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Confidential 1
Your host & some
logistics
¤ I'm Jean-Jérôme from the
Severalnines Team and I'm your
host for today's webinar!
¤ Feel free to ask any questions
in the Questions section of this
application or via the Chat box.
¤ You can also contact me
directly via the chat box or via
email: jj@severalnines.com
during or after the webinar.
Copyright 2016
Severalnines AB
2
About Severalnines and
ClusterControl
Confidential 3
What we do
Manage Scale
MonitorDeploy
Copyright 2016
Severalnines AB
4
ClusterControl Automation &
Management
¤ Provisioning
¤ Deploy a cluster in minutes
¤ On-premises or in the cloud (AWS)
¤ Monitoring
¤ Systems view
¤ 1sec resolution
¤ DB / OS stats & performance
advisors
¤ Configurable dashboards
¤ Query Analyzer
¤ Real-time / historical
Management
Multi cluster/data-center
Automate repair/recovery
Database upgrades
Backups
Configuration management
Cloning
One-click scaling
Confidential 5
Supported Databases
Confidential 6
Customers
Confidential
Agenda
¤ #1: 101 Sanity Check
¤ #2: Operating System
¤ #3: Backup Strategies
¤ #4: Replication & Sync
¤ #5: Query Performance
¤ #6: Schema Changes
¤ #7: Security / Encryption
¤ #8: Reporting
¤ #9: Managing from disaster
¤ Q&A
7
Copyright Severalnines AB
Confidential
#1: 101 Sanity Check
Confidential
101 Sanity Check
¤ Ensure ALL tables are in the correct storage engine
¤ MySQL: InnoDB or XtraDB
¤ Innodb supports FULLTEXT indexes in MySQL 5.6
¤ MYISAM tables - don’t use
¤ Disabled/forbidden support in Percona XtraDB 5.7
ERROR 1105 (HY000): Percona-XtraDB-Cluster prohibits
use of LOCK TABLE/FLUSH TABLE <table> WITH READ LOCK
with pxc_strict_mode = ENFORCING
¤ Ensure ALL tables have a PRIMARY KEY
¤ If no PRIMARY KEY is defined: add one!
¤ Ensure you have NO unbound queries
¤ E.g UPDATE <table> SET x=x+1 (and there are many rows)
¤ Update/delete in smaller batches (e.g 1000 records).
¤ UPDATE <table> SET x=x+1 LIMIT 1000
Confidential
101 Sanity Check
¤ Ensure that the application can tolerate non-
sequential auto increments.
¤ Galera manages the autoincrements.
¤ Redirect deadlock prone update queries on hot
tables and rows to one of the Galera nodes:
¤ E.g UPDATE counter_tbl SET counter = counter +1;
¤ http://www.severalnines.com/blog/avoiding-deadlocks-
galera- set-haproxy-single-node-writes-and-multi-node-
reads
¤ Ensure your application does not use LOCK TABLES
¤ Use wsrep_sst_method=xtrabackup-v2
Confidential
101 Sanity (WAN replication)
¤  Galera
¤  Increase timeouts
wsrep_provider_options=”evs.keepalive_period=PT3S;		
			evs.inactive_check_period=PT10S;		
			evs.suspect_timeout=PT30S;		
			evs.inactive_timeout=PT1M;		
			evs.install_timeout=PT1M;		
			evs.send_window=1024;		
			evs.user_send_window=512”;		
¤  This will relax how fast a node will be evicted from the
cluster.
¤  Usually default values are good if networks with a ping
time of <10-15 ms
Confidential
#2: Operating System
Confidential
Operating System
¤ Swapping
¤ echo “1” > /proc/sys/vm/swappiness
¤ NUMA on Multi-socket
¤ Lead to contention and strange lock ups, but has been
mostly resolved nowadays
¤ Is it enabled:
¤  dmesg	|	grep	–i	numa	
¤ Grub boot option ”numa=off”
¤ … and other possibilities
¤ Filesystem
¤ Reduce writes by mounting with noatime	
¤  Check	/etc/mtab
Confidential
Operating System
¤ In virtualized environments it is easy to over-commit
resources on a single host.
¤ Keep track of the host hosting the VMs
¤ Is it heavily loaded?
¤ CPU Steal (check on the VMs)?
¤ Is it swapping?
¤ Be prepared to kill off slow nodes
Confidential
#3: Backup
Confidential
Backup
¤ Logical backups
¤  mysqldump	
	
¤ Physical backups
¤ Percona XtraBackup
¤ Full / incremental backups
¤ Streaming backups
¤ Parallelism, compression and encryption
¤ Filesystem snapshots
¤ S3 / Glacier or Swift can be used for offline/offsite
storage
Confidential
Backup
¤ Implement a Backup Policy
¤ Full backup every night
¤ Incremental every 4 hours
¤ Enable Binary Logging
¤ PITR recovery!
Confidential
#4: Replication and Sync
Confidential
Replication and Sync
¤ Galera: IST vs SST
¤ IST (Incremental State Transfer) is (mostly) quicker
¤ Uses gcache to retrieve incremental state
¤ Avoid SST (Snapshot State Transfer) over WAN
¤ SST is triggered if the IST can’t use the gcache
Confidential
Replication and Sync
¤ Galera SST
¤  Ensure you are using a non-blocking SST method
¤  wsrep_sst_method=xtrabackup-v2
¤  Use other more optimal ways to synk larger DBs, e.g.
Snapshots
¤  Or a recent backup stored on the node or a disk
attached.
Confidential
Replication and Sync
¤ Dimension the gcache, example to handle a
maintenance window of 6 hours:
¤  Writes to cluster per second: 1MB/s
¤  Maintenance window (seconds) = 6 hours *60*60 = 21600s
¤  gcache size = 1 MB/s x 21600 s = 21GB
¤  1.5x or 2x the value to have margins:
¤  gcache.size=42G
¤  wsrep_provider_options=‘gcache.size=42G’;
Confidential
#5: Query Performance
Confidential
Query Performance
¤ A number of things to watch out for:
¤ Badly written queries or missing indexes
¤ DDL locking many records
BEGIN; SELECT * FROM t1 FOR UPDATE; …
LOCK TABLES .. ; /* do something */ ;
UNLOCK TABLES;
¤ DDL updating/deleting many records in one chunk
¤ Update/delete “small” batches of 1000-10000
records. Do not update 100000 records.
¤ Deadlocks and deadlock prone code
¤ E.g running two mysqldumps at the same time
¤ Updating the very same record in a very hot table
from multiple threads on multiple hosts
¤ Use your favorite tool to detect the problems
Confidential
Query Performance
¤ When performance grinds to a halt you want to
know!
Confidential
Query Performance
¤ You want to be warned about any slow downs
Confidential
Query Performance
¤ If a deadlock happens, have something your devs
can look at
Confidential
Query Performance
¤ And see if there is any overflow of queries happening
Confidential
#6: Schema Changes
Confidential
Schema Changes
¤ Make a plan on how to deal with schema changes
¤ MySQL replication and Galera apply DDL changes
differently!
¤ Compatible or In-compatible schema change?
¤ Naturally you have a test cluster to make sure your
plan sticks.
Confidential
Schema Changes
¤ Online schema change tools for MySQL:
¤ Facebook OSC
¤ Percona OSC
¤ Github Gh-ost
Confidential
Schema Changes
¤  MySQL Galera
¤  TOI (Total Order Isolation) is the default
¤  Executed on all nodes at the same time
¤  Works fine for non-copying ALTER TABLEs, otherwise is
locking
¤  Only on TINY tables (1000 records)
¤  If it takes 1 sec your app will be blocked for 1 sec.
¤  RSU (Rolling Schema Update)
¤  DDL is not replicated, so only executed locally
¤  Changes must be compatible with queries
executed on the other nodes
¤  For each node do :
SET GLOBAL wsrep_OSU_method=RSU;
ALTER TABLE …
Confidential
#7: Security / Encryption
Confidential
Security / Encryption
¤ Enable SSL client-server encryption
¤ MySQL protocols can be sniffed
¤ Encrypt replication links using SSL
¤ WAN Connections
¤ MySQL Galera
Confidential
#8: Reporting
Confidential
Reporting
¤ Try to separate OLTP and OLAP if possible
¤ Run reports off an (async) slave/secondary or dedicated
node
¤ Remember: huge queries eat CPU, RAM and DISK.
¤ Galera is not faster than its slowest node.
¤ Watch out for reports with side effects
¤ Large updates writing back?
Confidential
#9: Protecting from Disasters
Confidential
Protecting from Disaster
¤ Eventually a disaster will happen
¤ Software bugs
¤ Network / router upgrades
¤ Availability Zone / DC down
¤ Schema / software / hardware upgrade going wrong
¤ Too many connections
¤ User Errors
Confidential
Protecting from Disasters (Galera)
¤ One way of protecting from cluster failures is to use
an asynchronous slave replicating from the Galera
cluster.
¤ If the cluster would fail, the asynchronous slave could
take over and handle the application workload until
the cluster error has been resolved.
Confidential
Protecting from Disasters
¤ Using GTIDs (available from MySQL 5.6 and MariaDB
10.1* onwards) allows for easy fail-over from MASTER1
to MASTER2:
¤  slave> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST=’MASTER2’,
MASTER_AUTO_POSITION=1; START SLAVE;
*) - Yes, MariaDb 10.0 has GTID support also, but it is not integrated with Galera.
Confidential
Protecting from Disasters
¤ A common problem is overload situations, which can
originate from:
¤ DDOS
¤ Website is loading slow, user reload, creating more and
more connections
¤ Eventually the database server runs out of
connections (max_connections)
¤ Throttle connections with a load balancer!
¤ E.g HAProxy, ProxySQL, etc.
¤ Cache rarely changing data!
¤ Redis
¤ Memcached
Confidential
Protecting from Disasters
¤ Limit the # of backend
connections
¤ HAProxy will queue the
requests
Confidential
READY.FOR.PRODUCTION
Confidential
Q&A
Copyright Severalnines AB
43
Confidential
Thank You!
¤ ClusterControl
www.severalnines.com/product/clustercontrol
¤ ClusterControl – Getting Starte
www.severalnines.com/getting-started
¤ Polyglot Persistence meetups
http://goo.gl/64Ga5z
¤ Severalnines Blog
www.severalnines.com/blog
¤ Contact: info@severalnines.com
44

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Webinar slides: 9 DevOps Tips for Going in Production with Galera Cluster for MySQL / MariaDB

  • 1. Confidential 1 Your host & some logistics ¤ I'm Jean-Jérôme from the Severalnines Team and I'm your host for today's webinar! ¤ Feel free to ask any questions in the Questions section of this application or via the Chat box. ¤ You can also contact me directly via the chat box or via email: jj@severalnines.com during or after the webinar.
  • 2. Copyright 2016 Severalnines AB 2 About Severalnines and ClusterControl
  • 3. Confidential 3 What we do Manage Scale MonitorDeploy
  • 4. Copyright 2016 Severalnines AB 4 ClusterControl Automation & Management ¤ Provisioning ¤ Deploy a cluster in minutes ¤ On-premises or in the cloud (AWS) ¤ Monitoring ¤ Systems view ¤ 1sec resolution ¤ DB / OS stats & performance advisors ¤ Configurable dashboards ¤ Query Analyzer ¤ Real-time / historical Management Multi cluster/data-center Automate repair/recovery Database upgrades Backups Configuration management Cloning One-click scaling
  • 7. Confidential Agenda ¤ #1: 101 Sanity Check ¤ #2: Operating System ¤ #3: Backup Strategies ¤ #4: Replication & Sync ¤ #5: Query Performance ¤ #6: Schema Changes ¤ #7: Security / Encryption ¤ #8: Reporting ¤ #9: Managing from disaster ¤ Q&A 7 Copyright Severalnines AB
  • 9. Confidential 101 Sanity Check ¤ Ensure ALL tables are in the correct storage engine ¤ MySQL: InnoDB or XtraDB ¤ Innodb supports FULLTEXT indexes in MySQL 5.6 ¤ MYISAM tables - don’t use ¤ Disabled/forbidden support in Percona XtraDB 5.7 ERROR 1105 (HY000): Percona-XtraDB-Cluster prohibits use of LOCK TABLE/FLUSH TABLE <table> WITH READ LOCK with pxc_strict_mode = ENFORCING ¤ Ensure ALL tables have a PRIMARY KEY ¤ If no PRIMARY KEY is defined: add one! ¤ Ensure you have NO unbound queries ¤ E.g UPDATE <table> SET x=x+1 (and there are many rows) ¤ Update/delete in smaller batches (e.g 1000 records). ¤ UPDATE <table> SET x=x+1 LIMIT 1000
  • 10. Confidential 101 Sanity Check ¤ Ensure that the application can tolerate non- sequential auto increments. ¤ Galera manages the autoincrements. ¤ Redirect deadlock prone update queries on hot tables and rows to one of the Galera nodes: ¤ E.g UPDATE counter_tbl SET counter = counter +1; ¤ http://www.severalnines.com/blog/avoiding-deadlocks- galera- set-haproxy-single-node-writes-and-multi-node- reads ¤ Ensure your application does not use LOCK TABLES ¤ Use wsrep_sst_method=xtrabackup-v2
  • 11. Confidential 101 Sanity (WAN replication) ¤  Galera ¤  Increase timeouts wsrep_provider_options=”evs.keepalive_period=PT3S; evs.inactive_check_period=PT10S; evs.suspect_timeout=PT30S; evs.inactive_timeout=PT1M; evs.install_timeout=PT1M; evs.send_window=1024; evs.user_send_window=512”; ¤  This will relax how fast a node will be evicted from the cluster. ¤  Usually default values are good if networks with a ping time of <10-15 ms
  • 13. Confidential Operating System ¤ Swapping ¤ echo “1” > /proc/sys/vm/swappiness ¤ NUMA on Multi-socket ¤ Lead to contention and strange lock ups, but has been mostly resolved nowadays ¤ Is it enabled: ¤  dmesg | grep –i numa ¤ Grub boot option ”numa=off” ¤ … and other possibilities ¤ Filesystem ¤ Reduce writes by mounting with noatime ¤  Check /etc/mtab
  • 14. Confidential Operating System ¤ In virtualized environments it is easy to over-commit resources on a single host. ¤ Keep track of the host hosting the VMs ¤ Is it heavily loaded? ¤ CPU Steal (check on the VMs)? ¤ Is it swapping? ¤ Be prepared to kill off slow nodes
  • 16. Confidential Backup ¤ Logical backups ¤  mysqldump ¤ Physical backups ¤ Percona XtraBackup ¤ Full / incremental backups ¤ Streaming backups ¤ Parallelism, compression and encryption ¤ Filesystem snapshots ¤ S3 / Glacier or Swift can be used for offline/offsite storage
  • 17. Confidential Backup ¤ Implement a Backup Policy ¤ Full backup every night ¤ Incremental every 4 hours ¤ Enable Binary Logging ¤ PITR recovery!
  • 19. Confidential Replication and Sync ¤ Galera: IST vs SST ¤ IST (Incremental State Transfer) is (mostly) quicker ¤ Uses gcache to retrieve incremental state ¤ Avoid SST (Snapshot State Transfer) over WAN ¤ SST is triggered if the IST can’t use the gcache
  • 20. Confidential Replication and Sync ¤ Galera SST ¤  Ensure you are using a non-blocking SST method ¤  wsrep_sst_method=xtrabackup-v2 ¤  Use other more optimal ways to synk larger DBs, e.g. Snapshots ¤  Or a recent backup stored on the node or a disk attached.
  • 21. Confidential Replication and Sync ¤ Dimension the gcache, example to handle a maintenance window of 6 hours: ¤  Writes to cluster per second: 1MB/s ¤  Maintenance window (seconds) = 6 hours *60*60 = 21600s ¤  gcache size = 1 MB/s x 21600 s = 21GB ¤  1.5x or 2x the value to have margins: ¤  gcache.size=42G ¤  wsrep_provider_options=‘gcache.size=42G’;
  • 23. Confidential Query Performance ¤ A number of things to watch out for: ¤ Badly written queries or missing indexes ¤ DDL locking many records BEGIN; SELECT * FROM t1 FOR UPDATE; … LOCK TABLES .. ; /* do something */ ; UNLOCK TABLES; ¤ DDL updating/deleting many records in one chunk ¤ Update/delete “small” batches of 1000-10000 records. Do not update 100000 records. ¤ Deadlocks and deadlock prone code ¤ E.g running two mysqldumps at the same time ¤ Updating the very same record in a very hot table from multiple threads on multiple hosts ¤ Use your favorite tool to detect the problems
  • 24. Confidential Query Performance ¤ When performance grinds to a halt you want to know!
  • 25. Confidential Query Performance ¤ You want to be warned about any slow downs
  • 26. Confidential Query Performance ¤ If a deadlock happens, have something your devs can look at
  • 27. Confidential Query Performance ¤ And see if there is any overflow of queries happening
  • 29. Confidential Schema Changes ¤ Make a plan on how to deal with schema changes ¤ MySQL replication and Galera apply DDL changes differently! ¤ Compatible or In-compatible schema change? ¤ Naturally you have a test cluster to make sure your plan sticks.
  • 30. Confidential Schema Changes ¤ Online schema change tools for MySQL: ¤ Facebook OSC ¤ Percona OSC ¤ Github Gh-ost
  • 31. Confidential Schema Changes ¤  MySQL Galera ¤  TOI (Total Order Isolation) is the default ¤  Executed on all nodes at the same time ¤  Works fine for non-copying ALTER TABLEs, otherwise is locking ¤  Only on TINY tables (1000 records) ¤  If it takes 1 sec your app will be blocked for 1 sec. ¤  RSU (Rolling Schema Update) ¤  DDL is not replicated, so only executed locally ¤  Changes must be compatible with queries executed on the other nodes ¤  For each node do : SET GLOBAL wsrep_OSU_method=RSU; ALTER TABLE …
  • 33. Confidential Security / Encryption ¤ Enable SSL client-server encryption ¤ MySQL protocols can be sniffed ¤ Encrypt replication links using SSL ¤ WAN Connections ¤ MySQL Galera
  • 35. Confidential Reporting ¤ Try to separate OLTP and OLAP if possible ¤ Run reports off an (async) slave/secondary or dedicated node ¤ Remember: huge queries eat CPU, RAM and DISK. ¤ Galera is not faster than its slowest node. ¤ Watch out for reports with side effects ¤ Large updates writing back?
  • 37. Confidential Protecting from Disaster ¤ Eventually a disaster will happen ¤ Software bugs ¤ Network / router upgrades ¤ Availability Zone / DC down ¤ Schema / software / hardware upgrade going wrong ¤ Too many connections ¤ User Errors
  • 38. Confidential Protecting from Disasters (Galera) ¤ One way of protecting from cluster failures is to use an asynchronous slave replicating from the Galera cluster. ¤ If the cluster would fail, the asynchronous slave could take over and handle the application workload until the cluster error has been resolved.
  • 39. Confidential Protecting from Disasters ¤ Using GTIDs (available from MySQL 5.6 and MariaDB 10.1* onwards) allows for easy fail-over from MASTER1 to MASTER2: ¤  slave> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST=’MASTER2’, MASTER_AUTO_POSITION=1; START SLAVE; *) - Yes, MariaDb 10.0 has GTID support also, but it is not integrated with Galera.
  • 40. Confidential Protecting from Disasters ¤ A common problem is overload situations, which can originate from: ¤ DDOS ¤ Website is loading slow, user reload, creating more and more connections ¤ Eventually the database server runs out of connections (max_connections) ¤ Throttle connections with a load balancer! ¤ E.g HAProxy, ProxySQL, etc. ¤ Cache rarely changing data! ¤ Redis ¤ Memcached
  • 41. Confidential Protecting from Disasters ¤ Limit the # of backend connections ¤ HAProxy will queue the requests
  • 44. Confidential Thank You! ¤ ClusterControl www.severalnines.com/product/clustercontrol ¤ ClusterControl – Getting Starte www.severalnines.com/getting-started ¤ Polyglot Persistence meetups http://goo.gl/64Ga5z ¤ Severalnines Blog www.severalnines.com/blog ¤ Contact: info@severalnines.com 44