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How to prepare for the sunset of 2G & 3G cellular communications
A Westermo Webinar
June 3rd, 2021
By Ant Lane and Wesley Nel
2
Presenters
Ant Lane
Technical Solutions
Engineer
Presenter
Wesley Nel
Remote Access Expert
Presenter
Evelina Öhlander
Communications Specialist
Moderator
3
Introduction
Who we are and what we do
 Westermo products are used for
creating the most reliable networks
possible for critical control systems
Solutions to industrial challenges
 Westermo has specifically developed
solutions to meet the extreme
requirements for mission critical
industrial control systems
The most reliable products on the market
 Westermo products are designed for
use in harsh environments and allow
you to build cost-effective, reliable,
secure industrial networks
4
 What and where is 2G & 3G?
 What is the 2G/3G sunset?
 Challenges of a sunset
 Recommendations
 What's next?
 Technical overview of cellular communication
 What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ
 Installing cellular
 System impact
 Are you prepared for a switch off?
Todays topics
5
What is 2G and 3G?
 It is the 2nd and 3rd
generation of cellular
technology
 Just like 4G & 5G are the 4th
and 5th
 With each generation, different technology,
frequencies and modulations are used
 Usually increase bandwidth and coverage
 Lower latency
6
Where is 2G and 3G?
 It is everywhere!
 Water
 Energy
 Trackside
 Industrial Automation
7
What is the 2G/3G sunset?
8
What is the 2G/3G sunset?
 Mobile Network Operators
(MNO) are planning to turn
services off
 Free up the radio spectrum
for other technologies
 MNO’s can focus on more
advanced technologies
rather than maintaining
older, aging systems
 It won’t happen overnight
 3G may go before 2G
9
Challenges of a Sunset
 There are many devices still using 2G/3G
 Millions of smart meters in the UK with an
expected service life of 15 years
 For an MNO to sunset/shutdown a
cellular generation the user base should
be below 1%
 KT (South Korea)
 Softbank and NTT Docomo (Japan)
 The 2G network still carries a lot of voice
traffic
 Universal coverage
 Despite advance warnings, systems will
fail if not prepared
10
Check with your local mobile network operator
Recommendation 1
 MNO’s will advise when services are
being turned off
 Check the source of the information
 Speculation can lead to decisions being
made in haste
 2G/3G sunset is location dependent
 Australia switched of 2G in 2018
 Germany planning to turn 3G off in 2021
 Currently no date in the UK
Examples
 PSTN sunset in UK. Ofcom & BT both
outlining timescales
 2018 ISDN shutdown in Germany
 Customer had time to prepare for
shutdown
 Replacement infrastructure enabled
migration to alternative technology
11
 Option to still use legacy equipment
with 4G enabled devices
 Serial over IP
 Only need to upgrade communications
equipment, not the whole system
Understand the impact of the shutdown
on your system
Recommendation 2
 Changing over many devices can be
time consuming, difficult and costly
 4G enabled devices enable support
for 2G/3G whilst it is still available
 4G brings higher data rates,
bandwidth and lower latency
12
Understanding the technology
Recommendation 3
 4G has far exceeded 2G/3G expectation
 Lower frequencies enabled coverage in
previously inaccessible areas
 Higher frequencies enabled support for
high dense environments
 4G User Equipment (UE) Categories
define how equipment communicate
UE Category Data Rate
CAT-1 Up to 10Mbit/s
CAT-4 Up to 100Mbit/s
CAT-12 Up to 600Mbit/s
CAT-19 Up to 1566 Mbit/s
13
Next generation technology
 4G is still a great choice and current
 Cellular technologies will coexist
 5G is on its way
 High bandwidth
 Low latency
 Private LTE
 LTE450
14
 Sunsetting a technology is no easy task
 Keep up to date with official statements from
MNOs & regulators
 Find out how much your system could be
impacted with a technology sunset
 Understanding the technology can help you
choose the right replacement product
Key takeaways
15
 What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ?
 Installing cellular - Considerations
 System Impact
Technical breakdown
16
RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indicator
What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ
RSSI indicates the power level that is being received after any possible loss at the antenna
and cable and is measure in dBm. This value can be used as a measurement of how well a
receiver can “hear” a signal form a sender. Reporting range is 0 to -120dBm (0 best, -120
worst)
2G/3G/4G
-65dBm -75dBm -85dBm -95dBm -110dBm
17
RSRP – Reference Signal Received Power
What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ
-70dBm -80dBm -90dBm -100dBm > -100dBm
18
RSRQ – Reference Signal Received Quality
What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ
-5 to -10dB
-10 to -15dB
-15 to -20
-20 to -25dB
>-5dB
<-25dB
19
Installing cellular – Things to consider
 Installation
 Product
 Antenna
 Cable run
 Low loss coaxial cables (short)
 Ethernet cables (longer)
 Know your site
 Site Survey
 Antenna diversity
21
System Impact
 “If its not broken, then don’t fix it”
 Installation
 How much does it cost if it doesn’t work?
 What is the cost of poor installation? Callouts
 Total cost of ownership
 Why you shouldn’t put the antenna inside
 Sometimes customers can not mount them inside
 Warranty/Ingress Protection (IP) rating
 Increase signal by 10dB
22
 Signal Indicators – RSSI, RSRP & RSRQ
 Things to consider - cellular installations
 System impact
Key Points
23
Are you prepared for a switch off?
2G/3G will be shut off globally
2G, 4G and 5G will operate in combination with each other
Check the facts! Sourcing valid information
Cellular communications requires a good signal strength and quality
24
Summary
The sun is setting
for 2G & 3G
cellular
technologies
Check with your
MNO and local
regulator for next
steps
RSSI is not the
only factor with
mobile
connections.
RSRP & RSRQ play
a vital role
It is about giving
mobile networks
the best
opportunity
Westermo can
help
Be prepared,
don’t be
caught out
25

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Webinar how to prepare for the sunset of 2G and 3G cellular communications

  • 1. How to prepare for the sunset of 2G & 3G cellular communications A Westermo Webinar June 3rd, 2021 By Ant Lane and Wesley Nel
  • 2. 2 Presenters Ant Lane Technical Solutions Engineer Presenter Wesley Nel Remote Access Expert Presenter Evelina Öhlander Communications Specialist Moderator
  • 3. 3 Introduction Who we are and what we do  Westermo products are used for creating the most reliable networks possible for critical control systems Solutions to industrial challenges  Westermo has specifically developed solutions to meet the extreme requirements for mission critical industrial control systems The most reliable products on the market  Westermo products are designed for use in harsh environments and allow you to build cost-effective, reliable, secure industrial networks
  • 4. 4  What and where is 2G & 3G?  What is the 2G/3G sunset?  Challenges of a sunset  Recommendations  What's next?  Technical overview of cellular communication  What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ  Installing cellular  System impact  Are you prepared for a switch off? Todays topics
  • 5. 5 What is 2G and 3G?  It is the 2nd and 3rd generation of cellular technology  Just like 4G & 5G are the 4th and 5th  With each generation, different technology, frequencies and modulations are used  Usually increase bandwidth and coverage  Lower latency
  • 6. 6 Where is 2G and 3G?  It is everywhere!  Water  Energy  Trackside  Industrial Automation
  • 7. 7 What is the 2G/3G sunset?
  • 8. 8 What is the 2G/3G sunset?  Mobile Network Operators (MNO) are planning to turn services off  Free up the radio spectrum for other technologies  MNO’s can focus on more advanced technologies rather than maintaining older, aging systems  It won’t happen overnight  3G may go before 2G
  • 9. 9 Challenges of a Sunset  There are many devices still using 2G/3G  Millions of smart meters in the UK with an expected service life of 15 years  For an MNO to sunset/shutdown a cellular generation the user base should be below 1%  KT (South Korea)  Softbank and NTT Docomo (Japan)  The 2G network still carries a lot of voice traffic  Universal coverage  Despite advance warnings, systems will fail if not prepared
  • 10. 10 Check with your local mobile network operator Recommendation 1  MNO’s will advise when services are being turned off  Check the source of the information  Speculation can lead to decisions being made in haste  2G/3G sunset is location dependent  Australia switched of 2G in 2018  Germany planning to turn 3G off in 2021  Currently no date in the UK Examples  PSTN sunset in UK. Ofcom & BT both outlining timescales  2018 ISDN shutdown in Germany  Customer had time to prepare for shutdown  Replacement infrastructure enabled migration to alternative technology
  • 11. 11  Option to still use legacy equipment with 4G enabled devices  Serial over IP  Only need to upgrade communications equipment, not the whole system Understand the impact of the shutdown on your system Recommendation 2  Changing over many devices can be time consuming, difficult and costly  4G enabled devices enable support for 2G/3G whilst it is still available  4G brings higher data rates, bandwidth and lower latency
  • 12. 12 Understanding the technology Recommendation 3  4G has far exceeded 2G/3G expectation  Lower frequencies enabled coverage in previously inaccessible areas  Higher frequencies enabled support for high dense environments  4G User Equipment (UE) Categories define how equipment communicate UE Category Data Rate CAT-1 Up to 10Mbit/s CAT-4 Up to 100Mbit/s CAT-12 Up to 600Mbit/s CAT-19 Up to 1566 Mbit/s
  • 13. 13 Next generation technology  4G is still a great choice and current  Cellular technologies will coexist  5G is on its way  High bandwidth  Low latency  Private LTE  LTE450
  • 14. 14  Sunsetting a technology is no easy task  Keep up to date with official statements from MNOs & regulators  Find out how much your system could be impacted with a technology sunset  Understanding the technology can help you choose the right replacement product Key takeaways
  • 15. 15  What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ?  Installing cellular - Considerations  System Impact Technical breakdown
  • 16. 16 RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indicator What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ RSSI indicates the power level that is being received after any possible loss at the antenna and cable and is measure in dBm. This value can be used as a measurement of how well a receiver can “hear” a signal form a sender. Reporting range is 0 to -120dBm (0 best, -120 worst) 2G/3G/4G -65dBm -75dBm -85dBm -95dBm -110dBm
  • 17. 17 RSRP – Reference Signal Received Power What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ -70dBm -80dBm -90dBm -100dBm > -100dBm
  • 18. 18 RSRQ – Reference Signal Received Quality What is RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ -5 to -10dB -10 to -15dB -15 to -20 -20 to -25dB >-5dB <-25dB
  • 19. 19 Installing cellular – Things to consider  Installation  Product  Antenna  Cable run  Low loss coaxial cables (short)  Ethernet cables (longer)  Know your site  Site Survey  Antenna diversity
  • 20. 21 System Impact  “If its not broken, then don’t fix it”  Installation  How much does it cost if it doesn’t work?  What is the cost of poor installation? Callouts  Total cost of ownership  Why you shouldn’t put the antenna inside  Sometimes customers can not mount them inside  Warranty/Ingress Protection (IP) rating  Increase signal by 10dB
  • 21. 22  Signal Indicators – RSSI, RSRP & RSRQ  Things to consider - cellular installations  System impact Key Points
  • 22. 23 Are you prepared for a switch off? 2G/3G will be shut off globally 2G, 4G and 5G will operate in combination with each other Check the facts! Sourcing valid information Cellular communications requires a good signal strength and quality
  • 23. 24 Summary The sun is setting for 2G & 3G cellular technologies Check with your MNO and local regulator for next steps RSSI is not the only factor with mobile connections. RSRP & RSRQ play a vital role It is about giving mobile networks the best opportunity Westermo can help Be prepared, don’t be caught out
  • 24. 25

Editor's Notes

  1. Manufacturer and vendor of Industrial data communications products for mission-critical systems in harsh environments. 
  2. Soo.. What is this 2g 3g sunset everyone is talking about?
  3. GDW-11 was a successful product for Westermo – In the UK we are still replacing this unit and still get the odd request for this product (which we can fulfill in most cases with our other product ranges) One example is the rollout out of smart meters in the UK. Smart meters give consumers (business & personal) near real time information on energy use displayed in GBP. Two version of Smart Meters (SMERTS 1 & 2) both communicate using the existing 2G network on previously negotiated cellular contracts The service life of smart meter was agreed in 2013, that the devices be communicate either using the 2G or 3G network for 15 years (ending in 2029). However, the rollout has been delayed, extending in to 2024, four more years than previously planned, again with an expectation of 15 years service life. Currently there is no 4G model and the devices search for a 3G network first, then if unavailable uses 2G. If the 3G network is disabled nationwide, communication will need to rely on the 2G infrastructure. And this is just one example! Furthermore, for a sunset to happen, the user base is recommended to be below 1% https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2011/12/08/2g-or-not-2g-korean-courts-orders-kt-to-continue-service/   On the other hand Japanese cellular provides (Softbank and NTT Docomo) successfully reduced 2G coverage to 0.3% to turn of 2G in 2017 https://www.smartcitiesworld.net/news/news/not-so-fast-2g-switch-off-could-impact-smart-meters-the-elderly-and-critical-services-4701   For context eCall is a emergency call service either automatically or manually activated if a vehicle is in an accident. It provides voice communication between emergency services and the persons in the incident There is also no full 4G cover to replace the 2G/3G network if it is turned off. “Dark spots” or “Not Spots” especially in rural areas rely on 2G connectivity for remote access. In the UK, there are ongoing talks between MNOs to collectively create coverage for remote areas to ensure coverage on a technology sunset San Francisco’s Muni (Metro System) used GPS via NextBus on AT&T’s 2G network for real time location data AT&T announced in 2012, that by 2017 this system would be turned off San Fran Transport Authority, SFMTA did not prepare and had problems with access over two thirds of it’s fleet
  4. For the public switched telephone network (PSTN) switch-off in the UK, BT (an internet service provider) itself had provided an official press release, supported by Ofcom, outlining that PSTNs will be switched off by 2025.   Germany switched off its ISDN network in 2018 to create the way for an all IP network. To ensure that users still had access to ‘analogue lines’, boxes on the street supplied an IP backbone to the ISP, with the last meters kept as a connection for existing telephones. This has enabled customers to prepare for a ‘switch-off’ and migrate to a fixed line replacement (ADSL/VDSL https://business.bt.com/insights/digital-transformation/uk-pstn-switch-off/ https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0032/137966/future-fixed-telephone-services.pdf https://www.telekom.com/en/company/details/five-facts-about-the-ip-migration-596110
  5. Bridge over to why 4G is a good replacement
  6. 5G is blowing this out of the water 4G does not = good Reference to wes giving some insight
  7. Why is 4g is important – view from using a good technology
  8. Most of us are familiar with RSSI which relates to the Received Signal and SINR/SNR of the given Signal, but RSRP and RSRQ are relatively New and were introduced with the implementation of LTE/4G. All of these Signal indicators or Signal Reference indicators are a measure of power. RSSI – measures the Received signal of the whole band and is quite commonly used as a reference point for what is a good or bad signal. So why are RSRP and RSRQ relevant? LTE or FTN block has certain amount of resource blocks and you also sometimes have more than one antenna so you need to measure specifically the power essentially the base station reference signals which is always there. The other signals come and go as people are using it. So that is why we need to measure the LTE Specific reference signal and they do relate to RSSI and SNR. RSRP – RSRP is a RSSI type of measurement, as follows there are some definition of it and some details as well. It is the power of the LTE Reference Signals spread over the full bandwidth and narrowband. A minimum of -20 dB SINR (of the S-Synch channel) is needed to detect RSRP/RSRQ RSRQ – Quality considering also RSSI and the number of used Resource Blocks (N) RSRQ = (N * RSRP) / RSSI measured over the same bandwidth. RSRQ is a C/I type of measurement and it indicates the quality of the received reference signal. The RSRQ measurement provides additional information when RSRP is not sufficient to make a reliable handover or cell reselection decision. 
  9. RSRP – RSRP is a measure of signal strength. It is the average power of the LTE Resource Elements that carry cell specific Reference Signals spread over the entire bandwidth. Its important for cell selection and reselection process and is reported to the network to aid in the handover procedure. Reporting range is -44 to -140dBm The 3GPP spec description for RSRP is determined for a considered cell as the linear average over the power contributions (watts) of the resource elements that they carry. Cell specific Reference Signals within the considered measurement for frequency bandwidth. It is the average power of the LTE Resource Elements that carry cell specific Reference Signals spread over the entire bandwidth. Its important for cell selection and reselection process and is reported to the network to aid in the handover procedure. Reporting range is -44 to -140dBm https://www.twilio.com/docs/iot/supersim/how-determine-good-cellular-signal-strength
  10. RSRQ – RSRQ provides an indication of signal Quality. RSRQ is a calculated value from RSRP and RSSI is measure of signal and interference. Less interference means better quality. The closer to -3dB the higher the speeds. Reporting range is -3 to -20dB
  11. In past it was 2 different networks, primary & backup Unsteered are like Mobius, WL or Arkessa, Emnify – don’t have a network but re sell and configure sims for customers.
  12. Replacing 2G could be expensive exercise. Most Industrial routers come with Serial/IP interface. Weather Humidity A water company Every 3dB is a double. 10dB offers loads. Pander to legacy view
  13. There is no global schedule Countries/companies are doing this at different rates 3G being turned off is very likely with 2G most likely being kept online. Think we are going to see 2G live longer than we expected