content • Frequently Used Content 1 Amendments that arise from the ordinary activities of Publishing or Quality Assurance are excluded (unless they involve significant new technology). 26
  • 30. The Website Manager’s Handbook 4. Proceed or Re-evaluate Once all the facts have been considered, the decision to proceed with the change (or not) must be taken. Where the evidence suggests that the risk of a negative impact is within acceptable limits, the project can proceed as planned. However, where the risk is unacceptable, the change itself or the process of implementation must be reconsidered. Contingency and Testing In case things go wrong, a contingency plan should be put in place for every change that occurs. For example, if a software upgrade fails, it must be possible to halt the implementation and revert to a previous state with no loss of data. Finally, once a change has been made, website testing must ensue to make sure the site continues to function as intended. The affected site should also be closely monitored for several weeks. This is because the full impact of a change may not become obvious for some time afterward. 27
  • 31. About the Author Shane Diffily has many years experience in website management. He is currently employed as a Senior Analyst with iQ Content—one of Europe’s leading web consultancies (www.iqcontent.com). As an experienced writer, Shane has published several articles for the respected design journal Alistpart.com. He has also written numerous case studies on technology and business for The Irish Times ‘Business2000’ (Ireland's leading broadsheet newspaper). Shane lives in Dublin, Ireland. Visit www.diffily.com for more articles and advice about website management and maintenance. 28
  • 32. The Website Manager’s Handbook Index Activity, website, 5, 19 maintenance, 26 Analytics, website, 19, 24 management, 23 tools, 20 HTML, 10 Applications, web, 14 Identity manual, 12 ASP Infrastructure Application Service Provider (website performance monitoring, 22 analytics), 20 Instant Messaging, 17 Bandwidth, 24 Intranet, 3 Browser Key performance indicators, (KPIs), 19, compatibility, 14 20 Bulletin board, 16 Law, 9 Change control, 25 Legal reviewer, 7 process of, 25 Links Chat, 17 broken, 13 Complexity, website, 4, 22 Mail Content feedback, 18 contributor, 7, 9 Maintenance, 1 maintenance, 4 Maintenance, team, 2 publishing, 7 skills, 2 Database, 4 Management Designer, 7, 9 server hardware, 23 Developer, 7, 10 server software, 23 Dictionary, 12 Management, website Editor, 8, 9, 11 content, 10 Email Moderator, 7, 9 feedback, 16 Page Impression, 5 Error. See Quality Assurance PDF, 4 server, 24 Performance measurement, 19 Feedback, 15 infrastructure, 23 co-ordinator, 15 Post email, 16 feedback, 18 Grammar, 12 Publishing, 7 Hardware meeting, 9 29
  • 33. pack, 11, 12 Sponsor, 21 process, 10 Staffing. See Skills resources, 11 Standard, website, 12 Quality Assurance, 13 Style guide, 12 activities of, 13 Subscriber, 21 Rating Team performance monitoring, 20 staffing, 3 visitor satisfaction, 17 technical support, 22 Reliability, website, 23, 24 website maintenance, 2 Responsiveness, website, 24 website publishing, 7 Review Telephone legal, 9 feedback, 18 Satisfaction Testing, website, 27 feedback, 17 Text Security publishing, 7 information systems, 23 Thesaurus, 12 Service Level Agreement (SLA), 23 Traffic, website, 24 Size analytics, 20 website, 4 Visitor, website Skills feedback, 16 technical team, 22 satisfaction rating, 17 Software, 27 sponsor, 21 feedback monitoring, 15 subscriber, 21 infrastructure performance Website publishing monitoring, 24 team, 7 management, 23 Website scale website analytics, 20 factors of, 3 website content management, 10 Website standard, 12 30