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WEALTH BASED APPROACHES OF LEGAL
STRUCTURES
SOLVING SOCIALAND CULTURAL DILEMMAS
GHERISSI, HEGAZI,.Y. (2014)
Ph.D. thesis in Philosophy
The development of leadership and management
University Atlantic International
United States
Key words
Social theory- Constructivism- Law- Culture – Environment –Management-
Economics- Democracy- Social contracts - Distributive justice- Equality-
globalization- women’s rights- Sustainability
"Democracy is not the law of the majority but the protection of the
minority“ - Albert Camus (1913-1960)
Research in sociological literatures states that people think and take
action according to their cognitive structure and that technology is
perceived with an understanding of change from old to news
technologies that integrate specialty and demarcation. And socio-
technical systems incorporate sociological processes that lead to the
visionary leadership. This basic concept validates that policy and socio-
technical linkage provides a framework of governance system and
ensures environment sustainability. Consequently the adaptive
governance corporate social responsibility and drives visionary political
and managerial leadership.
First word
The social studies changed my life and helped me to identify my
skills and exploit it efficiently. I know today more than ever that
we are born with our entire rights to enjoy life and to be a part of
the social order which is essential to smooth the progress of
civilization.
The role of community leaders in the civil society is greatly
requested to change society attitudes toward pessimist fate. It
does emphasize that cultivation of nations is available through
public services and charities.
However, modern disciplines in education allowed us "the
countries of economic crisis" to access andragogy at distance
learning and to gain talents in the organization of societies and in
the socio-political decency.
INDEX
1. Social Constructionism as Critical realism of philosophy of
Science
2- Objectives
3- Sociology disciplines: A broad And Diverse fields of Research
& Application
4. Sociological theory: Social Reality
5-Social contracts: The limits of human Understanding and the
Function of Civil Government
6- Globalization: Building Competence for sustainability
7- General Recommendations
The environment is part of the critical decision making, industry
and education
8-Conclusion
Equality: law & policy & feminist theory
1. Social Constructionism as Critical realism of philosophy of Science
Preamble to moral and legal concepts
The world economic crisis explores the responsibilities of governments of the
developing countries and international economic reports revealed the
volatility of the economy and the inequality in the distribution of assets even
laws in developing countries are still discriminatory and governments try
always to incline rules in their interests. The Arabic spring is the best
example of inequities that showed a violent revolt from the poorest people
who were totally excluded from the economy assets. In other part
globalization today is the outcome of the advanced technologies that allowed
people to meet through the social websites like twitter, face book, LinkedIn
etc. Consequently we have to keep in mind that laws built on reason spread
equality, transparency and commitments among societies. Globalization is
designed to improve the global governance structures and its economic and
social statures. In addition that globalization created a decentralization
system and global arrangements were formulated to ensure effectiveness in
accountability and equities.
Common laws are a part of our cultural tradition
Decision making is seen as a cognitive process of numerous
options that lead to final choice. And decision making is a
rational process in disregard of its morality or its immorality that
depends on the individual's beliefs. Ethical principles vary
according to decisions and arguments. Consequently ethics are
formulating according to decision making and organization
motivation. Decision makers must act according to pre-
assessment and necessary information that make them having
better understanding from situations, and must asking
themselves are the decisions legal or fair? And how decisions
are important and can change situations positively? Ethics here
define a system that affects attitudes in the formulation of the
work norms. Rules are often reformulated in order to avoid
nuisance of others, to motivate people in their work and to foster
a climate of trust and fairness
Social constructionism distinguishes a negative impact on the environment and
its societies. And according to my experience countries of privation have
tendency to religious fanaticism like for example in Palestinian Territories in the
high fragmented areas, communities are living according to their beliefs and
negative traditions are formulated in manner that discriminate women and
expose them to forfeit. In the marriage for example, girls and women need the
authorization of their father to get marry in disregard of their age and if father
died women still need the authorization of tutor among their uncles or near
parents or their sons. In addition the tutor has the right to disagree the marriage
and they commonly reject the idea of marriage because it does not correlate
with their personal interests. Consequently in the Middle East the tribal regime
is still encountering impediments for women and cultural belief places women
at second rank. Personally and according to my modest experience in the
humanitarian action since 15 years in areas at high risks, I state that inequality
leads to unequal poverty, increases injustice, angry and prevent modernism
and mutual understanding of people.
Sociology is a part of society study and critical analysis is developed to identify
the system to know the human activity. The theorists of sociology link sociology
to the social policy and safety and they focused their researches on the
theoretical perceptions of social system between individual people and
comprehensive rank of the social organization, like for example the advanced
technologies that increased scientific knowledge and promoted the areas of
health, policies and penalties. In addition philosophical approaches stated that
cultural turns and linguistic of the middle of the twentieth century led to deep
investigations of human thinking. Consequently sociology associates ancestral
cultures, social activity, religion, law and secularization. And theorists argued
that social structure and society are impacted on the human activity.
2-Objectives
•
Know the leading theories of motivation;
•
Be familiar with current research in workplace motivation;
•
Know how to conduct, evaluate and cite secondary re-search;
•
Be able to apply theories to workplace situations;
•
Have had an opportunity to develop policies, programs and
strategies to improve workplace motivation and maximize
employee potential;
3-Sociology disciplines:AbroadAnd Diverse fields of Research &
Application
The French philosopher August Comte (1798-1857), the specialist of philosophy
and called the father of sociology created the term of sociology in 1838.He believed
that science could be used to study the social word and to identify the laws
governing our social lives. However Comte introduced the concept of positivism to
sociology and the manner to understand the social word that associate scientific
facts. He believed that people are able to build a better future and that process of
change play a fundamental role in orienting societies. The rationalism here calls to
the reason and to make people aware of their rights to live a prosperous life and to
engage them in their part of responsibility as individuals and as good citizens.
Sociologists argued that populations are influenced by their governments that
nurture a culture of altruism and possession on their societies. And what it is
happen today after the Arabic spring is the incapacity of the new governors to deal
with institutions totally lawlessness due to the corruption of the ancient political
regimes. The ancient dictators built institutions without objectivism and policies were
formulated in order to serve their interests, in addition those governmental
employees were engaged according to their political affiliation and not according to
employment norms.
Field of Research
Disciplines
Marriage- divorce- child rearing – domestic
abuse
Sociology of the family
Population's composition – birth rate, fertility
rate- death rate- infant mortality rate- migration-
demographics between societies, groups and
communities
Demography
Social effects, societal attitudes toward illnesses,
diseases, disabilities, aging process with medical
sociology
Sociology of health and
illness
Human societies – religious symbols and
ceremonies
Religion as a belief system and a social
institutions
Sociology of religion
Application of sociological theory and
methodology to the internet as a source of
information and communication
Social implications of new technology
Sociology of the internet
Human interactions and study of the outcomes of
these interactions
Sociology of race and
ethnicity
Social and cultural dimension defined
biologically and culturally able to change
Sociology of gender
Sociology and Organizations
Organizations are characterized by 6 textures:
A network of individuals
A system
Coordinated activities
The division of labor
Goal orientation and the continuity over time, regardless
of change in individual membership
Social learning theory includes
The situations (referred to as the stimulus situation)
The behavioral response of the associate or manager to the situation
And the consequences of the response for the associate or manager
Motivation and stress
Achievement motivation determines:
Aspiration, effort and persistence in evaluating performance in
ourselves and others
Approval Motivation
Generate personalities that are concerned about the approval of others
Job stress is the feeling that one’s capabilities, resources or needs do not match the
Factors that reduce stress in the workplace are:
Mental and emotional intelligence,
attitude and organizational
commitment
4-Sociological theory and social reality
The division of schools links to philosophical
argument of social reality that investigates the
variety of sociologies.
Social constructionismas life- threateningin the philosophyof
science
Epistemology Theoretical
perspective
Methodology Methods
Objectivism
Constructionism
Subjectivism
(their variants)
Positivism and post-
positivism
interpretivism
Symbolic
interactionism
Phenomenology
Hermeneutics
Critical inquiry
Feminism
Postmodernism etc..
Experimental
research
Survey research
Ethnography
phenomenological
research
grounded theory
heuristic inquiry
action research
discourse analysis
Feminist
standpoint
research etc..
Sampling measurement and
scaling questionnaire
Observation
Participants
Non-participants
Interview
Focus group
Case study
Life history
Narrative visual ethnographic
Methods statistical analysis
Data reduction
Theme reduction
Theme identification
Comparative analysis
Cognitive mapping
Interpretative methods
Document analysis
Content analysis
Conversation analysis etc…
Constructionism
Symbolic interactionism
Ethnography
Participant Observation
Objectivism
statistical analysis
Positivism
Survey
Research
5-Social contracts: the limits of human understanding and the function of
civil government
The social contract is a theory that originates society and the legitimacy
of the authority over regimes and individuals. It's stated that laws must
be formulated according to citizen rights, the protection of society and
the public service sectors. And the emergence of the excessive
richness and the excessive poverty denotes the unconsciousness of
decision makers in their duty of serving their nations with a high civic
engagement.
The religion role in the societal progress
The religious role in societal progress remains the challenge to
observe the development of nations and to recognize the failures
and the success in the thinking of theories. And studies and
research were influenced by religious theoretical concepts as
seen in China, India, Indonesia, South Africa and Eastern
Europe. Religions here associate Confucianism and Taoism in
China and Taiwan, the Christianity in Russia, Islam in Indonesia
and the capitalism in the Eastern of Europe. In fact the notion of
capitalism for example is seen as a system that traduces an
economic and political development and institutions are originally
developed according to religious ethics. However Shari' a law in
the Muslim countries is the ground of laws formulation and the
adoption of attitudinal values that define the economy policy.
•
Rawl’s mature theory of social justice
It’s related the idea that citizen are free and should live in dignity
(Rawl's Mature theory of social justice, 1971)
The justice is a perception that liberates persons and proclaims them free and
equal. In other part, the sense of justice links to the cognitive capacity to feel
and to act according to justice principles and in total social cooperation. But
the conception of the good here is the manner to determinate what is valuable
in our life, and how much our goals are reaching loyalties toward communities,
populations, groups or civil society.
The principle here is that Individuals should be treated equally, unless they
differ in ways and according to significant situation in which they are involved.
For example, if Helena and Juliet do the same work in the same time without
no significant differences between them on the work they are doing, according
to justice they should earn the same salary. But if Helena is paid more than
Juliet because she has relativity with employer, then it is an example of
injustice and a form of discrimination that violate the relevant norms of work.
Social contract: Reasonable citizens come from fair terms
of social cooperation
The justice is conveying:
Distributive justice
It is an organizational behavior that focuses on the fairness of rewards such us: wealth, power and
respect
Retributive justice
Is the social justice among societies that considers punishment as a response to crimes and it's
considered as the social democratic approach to the issues of social justice
Compensatory justice
Is an Indemnity to injured person as due compensation. It is used according to a standard of
rightness and fairness with the capacity to judge without mention to feelings or interests;
The Israeli are looking to serve interests of the powerful countries in exchange of their complicity. And
it's not difficult to guess that unfair decisions from the legal institutions lead to the total corruption of
the government, institutions and societies and when the court of justice is corrupted then coup of
state or revolts are expected.
It's the case of the Arabic spring and of other countries of the Middle East, like in Syria, in Jordan and
the special case of Palestinian Territories. It's imperative to recognize the historical change that we
experience and we need for that rationality to understand the world and the different ideas of
universal order that emerge from governments. The history defines the development of globalization
reason and the evolution of the globalization is the results of the modern theory of the world broad
civilizations.
Specific principles of distributive justice
The theory of strict egalitarianism stipulated that every person has the same level of right in the
distribution of goods and services. The principle here is that people have the right of equal respect and
to benefit from economic assets according to the terms of justice and fairness.
Each person has the right to claim his equal basic rights and freedoms in the equal political liberties
which must be guaranteed by their fair significance;
Institutions and organizations must apply the security operational procedures that satisfy work
conditions in fair equality of opportunity and in benefit of the least advantaged members of society.
Equality here is the moral motivation that spread equal respect for people. And the principle of
difference remains in the differences in incomes which affirm that people who earn greater income,
furnish greater productive effort. It does contribute to the wealth of the most disadvantaged people in
the society.
Merit-seniority
Persons should be rewarded financially according to the number of years they have held a job
Merit-Effort
Persons should be rewarded financially according to their work effort and time-frame
Merit-Output
Persons should be rewarded financially according to their quantity and quality of their work
Impact of religions in theoretical concepts of economics
The notion of capitalism showed as a system that traduces an
economic and political development and that institutions and reforms
are initially developed within a religious context, like for example:
The Shari 'a law in the Muslim countries is the ground of ethical laws;
The adoption of attitudes and values that define the economy policy,
like by the "protestant ethic
The spread of societal ideas that lead to predict people attitudes,
behavior and morality;
The encouragement of the self- autonomy is contradictory to fatalistic
acceptance;
The stabilizing of a society's power structure and the legitimate
religious that control the economic action;
Business networks are based on ethnic duties like for example; the
regional ethnic Chinese in the Southeast Asia shared Confucian
thoughts for the reason that both of them have reciprocal duties. And
spiritual capital is seen as a possible good or a bad influence.
Consequently specific laws are to be determined by the majority of
citizens with voting rights. The doctrine of right emphasizes the
importance of the citizen right to property, use of land and objects as an
innate right to freedom. Consequently the social contract stipulates that
individuals must agree to respect the property rights of others in order
to gain all property rights to land and object;
Modern social theorists approve that globalization refers to sequential
changes of the social existence. In addition, geographical locations are
reduced and the human experience increased the social activity and
promoted knowledge across populations around the globe. Modern
theorists link globalization to the growth of the social
Interconnectedness across geographical and political borders and
argued that deterritorialization is the critical face of the globalization
The United Nations conferences and Summits with the World
commission of globalization and the agreements of the
Copenhagen social Summit on women in 2010 mentioned the
high economic concerns globally and approved to apply a wide-
ranging of disposition in human and sustainable development
which includes economic social and environment scope, such
us:
Organizing interdependence;
Promoting the development of societies;
And prevailing over the irregularity that characterizes the
economic system, which affect in particular the developing
world. Consequently, the United Nations Agencies want to build
policies upon peace and human rights development
Globalization: Building competence for sustainability
The collective leadership for sustainability here is seen as the capacity
of a group of leaders that contribute to a more sustainable future
through assuming shared leadership in service of the universal good
quality. Consequently the channel of communication and the collective
leadership for sustainability comprehends:
Skills development;
Process competence;
System's awareness;
Self- awareness;
Appropriate instruments of the collective leadership programs and tools
contribute to a more sustainable future through a shared leadership
approach in service of the common good. The collective leadership
emphasizes that human capacity to dialogue enables the inheritance of
collective views.
Wealth based approaches to understand sustainability
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
emphasizes that each individuals must be respected and enjoy their basic
rights and must be protected according to human rights foundations of
freedom, justice and peace. It's stipulated also that individuals have the
right to rebellion against tyranny and oppression and that human rights
should be protected by the rule of law. Consequently the U.N declaration
highlights the importance of the promotion of social progress and women
and men have equal rights in their duties to participate to the social
development that strengthen society culture and a large freedom. All
people are born with fundamental human rights and have the rights to live
in dignity and merit. The modernist approach to environmental policy and
development sustainability emphasizes that environmental problems are
explored in the terms of perceptions the concerns and the ways to link
problems to solutions. Governments should transform their economic life
and learn how to sustain development in terms of basic requirements in
harmony with the natural environment. It should begin from the urban
policies like energy, transport; industrial and urban policies impact on the
global economic interests and the competitiveness of nations on
populations. However environment is the part dependent from the critical
decision making, the industry and the university
And global system is encompassing individuals, collectivities and
the interactions of the international system and the technological
challenge that contributes to better investigate in realities
requirements
Consequently human endeavor is seen as progressing in natural
process that protects the global system and provides an ideal
environment for life and people. The policy challenge must
escort the deep connections between humans and nature.
Consequently laws must prevent environmental degradation and
protecting the global earth according to strategic coordinated
actions. But human activities create disturbances that produce
ecological dissimilarity which may alter environment.
Educational opportunitiesfor adults and intellectuals contribute to create
International leaders
Resilience in a variety of behaviors
Resilience is defined as a psychological state developed on
humans to adapt himself to deal with stress and
catastrophe. And since the last decade of the 19e century,
psychologists identified the high potential of humans to
rebuild themselves after hard experiences, loss or
tragedies. In fact resilience is the capacity to surpass high
stress or catastrophe. And in being resilient, we gain force
to in living hard experiences
Key facts on resilience"(2012), the factors that contribute to
resilience associates
Close relation with family and friends;
A positive view of ourselves and trust in our capacities
The ability to manage strong feelings and impulsions
Rationalism in reasoning and linking problems to solutions in
addition to communication skills
Feeling in control
Carry on responsibility to look for help and resources
See ourselves as resilient rather than as a victim
Avoid stress and substance abuse
Helping others
Accept what it's happen for us in despite of difficulties or
traumatic events
Resilience is conceived as having four prerequisites:
Risk or predisposition to bio-psychosocial or environmental
conditions
High exposition to high stress
Stress response
Prevalence of Resilience in General Populations
Demographic predictors of resilience
Gender is an inconsistent and unreliable predictor of resilience. In a
study conducted with crime victims, women reported lower resilience
scores.
But another study found that women were more resilient compared to
men, and gender differences are stronger among older women than
younger women. Decreased resilience scores were observed by
individuals with lower levels of education and income, and individuals
with histories of childhood maltreatment.
The correlation between resilience and conscientious-ness is showed
strong for members of ethnic minority groups. It was showed that the
hardship populations may be easily manipulated to ethnic affiliation,
while they place in priority their cultural value on conscientiousness.
According to Edwards Deming (1900-1993) knowledge is the result to
consequential explorations and he recognized that continuous model of
management principles is essential to transform organizations and for
ensuring quality improvement model according to the Deming's 14
principles.
Consequently Deming advocated that all managers need to
have what he called a System of Profound Knowledge,
consisting of four parts, such us:
Appreciation of a system: understanding the overall
processes involving suppliers, producers, and customers (or
recipients) of goods and services (explained below);
Knowledge of variation: the range and causes of variation
in quality, and use of statistical sampling in measurements;
Theory of knowledge: the concepts explaining knowledge
and the limits of what can be known.
Knowledge of psychology: concepts of human nature
Change management process:Awareness of the need for
change
According to Prosci's methodology of change
management process, human actions at work or
individually move through a change process that
forecast's the next steps to conduct and the expected
results that impact from actions
Awareness ► Awareness of the need for change
Why is the change happening? Why is the change happening
now? What is the risk of not changing?
Desire ► Desire to participate and support the change
What are the personal motivators and organizational drivers that
would cause me to support the change?
Knowledge ► Knowledge on how to change
What knowledge, skills and behaviors are required during and
after the change is implemented?
Ability ► Ability to implement required skills and behaviors
How do I demonstrate the ability to do my job the new way? What
barriers may inhibit me making the change?
Reinforcement ► Reinforcement to sustain the change
What will make the change stick? What are the rewards,
recognition, incentives and consequences?
Prosci 3-Phase Organizational Change Management Process
Phase: Activities:
Phase 1:
Preparing for
change
Conduct readiness assessments
Develop risk analysis
Identify special tactics
Identify anticipated resistance
Document strategy
Architect team structure and prepare the team
Develop sponsorship model and prepare sponsors
Phase 2:
Managing change
Understand customization based on strategy analysis
Create communications plan
Create sponsor roadmap
Create coaching plan
Create training plan
Create resistance management plan
Integrate plans into the overall project plan
Execute change management plans
Phase 3:
Reinforcing change
Collect feedback proactively
Listen to employees
Audit compliance
Identify gaps
Identify resistance and pockets of resistance
Celebrate successes
Transition to business as usual
Integrating Individual and Organizational Change Management
OCM Phase: Integration of individual change management:
Phase 1: Preparing for
change
Identifying impacted groups
Defining the individual changes required
Anticipating resistance from impacted groups
Creating a sponsor model representing impacted
groups
Phase 2: Managing change Answers the question: what do we communicate?
Answers the question: why are sponsors important?
Answers the question: what coaching is needed?
Answers the question: what training is needed?
Answers the question: how will resistance be managed?
Sequencing activities appropriately
Phase 3: Reinforcing change Collecting individual feedback
Listening to impacted employees
Auditing compliance at the individual level
Measuring if the change is happening
Identifying gaps and developing appropriate responses
True relationship between quality and productivity
Modern view of relationship
Productivity
Quality
Other benefits
•
Improved morale
•
Recall of view of business systems of a large number of interconnecting processes
•
Sustainability accounting required sustainability reporting guidelines
Sustainability accounting requires an understanding of the standards guidelines that
ensure the business system and allow a better competitive environment work that make
employers and employees satisfied. However in the developing countries governments
are still in retard in the managerial system that prepare sustainability reports. For
example in the Palestinian Territories in Gaza strip, the companies, organizations and
institutions are still encounter problems in the reporting due to the very hard situation of
division inside Palestinians and the Gaza Strip is isolated from the Palestinian Authority.
In addition the blockade, the lack of movement in Palestinian Territories had negatively
impacted on economic systems.
The institutions governed by the Hamas control are weak and incapable to
serve correctly the basic requirement of populations especially in health sector
where guidelines are not applied on health employees, and grave health
mistakes are registered since the Hamas control legislature in 2007, due to the
lack of funds and experiences in the governmental institutions and in private
organizations. Consequently the standard guidelines and frameworks of work
increase the performance and the credibility of information. Consequently
analytical frameworks are essential to provide the effective information in
different sectors in order to sustain the information needed and to develop
sustainable measurements. In addition that information links to differentiate
between indicators and policies, such us:
Pressures
State
Response
It's essential to measure the environmental economic in association
with the social correlation understand the correlation between the
natural environment and the economy. A legal structure must include
government; federal state, territorial and local government level that
identify financial reports of public sector. These measures will facilitate
operators to take measures in function of all-purpose, which show the
accountability of governments, the number of individual statutory
authorities and departments that must be clearly defined. Subsequently
the individual reporting entities reveal their political significance and the
financial resources can be controlled. Because the existence of a legal
entity is not sufficient to identify a reporting entity only if it's include
more than one entity and the entity that control the group.
COAHierarchical of data structure
segment one
Major
Account
Government
equity
Minor
Account
Major
account
segment
two
segment
three
Minor
Account
Program
Department
Directorate
Detail
account
Parent level
Activity
Child level 1
Project
General purpose accounts: Basis on accrual
accounting principles
General purpose accounts (comptabilité générale).
Article 30 of the French Organic Budget Law
(LOLF) of 2001 states that the general purpose
financial statements (based on Comptabilité
générale) are to be based on the accrual
accounting principle.
7- General recommendations
The environment is part of the critical decision making, industry
and education
Globalization is designed to improve the global governance structures
and its economic and social statures. In addition that globalization
created a decentralization system and global arrangements were
formulated to ensure effectiveness in accountability and equities.
Economy here must integrate the international cooperation in a shared
global governance structure. In addition, international policies must
develop ethical laws in favor of the poorest and economic development
must focus on the rights approach to ensure human security and
eradicate poverty. Environment policy is essential to the development
of sustainability and global concerns can be solved. The problem
remains in the managerial environment system and the manner to
govern of many countries which continue to ignore the needs of their
populations and their economic status is still register inequality and lack
of liabilities.
Structure and agency: legal theory and democratic
legitimacy
Aristotle stated that politics is a useful science that aims to serve
citizens and to provide them happiness. He meant that this
dynamic science was created to preserve political reform
systems as a normative discipline with standards for the
rightness and wrongness of actions. He defined it as the origin
and meaning of ethical thought of fundamental virtues such us:
knowledge, courage, self-control and justice
Inequality and poverty dimensions
Inequality derived directly from the unjust poverty and to social
welfare system that give true indices and a descriptive way to
measure inequality by habitants and if they are equally wealthy
and have the same status. Inequality and poverty are observable
through realistic statistics such us the Gini index of inequality
Constitution and citizenship
The constitution needs to exercise a legislation that
pre-vents inequities and inequality between poor's and
richest people. Aristotle described politicians as the
craftsman who creates a practical political system able
to develop moral and legal concepts that link to rights
of equality. Subsequently Aristotle investigation stated
that every person, citizen has the right to be a part of
the decision making and gave the example of the
democratic Athenian system that allow full Greek
citizens, women, slaves, foreigners to be involved in
governing
Economics that applies positive political theory “PPT”
In fact the positive political theory embraces structure and processes of
governance proficient in equal distribution and legality. However until
the 20e century the process of governance were based on religious
arguments and showed that the power to make law lies in obedience.
PPT of law explores the main political institutions of the law-making
process such us the elections which lead to the selection of candidates
who influence policy. The decisions making such us legislatures, the
president and the bureaucracy pass by legislatures and are considered
as the essential source of law. The positive and normative approaches
of PPT contribute to better understand the wide progress to law and
policy. The concept of individual autonomy links to individual's ability to
self- control in the social structures and inside political institutions. We
are speaking today about the moral political value and the
consciousness of governors and their contribution to illuminate
populations about their duty as citizens to be a part of the decision
making and to participate to the wealth of nations. The autonomy here
means the social responsibility and the honesty that must authentically
embrace the individual morality
Reasons that individual autonomy leads to a
modern development
The concept of individual autonomy links to individual's
ability to self- control in the social structures and inside
political institutions. We are speaking today about the moral
political value and the consciousness of governors and
their contribution to illuminate populations about their duty
as citizens to be a part of the decision making and to
participate to the wealth of nations. The autonomy here
means the social responsibility and the honesty that must
authentically embrace the individual morality.
Separated powers lead to positive political theory
According to Macey in "Separated Powers and Positive
Political Theory 1992,"PPT is seen as a strong system that
can prevent and control deviances in the current
governmental administration, it's emphasizes that
government and congress have to function in consistency
with their directorial institutions.
Managementprocess: Enhance awarenessof the need to change
How sciences, individual and institutionalbehavior shape
environmental problems
Core knowledge;
Problem-solving and decision-making framework,
including analysis, synthesis and evaluation skills;
Student mental models and conceptual change;
Learning to learn;
Confidence, autonomy, and ownership.
The pedagogy through conceptual framework is
significant in terms of knowledge and self-
assurance that reach our decision making
capabilities. The emphasis lies on participatory,
problem-based, pragmatic education and integrate
teamwork to standardize their appropriate
information. However cognitive and affective
learning objectives contribute to produce
pedagogical methods that provide an integrated
framework for group work, for learning and for
teaching. The fundamental principles and methods
are the foundation for an environmental literacy
and are seen as a comprehensive environment
Energy, particularly the first and second laws of
thermodynamics,
the law of conservation of mass practiced as materials
balance
Basics of ecology and ecological systems,
Growth, focusing on the interaction between population
growth and resource consumption,
Risk, focusing on how quantitative risk is calculated, and
how that is communicated,
Environmental ethics, environmental justice, and
environmental equity,
And emerging ways of thinking such as industrial
metabolism and industrial ecology, green design, and
sustainable development.
8- Conclusion
Equality: Law and policy & feminist theory
Stages of environmental problem solving
Equality is a fundamental human right and guaranteed in constitutional
as well as statutory law around the world. Equality also marks one of
the most challenging and controversial policy fields, ranging from
welfare state regulation to policies governing migration and immigration
to approaches towards global justice, and addressing ethnicity and
religion, gender and sexual orientation, disability and age.
Countries should ensure that an effective legal framework is created to
recognize human rights and provides enforcement mechanisms.
Politically and ethically the feminist theory began with the postulation
that sex-gender dominate the world through unjust laws. It does not
only consist in differentiation between women and men, it does also
authenticate that women continue to be discriminated and oppressed
especially in the countries without structural policies and
authoritarianism. The social constructionism shows the historical bases
in which the differentiation between male and female was built. Women
and males were selected through symbols of virtue such us males are
symbolized by the high merit of their physical force and women were
depicted as fertility symbol and obedience to men
. The human rights
approach focus on the notion that basic human requirement are
not subject of charity but justice, and should be in conformity
with the legal standards of laws and policies. And feminist legal
theory approach rationalizes the nature of law and explicates the
legal method from reason and legal practice.
Cedaw convention
Statistics show:
173 countries guarantee paid maternity leave
125 countries have outlawed domestic violence
117 countries outlaw sexual harassment in the workplace
117 countries have equal pay laws
115 countries guarantee women’s equal property rights.
 Wealth Based Aooriches of Legal Structures
Women’s rights to property ownership and inheritance, by
region
 Wealth Based Aooriches of Legal Structures
Country initiative response to end violence against
women
Women's rights as the foundation for a nation's real progress and
economic revival
Palestinian hip hop group DAM raises awareness of ‘honor killings’
through a powerful music video
Japan's calls for women's full participation
UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women announces over US$8
million in grants
The Security Council welcomed efforts of Member States to implement
resolution 1325 at the national level. The Council stressed the importance
of promoting and protecting the human rights of women and girls in the
context of the implementation of resolution 1325 and the need for
continued effort to address obstacles in women’s access to justice in
conflict and post-conflict settings.
UN Security Council calls on the international community to support the
role of women's civil society organizations in peace building, economic
empowerment, ending violence against women, governance, leadership
and political participation
The Security Council on Women, Peace and Security (S/2012/732) investigates
today in how to advance on resolution 1325 in prevention, participation,
protection, relief and recovery for women in conflict and post-conflict periods and
suggests a realistic focal point to women and peace and security commitments
across the Security Council's actions. Consequently the Security Council's
demonstrates its determination to advance women's and girls' in international and
regional organizations to continue improvement and accountability systems at
national and international levels. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women is engaged to the development of the human
rights actions according to security commitments globally and to reveal the
concerns and generate recommendations on women and peace and security. The
CEDAW convention was formulated and structured in order to improve
accountability at all levels. The UN report of 2011 stated that the number of
countries that have expressed their priorities on women and peace and security
throughout national policy go on grow.
In fact the adoption of the UN convention of 1325(2000) and CEDAW contributed
efficiently to improve accountability at national level and to make women aware
about their situation comparing to developing countries. Effectively it's the reality
in the Palestinian Territories where women are employed by political parties with
many functions and are manipulated according to political interests. It's interesting
here to show that civil society is totally monopolized even the international
organizations which empower and support women in their political roles.
And what I want to say here is that politics are lobbying funders, stakeholders and
institutions, but until now they couldn't convince populations sectors about their
duty to protect Palestinian patrimony and the rights of populations. I believe
strongly that politics and civil society must have good relationship but must protect
the role of the humanitarian actions without limiting the public services to poor's,
and I'm sure today that autocratic governments are distributing to their followers
many powers for the same decision makers in order to better control the
managerial system of institutions. But these systems corrupt the administration
and breakdown the public services. It's important to consider here that repressive
systems affect women and young people negatively because the male domination
is prominent at all levels of the government, even women recruited for political
tasks
Consequently in the preparation of elections, politics agree for a quota for women
in order to ensure parliamentary seats for women. But if women are not at all
manipulated by politics, they can sincerely acting at community, national and
international levels through the civil society activities and be close to women
problems. The United Nations stated that the role of the convention lies in
eliminating all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW) / 1979, and was
approved by 165 Nations States. CEDAW convention draws attention to the need
for equal opportunities that remove institutional barriers and diminish the rule of
women in elected office, especially the use of quotas in the selection of women
candidates to parliament. Consequently CEDAW policies prevent sex
discrimination, equal income; maternity and reproductive rights in order to
increase opportunities for women in the work force and education. I think in
Palestinian Territories women must strengthen more effort to make women of
marginalized areas aware about their rights to live a prosperous life. According to
Kelly and Breslin in "women's rights in the Middle East and North Africa 2010", the
movement of Palestinian women is still encountering dangers in security and
freedom. However the Palestinian law is discriminating women in their freedom of
movement and in their rights in marriage, and child custody, such us: women must
have the permission of their fathers or uncle or brother if they want to marry.
If the women want to divorce they have to pay the dot to their husbands and the
whole expenses of marriage. The situation is worsened with the division of
Palestinian officials in the West bank and Gaza Strip, and the Palestinian
Parliament is still unavailable to modify reforms in favor of women. In addition
Palestinian women continue to be victims of poverty, war, high discrimination, and
killing on honor or inheritance back-ground and mistreated. And violence against
women is increased since 2006 during the Hamas control on Gaza Strip, and
number of unpunished honor crimes had ex-posed women to domestic violence
and the penal code doesn't protect women from violence. In addition the
occupation imposes barriers on movement of Palestinians between Gaza Strip
and West bank and between West Bank and Jerusalem and habitants of both
cities are daily faced barriers and checkpoints to reach schools, hospitals and
institutions.
Palestine’s constitution, its laws, and their impact on women addressed also the
limitations imposed by the Israeli occupation, which profoundly influences the
manners in which the Palestinian Authority performs its managerial activities, even
the Palestinian daily lives, and the Security of Palestinians.
Palestinian women have been reported affected seriously by
the defeat of the President Abbes of the Fatah Party and the
win of the Hamas legislative control in 2006 and women
concerns increased dangerously due to deterioration of the
Palestinian economy, the rise up of the unemployment and
80% from families in Gaza Strip are living in disastrous
conditions in addition to the continual Israeli economic
restrictions and the gel of taxes revenues by the Israeli side
had worsened the Palestinian humanitarian conditions.
Women’s lives have also been dramatically affected by the
international and domestic fallout from the January 2006 PLC
"Palestinian Legislative Council "elections. And the peace
negotiations between Israeli and Palestinians stay until today
without issues and the discriminatory Israeli laws fired
Palestinians of East Jerusalem and destroyed their houses.
The Israeli government is exercising a discriminative process that increase
injustice and make hard to see one day an independent state for
Palestinians. In addition that Israeli government is spoiling the rights of
Palestinians, increasing hate between both populations and is nurturing a
culture of racial discrimination and colonialism in the region. The highest
Palestinian law defines the basic requirement of Palestinian citizens and was
endorsed in 2002 and adjusted in 2003 and 2005. It's stipulated that
temporary constitution will conduct its actions until the establishment of a
Palestinian state. And according to article 9, Palestinians are equal without
distinction of race, sex, color, religion, disability and political affiliation.
Consequently the article 11 stipulates that personal freedom is a natural right
that must be respected. And the article 4 stipulates that the Shari 'a (Islamic
law) is the source of legislation and the discriminatory pre-requisite to
understand ethical rules of Islam. But the law and reforms are not punished
gender discrimination and the Palestinian law is impregnated by Israeli,
Egyptian and Jordanian laws, and the reforms are still unclear. The article 19
in the Palestinian constitution stated that the terms Palestinian and citizen
refer to men and women and the labor law (7/2000) stipulates that the Basic
Law, Article 19 of the draft constitution renders dis-crimination illegal. And the
article 22 stated that women shall have the same rights, liberties and duties
as men. And the Palestinian women Palestinian women’s rights activists are
However the last war on Gaza in January 2009 by the Israeli
military offensive killed ci-vilians among women and children and
Israel refused to cooperate with the Goldstone report of the
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) to investigate
the suspected violations of international human rights law and
international humanitarian law in the Palestinian Territories in
Gaza Strip. The Goldstone report investigated the possible
crimes against humanity but the report accused Israel Defense
Forces and the Palestinian militants of war crimes and the report
failed to bring the allegations to the international criminal court.
Consequently the Israeli government rejected the report and
accused it to be deviant and non-true to real facts that Israel
defense targeted civilians. This delayed report proved critically
that Israel enjoyed the majority of voices in Security Council of
United Nations and that report of contentious contains errors
and falsehoods and that Hamas was operating in densely
populated areas in Gaza
The situation globally demonstrates that economic wealth depends from the
accountability of governmental institutions and the interests of governors can
be easily identified. Consequently the perceptions and the appropriate
division of roles in the home, in society, and employment fairness create a
political culture of social norms and true societal values that contribute to the
human development and the modernization of nations. And gender equality
link to build social roles for women &men and to understand different
behaviors in different societies. In fact the recent studies proved that gender
roles are requested to define the right and the resources of both genders.
The new culture of gender equality will lead to a global environment of legal
rights and the adjustment of the institutional reforms that link to increase
awareness, education and fairness in employment and in the equal
distribution of assets among sectors population. I realize also that
Palestinians have a long way to pursue to attain theirs goals and that internal
division in addition of the Israeli occupation decreased the opportunities to
see one day a Palestinian state and a Palestinian Population living a
prosperous life

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Wealth Based Aooriches of Legal Structures

  • 1. WEALTH BASED APPROACHES OF LEGAL STRUCTURES SOLVING SOCIALAND CULTURAL DILEMMAS GHERISSI, HEGAZI,.Y. (2014) Ph.D. thesis in Philosophy The development of leadership and management University Atlantic International United States
  • 2. Key words Social theory- Constructivism- Law- Culture – Environment –Management- Economics- Democracy- Social contracts - Distributive justice- Equality- globalization- women’s rights- Sustainability
  • 3. "Democracy is not the law of the majority but the protection of the minority“ - Albert Camus (1913-1960) Research in sociological literatures states that people think and take action according to their cognitive structure and that technology is perceived with an understanding of change from old to news technologies that integrate specialty and demarcation. And socio- technical systems incorporate sociological processes that lead to the visionary leadership. This basic concept validates that policy and socio- technical linkage provides a framework of governance system and ensures environment sustainability. Consequently the adaptive governance corporate social responsibility and drives visionary political and managerial leadership.
  • 4. First word The social studies changed my life and helped me to identify my skills and exploit it efficiently. I know today more than ever that we are born with our entire rights to enjoy life and to be a part of the social order which is essential to smooth the progress of civilization. The role of community leaders in the civil society is greatly requested to change society attitudes toward pessimist fate. It does emphasize that cultivation of nations is available through public services and charities. However, modern disciplines in education allowed us "the countries of economic crisis" to access andragogy at distance learning and to gain talents in the organization of societies and in the socio-political decency.
  • 5. INDEX 1. Social Constructionism as Critical realism of philosophy of Science 2- Objectives 3- Sociology disciplines: A broad And Diverse fields of Research & Application 4. Sociological theory: Social Reality 5-Social contracts: The limits of human Understanding and the Function of Civil Government 6- Globalization: Building Competence for sustainability 7- General Recommendations The environment is part of the critical decision making, industry and education 8-Conclusion Equality: law & policy & feminist theory
  • 6. 1. Social Constructionism as Critical realism of philosophy of Science Preamble to moral and legal concepts The world economic crisis explores the responsibilities of governments of the developing countries and international economic reports revealed the volatility of the economy and the inequality in the distribution of assets even laws in developing countries are still discriminatory and governments try always to incline rules in their interests. The Arabic spring is the best example of inequities that showed a violent revolt from the poorest people who were totally excluded from the economy assets. In other part globalization today is the outcome of the advanced technologies that allowed people to meet through the social websites like twitter, face book, LinkedIn etc. Consequently we have to keep in mind that laws built on reason spread equality, transparency and commitments among societies. Globalization is designed to improve the global governance structures and its economic and social statures. In addition that globalization created a decentralization system and global arrangements were formulated to ensure effectiveness in accountability and equities.
  • 7. Common laws are a part of our cultural tradition Decision making is seen as a cognitive process of numerous options that lead to final choice. And decision making is a rational process in disregard of its morality or its immorality that depends on the individual's beliefs. Ethical principles vary according to decisions and arguments. Consequently ethics are formulating according to decision making and organization motivation. Decision makers must act according to pre- assessment and necessary information that make them having better understanding from situations, and must asking themselves are the decisions legal or fair? And how decisions are important and can change situations positively? Ethics here define a system that affects attitudes in the formulation of the work norms. Rules are often reformulated in order to avoid nuisance of others, to motivate people in their work and to foster a climate of trust and fairness
  • 8. Social constructionism distinguishes a negative impact on the environment and its societies. And according to my experience countries of privation have tendency to religious fanaticism like for example in Palestinian Territories in the high fragmented areas, communities are living according to their beliefs and negative traditions are formulated in manner that discriminate women and expose them to forfeit. In the marriage for example, girls and women need the authorization of their father to get marry in disregard of their age and if father died women still need the authorization of tutor among their uncles or near parents or their sons. In addition the tutor has the right to disagree the marriage and they commonly reject the idea of marriage because it does not correlate with their personal interests. Consequently in the Middle East the tribal regime is still encountering impediments for women and cultural belief places women at second rank. Personally and according to my modest experience in the humanitarian action since 15 years in areas at high risks, I state that inequality leads to unequal poverty, increases injustice, angry and prevent modernism and mutual understanding of people.
  • 9. Sociology is a part of society study and critical analysis is developed to identify the system to know the human activity. The theorists of sociology link sociology to the social policy and safety and they focused their researches on the theoretical perceptions of social system between individual people and comprehensive rank of the social organization, like for example the advanced technologies that increased scientific knowledge and promoted the areas of health, policies and penalties. In addition philosophical approaches stated that cultural turns and linguistic of the middle of the twentieth century led to deep investigations of human thinking. Consequently sociology associates ancestral cultures, social activity, religion, law and secularization. And theorists argued that social structure and society are impacted on the human activity.
  • 10. 2-Objectives • Know the leading theories of motivation; • Be familiar with current research in workplace motivation; • Know how to conduct, evaluate and cite secondary re-search; • Be able to apply theories to workplace situations; • Have had an opportunity to develop policies, programs and strategies to improve workplace motivation and maximize employee potential;
  • 11. 3-Sociology disciplines:AbroadAnd Diverse fields of Research & Application The French philosopher August Comte (1798-1857), the specialist of philosophy and called the father of sociology created the term of sociology in 1838.He believed that science could be used to study the social word and to identify the laws governing our social lives. However Comte introduced the concept of positivism to sociology and the manner to understand the social word that associate scientific facts. He believed that people are able to build a better future and that process of change play a fundamental role in orienting societies. The rationalism here calls to the reason and to make people aware of their rights to live a prosperous life and to engage them in their part of responsibility as individuals and as good citizens. Sociologists argued that populations are influenced by their governments that nurture a culture of altruism and possession on their societies. And what it is happen today after the Arabic spring is the incapacity of the new governors to deal with institutions totally lawlessness due to the corruption of the ancient political regimes. The ancient dictators built institutions without objectivism and policies were formulated in order to serve their interests, in addition those governmental employees were engaged according to their political affiliation and not according to employment norms.
  • 12. Field of Research Disciplines Marriage- divorce- child rearing – domestic abuse Sociology of the family Population's composition – birth rate, fertility rate- death rate- infant mortality rate- migration- demographics between societies, groups and communities Demography Social effects, societal attitudes toward illnesses, diseases, disabilities, aging process with medical sociology Sociology of health and illness Human societies – religious symbols and ceremonies Religion as a belief system and a social institutions Sociology of religion Application of sociological theory and methodology to the internet as a source of information and communication Social implications of new technology Sociology of the internet Human interactions and study of the outcomes of these interactions Sociology of race and ethnicity Social and cultural dimension defined biologically and culturally able to change Sociology of gender
  • 13. Sociology and Organizations Organizations are characterized by 6 textures: A network of individuals A system Coordinated activities The division of labor Goal orientation and the continuity over time, regardless of change in individual membership
  • 14. Social learning theory includes The situations (referred to as the stimulus situation) The behavioral response of the associate or manager to the situation And the consequences of the response for the associate or manager Motivation and stress Achievement motivation determines: Aspiration, effort and persistence in evaluating performance in ourselves and others Approval Motivation Generate personalities that are concerned about the approval of others Job stress is the feeling that one’s capabilities, resources or needs do not match the
  • 15. Factors that reduce stress in the workplace are: Mental and emotional intelligence, attitude and organizational commitment
  • 16. 4-Sociological theory and social reality The division of schools links to philosophical argument of social reality that investigates the variety of sociologies.
  • 17. Social constructionismas life- threateningin the philosophyof science Epistemology Theoretical perspective Methodology Methods Objectivism Constructionism Subjectivism (their variants) Positivism and post- positivism interpretivism Symbolic interactionism Phenomenology Hermeneutics Critical inquiry Feminism Postmodernism etc.. Experimental research Survey research Ethnography phenomenological research grounded theory heuristic inquiry action research discourse analysis Feminist standpoint research etc.. Sampling measurement and scaling questionnaire Observation Participants Non-participants Interview Focus group Case study Life history Narrative visual ethnographic Methods statistical analysis Data reduction Theme reduction Theme identification Comparative analysis Cognitive mapping Interpretative methods Document analysis Content analysis Conversation analysis etc…
  • 20. 5-Social contracts: the limits of human understanding and the function of civil government The social contract is a theory that originates society and the legitimacy of the authority over regimes and individuals. It's stated that laws must be formulated according to citizen rights, the protection of society and the public service sectors. And the emergence of the excessive richness and the excessive poverty denotes the unconsciousness of decision makers in their duty of serving their nations with a high civic engagement.
  • 21. The religion role in the societal progress The religious role in societal progress remains the challenge to observe the development of nations and to recognize the failures and the success in the thinking of theories. And studies and research were influenced by religious theoretical concepts as seen in China, India, Indonesia, South Africa and Eastern Europe. Religions here associate Confucianism and Taoism in China and Taiwan, the Christianity in Russia, Islam in Indonesia and the capitalism in the Eastern of Europe. In fact the notion of capitalism for example is seen as a system that traduces an economic and political development and institutions are originally developed according to religious ethics. However Shari' a law in the Muslim countries is the ground of laws formulation and the adoption of attitudinal values that define the economy policy. •
  • 22. Rawl’s mature theory of social justice It’s related the idea that citizen are free and should live in dignity (Rawl's Mature theory of social justice, 1971) The justice is a perception that liberates persons and proclaims them free and equal. In other part, the sense of justice links to the cognitive capacity to feel and to act according to justice principles and in total social cooperation. But the conception of the good here is the manner to determinate what is valuable in our life, and how much our goals are reaching loyalties toward communities, populations, groups or civil society. The principle here is that Individuals should be treated equally, unless they differ in ways and according to significant situation in which they are involved. For example, if Helena and Juliet do the same work in the same time without no significant differences between them on the work they are doing, according to justice they should earn the same salary. But if Helena is paid more than Juliet because she has relativity with employer, then it is an example of injustice and a form of discrimination that violate the relevant norms of work.
  • 23. Social contract: Reasonable citizens come from fair terms of social cooperation The justice is conveying: Distributive justice It is an organizational behavior that focuses on the fairness of rewards such us: wealth, power and respect Retributive justice Is the social justice among societies that considers punishment as a response to crimes and it's considered as the social democratic approach to the issues of social justice Compensatory justice Is an Indemnity to injured person as due compensation. It is used according to a standard of rightness and fairness with the capacity to judge without mention to feelings or interests; The Israeli are looking to serve interests of the powerful countries in exchange of their complicity. And it's not difficult to guess that unfair decisions from the legal institutions lead to the total corruption of the government, institutions and societies and when the court of justice is corrupted then coup of state or revolts are expected. It's the case of the Arabic spring and of other countries of the Middle East, like in Syria, in Jordan and the special case of Palestinian Territories. It's imperative to recognize the historical change that we experience and we need for that rationality to understand the world and the different ideas of universal order that emerge from governments. The history defines the development of globalization reason and the evolution of the globalization is the results of the modern theory of the world broad civilizations.
  • 24. Specific principles of distributive justice The theory of strict egalitarianism stipulated that every person has the same level of right in the distribution of goods and services. The principle here is that people have the right of equal respect and to benefit from economic assets according to the terms of justice and fairness. Each person has the right to claim his equal basic rights and freedoms in the equal political liberties which must be guaranteed by their fair significance; Institutions and organizations must apply the security operational procedures that satisfy work conditions in fair equality of opportunity and in benefit of the least advantaged members of society. Equality here is the moral motivation that spread equal respect for people. And the principle of difference remains in the differences in incomes which affirm that people who earn greater income, furnish greater productive effort. It does contribute to the wealth of the most disadvantaged people in the society. Merit-seniority Persons should be rewarded financially according to the number of years they have held a job Merit-Effort Persons should be rewarded financially according to their work effort and time-frame Merit-Output Persons should be rewarded financially according to their quantity and quality of their work
  • 25. Impact of religions in theoretical concepts of economics The notion of capitalism showed as a system that traduces an economic and political development and that institutions and reforms are initially developed within a religious context, like for example: The Shari 'a law in the Muslim countries is the ground of ethical laws; The adoption of attitudes and values that define the economy policy, like by the "protestant ethic The spread of societal ideas that lead to predict people attitudes, behavior and morality; The encouragement of the self- autonomy is contradictory to fatalistic acceptance; The stabilizing of a society's power structure and the legitimate religious that control the economic action;
  • 26. Business networks are based on ethnic duties like for example; the regional ethnic Chinese in the Southeast Asia shared Confucian thoughts for the reason that both of them have reciprocal duties. And spiritual capital is seen as a possible good or a bad influence. Consequently specific laws are to be determined by the majority of citizens with voting rights. The doctrine of right emphasizes the importance of the citizen right to property, use of land and objects as an innate right to freedom. Consequently the social contract stipulates that individuals must agree to respect the property rights of others in order to gain all property rights to land and object; Modern social theorists approve that globalization refers to sequential changes of the social existence. In addition, geographical locations are reduced and the human experience increased the social activity and promoted knowledge across populations around the globe. Modern theorists link globalization to the growth of the social Interconnectedness across geographical and political borders and argued that deterritorialization is the critical face of the globalization
  • 27. The United Nations conferences and Summits with the World commission of globalization and the agreements of the Copenhagen social Summit on women in 2010 mentioned the high economic concerns globally and approved to apply a wide- ranging of disposition in human and sustainable development which includes economic social and environment scope, such us: Organizing interdependence; Promoting the development of societies; And prevailing over the irregularity that characterizes the economic system, which affect in particular the developing world. Consequently, the United Nations Agencies want to build policies upon peace and human rights development
  • 28. Globalization: Building competence for sustainability The collective leadership for sustainability here is seen as the capacity of a group of leaders that contribute to a more sustainable future through assuming shared leadership in service of the universal good quality. Consequently the channel of communication and the collective leadership for sustainability comprehends: Skills development; Process competence; System's awareness; Self- awareness; Appropriate instruments of the collective leadership programs and tools contribute to a more sustainable future through a shared leadership approach in service of the common good. The collective leadership emphasizes that human capacity to dialogue enables the inheritance of collective views.
  • 29. Wealth based approaches to understand sustainability The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 emphasizes that each individuals must be respected and enjoy their basic rights and must be protected according to human rights foundations of freedom, justice and peace. It's stipulated also that individuals have the right to rebellion against tyranny and oppression and that human rights should be protected by the rule of law. Consequently the U.N declaration highlights the importance of the promotion of social progress and women and men have equal rights in their duties to participate to the social development that strengthen society culture and a large freedom. All people are born with fundamental human rights and have the rights to live in dignity and merit. The modernist approach to environmental policy and development sustainability emphasizes that environmental problems are explored in the terms of perceptions the concerns and the ways to link problems to solutions. Governments should transform their economic life and learn how to sustain development in terms of basic requirements in harmony with the natural environment. It should begin from the urban policies like energy, transport; industrial and urban policies impact on the global economic interests and the competitiveness of nations on populations. However environment is the part dependent from the critical decision making, the industry and the university
  • 30. And global system is encompassing individuals, collectivities and the interactions of the international system and the technological challenge that contributes to better investigate in realities requirements Consequently human endeavor is seen as progressing in natural process that protects the global system and provides an ideal environment for life and people. The policy challenge must escort the deep connections between humans and nature. Consequently laws must prevent environmental degradation and protecting the global earth according to strategic coordinated actions. But human activities create disturbances that produce ecological dissimilarity which may alter environment.
  • 31. Educational opportunitiesfor adults and intellectuals contribute to create International leaders Resilience in a variety of behaviors Resilience is defined as a psychological state developed on humans to adapt himself to deal with stress and catastrophe. And since the last decade of the 19e century, psychologists identified the high potential of humans to rebuild themselves after hard experiences, loss or tragedies. In fact resilience is the capacity to surpass high stress or catastrophe. And in being resilient, we gain force to in living hard experiences
  • 32. Key facts on resilience"(2012), the factors that contribute to resilience associates Close relation with family and friends; A positive view of ourselves and trust in our capacities The ability to manage strong feelings and impulsions Rationalism in reasoning and linking problems to solutions in addition to communication skills Feeling in control Carry on responsibility to look for help and resources See ourselves as resilient rather than as a victim Avoid stress and substance abuse Helping others Accept what it's happen for us in despite of difficulties or traumatic events Resilience is conceived as having four prerequisites: Risk or predisposition to bio-psychosocial or environmental conditions High exposition to high stress Stress response
  • 33. Prevalence of Resilience in General Populations Demographic predictors of resilience Gender is an inconsistent and unreliable predictor of resilience. In a study conducted with crime victims, women reported lower resilience scores. But another study found that women were more resilient compared to men, and gender differences are stronger among older women than younger women. Decreased resilience scores were observed by individuals with lower levels of education and income, and individuals with histories of childhood maltreatment. The correlation between resilience and conscientious-ness is showed strong for members of ethnic minority groups. It was showed that the hardship populations may be easily manipulated to ethnic affiliation, while they place in priority their cultural value on conscientiousness. According to Edwards Deming (1900-1993) knowledge is the result to consequential explorations and he recognized that continuous model of management principles is essential to transform organizations and for ensuring quality improvement model according to the Deming's 14 principles.
  • 34. Consequently Deming advocated that all managers need to have what he called a System of Profound Knowledge, consisting of four parts, such us: Appreciation of a system: understanding the overall processes involving suppliers, producers, and customers (or recipients) of goods and services (explained below); Knowledge of variation: the range and causes of variation in quality, and use of statistical sampling in measurements; Theory of knowledge: the concepts explaining knowledge and the limits of what can be known. Knowledge of psychology: concepts of human nature
  • 35. Change management process:Awareness of the need for change According to Prosci's methodology of change management process, human actions at work or individually move through a change process that forecast's the next steps to conduct and the expected results that impact from actions
  • 36. Awareness ► Awareness of the need for change Why is the change happening? Why is the change happening now? What is the risk of not changing? Desire ► Desire to participate and support the change What are the personal motivators and organizational drivers that would cause me to support the change? Knowledge ► Knowledge on how to change What knowledge, skills and behaviors are required during and after the change is implemented? Ability ► Ability to implement required skills and behaviors How do I demonstrate the ability to do my job the new way? What barriers may inhibit me making the change? Reinforcement ► Reinforcement to sustain the change What will make the change stick? What are the rewards, recognition, incentives and consequences?
  • 37. Prosci 3-Phase Organizational Change Management Process Phase: Activities: Phase 1: Preparing for change Conduct readiness assessments Develop risk analysis Identify special tactics Identify anticipated resistance Document strategy Architect team structure and prepare the team Develop sponsorship model and prepare sponsors Phase 2: Managing change Understand customization based on strategy analysis Create communications plan Create sponsor roadmap Create coaching plan Create training plan Create resistance management plan Integrate plans into the overall project plan Execute change management plans Phase 3: Reinforcing change Collect feedback proactively Listen to employees Audit compliance Identify gaps Identify resistance and pockets of resistance Celebrate successes Transition to business as usual
  • 38. Integrating Individual and Organizational Change Management OCM Phase: Integration of individual change management: Phase 1: Preparing for change Identifying impacted groups Defining the individual changes required Anticipating resistance from impacted groups Creating a sponsor model representing impacted groups Phase 2: Managing change Answers the question: what do we communicate? Answers the question: why are sponsors important? Answers the question: what coaching is needed? Answers the question: what training is needed? Answers the question: how will resistance be managed? Sequencing activities appropriately Phase 3: Reinforcing change Collecting individual feedback Listening to impacted employees Auditing compliance at the individual level Measuring if the change is happening Identifying gaps and developing appropriate responses
  • 39. True relationship between quality and productivity Modern view of relationship Productivity Quality
  • 40. Other benefits • Improved morale • Recall of view of business systems of a large number of interconnecting processes • Sustainability accounting required sustainability reporting guidelines Sustainability accounting requires an understanding of the standards guidelines that ensure the business system and allow a better competitive environment work that make employers and employees satisfied. However in the developing countries governments are still in retard in the managerial system that prepare sustainability reports. For example in the Palestinian Territories in Gaza strip, the companies, organizations and institutions are still encounter problems in the reporting due to the very hard situation of division inside Palestinians and the Gaza Strip is isolated from the Palestinian Authority. In addition the blockade, the lack of movement in Palestinian Territories had negatively impacted on economic systems.
  • 41. The institutions governed by the Hamas control are weak and incapable to serve correctly the basic requirement of populations especially in health sector where guidelines are not applied on health employees, and grave health mistakes are registered since the Hamas control legislature in 2007, due to the lack of funds and experiences in the governmental institutions and in private organizations. Consequently the standard guidelines and frameworks of work increase the performance and the credibility of information. Consequently analytical frameworks are essential to provide the effective information in different sectors in order to sustain the information needed and to develop sustainable measurements. In addition that information links to differentiate between indicators and policies, such us:
  • 43. It's essential to measure the environmental economic in association with the social correlation understand the correlation between the natural environment and the economy. A legal structure must include government; federal state, territorial and local government level that identify financial reports of public sector. These measures will facilitate operators to take measures in function of all-purpose, which show the accountability of governments, the number of individual statutory authorities and departments that must be clearly defined. Subsequently the individual reporting entities reveal their political significance and the financial resources can be controlled. Because the existence of a legal entity is not sufficient to identify a reporting entity only if it's include more than one entity and the entity that control the group.
  • 44. COAHierarchical of data structure segment one Major Account Government equity Minor Account Major account segment two segment three Minor Account Program
  • 46. General purpose accounts: Basis on accrual accounting principles General purpose accounts (comptabilité générale). Article 30 of the French Organic Budget Law (LOLF) of 2001 states that the general purpose financial statements (based on Comptabilité générale) are to be based on the accrual accounting principle.
  • 47. 7- General recommendations The environment is part of the critical decision making, industry and education Globalization is designed to improve the global governance structures and its economic and social statures. In addition that globalization created a decentralization system and global arrangements were formulated to ensure effectiveness in accountability and equities. Economy here must integrate the international cooperation in a shared global governance structure. In addition, international policies must develop ethical laws in favor of the poorest and economic development must focus on the rights approach to ensure human security and eradicate poverty. Environment policy is essential to the development of sustainability and global concerns can be solved. The problem remains in the managerial environment system and the manner to govern of many countries which continue to ignore the needs of their populations and their economic status is still register inequality and lack of liabilities.
  • 48. Structure and agency: legal theory and democratic legitimacy Aristotle stated that politics is a useful science that aims to serve citizens and to provide them happiness. He meant that this dynamic science was created to preserve political reform systems as a normative discipline with standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions. He defined it as the origin and meaning of ethical thought of fundamental virtues such us: knowledge, courage, self-control and justice Inequality and poverty dimensions Inequality derived directly from the unjust poverty and to social welfare system that give true indices and a descriptive way to measure inequality by habitants and if they are equally wealthy and have the same status. Inequality and poverty are observable through realistic statistics such us the Gini index of inequality
  • 49. Constitution and citizenship The constitution needs to exercise a legislation that pre-vents inequities and inequality between poor's and richest people. Aristotle described politicians as the craftsman who creates a practical political system able to develop moral and legal concepts that link to rights of equality. Subsequently Aristotle investigation stated that every person, citizen has the right to be a part of the decision making and gave the example of the democratic Athenian system that allow full Greek citizens, women, slaves, foreigners to be involved in governing
  • 50. Economics that applies positive political theory “PPT” In fact the positive political theory embraces structure and processes of governance proficient in equal distribution and legality. However until the 20e century the process of governance were based on religious arguments and showed that the power to make law lies in obedience. PPT of law explores the main political institutions of the law-making process such us the elections which lead to the selection of candidates who influence policy. The decisions making such us legislatures, the president and the bureaucracy pass by legislatures and are considered as the essential source of law. The positive and normative approaches of PPT contribute to better understand the wide progress to law and policy. The concept of individual autonomy links to individual's ability to self- control in the social structures and inside political institutions. We are speaking today about the moral political value and the consciousness of governors and their contribution to illuminate populations about their duty as citizens to be a part of the decision making and to participate to the wealth of nations. The autonomy here means the social responsibility and the honesty that must authentically embrace the individual morality
  • 51. Reasons that individual autonomy leads to a modern development The concept of individual autonomy links to individual's ability to self- control in the social structures and inside political institutions. We are speaking today about the moral political value and the consciousness of governors and their contribution to illuminate populations about their duty as citizens to be a part of the decision making and to participate to the wealth of nations. The autonomy here means the social responsibility and the honesty that must authentically embrace the individual morality.
  • 52. Separated powers lead to positive political theory According to Macey in "Separated Powers and Positive Political Theory 1992,"PPT is seen as a strong system that can prevent and control deviances in the current governmental administration, it's emphasizes that government and congress have to function in consistency with their directorial institutions.
  • 53. Managementprocess: Enhance awarenessof the need to change How sciences, individual and institutionalbehavior shape environmental problems Core knowledge; Problem-solving and decision-making framework, including analysis, synthesis and evaluation skills; Student mental models and conceptual change; Learning to learn; Confidence, autonomy, and ownership.
  • 54. The pedagogy through conceptual framework is significant in terms of knowledge and self- assurance that reach our decision making capabilities. The emphasis lies on participatory, problem-based, pragmatic education and integrate teamwork to standardize their appropriate information. However cognitive and affective learning objectives contribute to produce pedagogical methods that provide an integrated framework for group work, for learning and for teaching. The fundamental principles and methods are the foundation for an environmental literacy and are seen as a comprehensive environment
  • 55. Energy, particularly the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the law of conservation of mass practiced as materials balance Basics of ecology and ecological systems, Growth, focusing on the interaction between population growth and resource consumption, Risk, focusing on how quantitative risk is calculated, and how that is communicated, Environmental ethics, environmental justice, and environmental equity, And emerging ways of thinking such as industrial metabolism and industrial ecology, green design, and sustainable development.
  • 56. 8- Conclusion Equality: Law and policy & feminist theory Stages of environmental problem solving
  • 57. Equality is a fundamental human right and guaranteed in constitutional as well as statutory law around the world. Equality also marks one of the most challenging and controversial policy fields, ranging from welfare state regulation to policies governing migration and immigration to approaches towards global justice, and addressing ethnicity and religion, gender and sexual orientation, disability and age. Countries should ensure that an effective legal framework is created to recognize human rights and provides enforcement mechanisms. Politically and ethically the feminist theory began with the postulation that sex-gender dominate the world through unjust laws. It does not only consist in differentiation between women and men, it does also authenticate that women continue to be discriminated and oppressed especially in the countries without structural policies and authoritarianism. The social constructionism shows the historical bases in which the differentiation between male and female was built. Women and males were selected through symbols of virtue such us males are symbolized by the high merit of their physical force and women were depicted as fertility symbol and obedience to men
  • 58. . The human rights approach focus on the notion that basic human requirement are not subject of charity but justice, and should be in conformity with the legal standards of laws and policies. And feminist legal theory approach rationalizes the nature of law and explicates the legal method from reason and legal practice. Cedaw convention Statistics show: 173 countries guarantee paid maternity leave 125 countries have outlawed domestic violence 117 countries outlaw sexual harassment in the workplace 117 countries have equal pay laws 115 countries guarantee women’s equal property rights.
  • 60. Women’s rights to property ownership and inheritance, by region
  • 62. Country initiative response to end violence against women Women's rights as the foundation for a nation's real progress and economic revival Palestinian hip hop group DAM raises awareness of ‘honor killings’ through a powerful music video Japan's calls for women's full participation UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women announces over US$8 million in grants The Security Council welcomed efforts of Member States to implement resolution 1325 at the national level. The Council stressed the importance of promoting and protecting the human rights of women and girls in the context of the implementation of resolution 1325 and the need for continued effort to address obstacles in women’s access to justice in conflict and post-conflict settings. UN Security Council calls on the international community to support the role of women's civil society organizations in peace building, economic empowerment, ending violence against women, governance, leadership and political participation
  • 63. The Security Council on Women, Peace and Security (S/2012/732) investigates today in how to advance on resolution 1325 in prevention, participation, protection, relief and recovery for women in conflict and post-conflict periods and suggests a realistic focal point to women and peace and security commitments across the Security Council's actions. Consequently the Security Council's demonstrates its determination to advance women's and girls' in international and regional organizations to continue improvement and accountability systems at national and international levels. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is engaged to the development of the human rights actions according to security commitments globally and to reveal the concerns and generate recommendations on women and peace and security. The CEDAW convention was formulated and structured in order to improve accountability at all levels. The UN report of 2011 stated that the number of countries that have expressed their priorities on women and peace and security throughout national policy go on grow.
  • 64. In fact the adoption of the UN convention of 1325(2000) and CEDAW contributed efficiently to improve accountability at national level and to make women aware about their situation comparing to developing countries. Effectively it's the reality in the Palestinian Territories where women are employed by political parties with many functions and are manipulated according to political interests. It's interesting here to show that civil society is totally monopolized even the international organizations which empower and support women in their political roles. And what I want to say here is that politics are lobbying funders, stakeholders and institutions, but until now they couldn't convince populations sectors about their duty to protect Palestinian patrimony and the rights of populations. I believe strongly that politics and civil society must have good relationship but must protect the role of the humanitarian actions without limiting the public services to poor's, and I'm sure today that autocratic governments are distributing to their followers many powers for the same decision makers in order to better control the managerial system of institutions. But these systems corrupt the administration and breakdown the public services. It's important to consider here that repressive systems affect women and young people negatively because the male domination is prominent at all levels of the government, even women recruited for political tasks
  • 65. Consequently in the preparation of elections, politics agree for a quota for women in order to ensure parliamentary seats for women. But if women are not at all manipulated by politics, they can sincerely acting at community, national and international levels through the civil society activities and be close to women problems. The United Nations stated that the role of the convention lies in eliminating all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW) / 1979, and was approved by 165 Nations States. CEDAW convention draws attention to the need for equal opportunities that remove institutional barriers and diminish the rule of women in elected office, especially the use of quotas in the selection of women candidates to parliament. Consequently CEDAW policies prevent sex discrimination, equal income; maternity and reproductive rights in order to increase opportunities for women in the work force and education. I think in Palestinian Territories women must strengthen more effort to make women of marginalized areas aware about their rights to live a prosperous life. According to Kelly and Breslin in "women's rights in the Middle East and North Africa 2010", the movement of Palestinian women is still encountering dangers in security and freedom. However the Palestinian law is discriminating women in their freedom of movement and in their rights in marriage, and child custody, such us: women must have the permission of their fathers or uncle or brother if they want to marry.
  • 66. If the women want to divorce they have to pay the dot to their husbands and the whole expenses of marriage. The situation is worsened with the division of Palestinian officials in the West bank and Gaza Strip, and the Palestinian Parliament is still unavailable to modify reforms in favor of women. In addition Palestinian women continue to be victims of poverty, war, high discrimination, and killing on honor or inheritance back-ground and mistreated. And violence against women is increased since 2006 during the Hamas control on Gaza Strip, and number of unpunished honor crimes had ex-posed women to domestic violence and the penal code doesn't protect women from violence. In addition the occupation imposes barriers on movement of Palestinians between Gaza Strip and West bank and between West Bank and Jerusalem and habitants of both cities are daily faced barriers and checkpoints to reach schools, hospitals and institutions. Palestine’s constitution, its laws, and their impact on women addressed also the limitations imposed by the Israeli occupation, which profoundly influences the manners in which the Palestinian Authority performs its managerial activities, even the Palestinian daily lives, and the Security of Palestinians.
  • 67. Palestinian women have been reported affected seriously by the defeat of the President Abbes of the Fatah Party and the win of the Hamas legislative control in 2006 and women concerns increased dangerously due to deterioration of the Palestinian economy, the rise up of the unemployment and 80% from families in Gaza Strip are living in disastrous conditions in addition to the continual Israeli economic restrictions and the gel of taxes revenues by the Israeli side had worsened the Palestinian humanitarian conditions. Women’s lives have also been dramatically affected by the international and domestic fallout from the January 2006 PLC "Palestinian Legislative Council "elections. And the peace negotiations between Israeli and Palestinians stay until today without issues and the discriminatory Israeli laws fired Palestinians of East Jerusalem and destroyed their houses.
  • 68. The Israeli government is exercising a discriminative process that increase injustice and make hard to see one day an independent state for Palestinians. In addition that Israeli government is spoiling the rights of Palestinians, increasing hate between both populations and is nurturing a culture of racial discrimination and colonialism in the region. The highest Palestinian law defines the basic requirement of Palestinian citizens and was endorsed in 2002 and adjusted in 2003 and 2005. It's stipulated that temporary constitution will conduct its actions until the establishment of a Palestinian state. And according to article 9, Palestinians are equal without distinction of race, sex, color, religion, disability and political affiliation. Consequently the article 11 stipulates that personal freedom is a natural right that must be respected. And the article 4 stipulates that the Shari 'a (Islamic law) is the source of legislation and the discriminatory pre-requisite to understand ethical rules of Islam. But the law and reforms are not punished gender discrimination and the Palestinian law is impregnated by Israeli, Egyptian and Jordanian laws, and the reforms are still unclear. The article 19 in the Palestinian constitution stated that the terms Palestinian and citizen refer to men and women and the labor law (7/2000) stipulates that the Basic Law, Article 19 of the draft constitution renders dis-crimination illegal. And the article 22 stated that women shall have the same rights, liberties and duties as men. And the Palestinian women Palestinian women’s rights activists are
  • 69. However the last war on Gaza in January 2009 by the Israeli military offensive killed ci-vilians among women and children and Israel refused to cooperate with the Goldstone report of the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) to investigate the suspected violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law in the Palestinian Territories in Gaza Strip. The Goldstone report investigated the possible crimes against humanity but the report accused Israel Defense Forces and the Palestinian militants of war crimes and the report failed to bring the allegations to the international criminal court. Consequently the Israeli government rejected the report and accused it to be deviant and non-true to real facts that Israel defense targeted civilians. This delayed report proved critically that Israel enjoyed the majority of voices in Security Council of United Nations and that report of contentious contains errors and falsehoods and that Hamas was operating in densely populated areas in Gaza
  • 70. The situation globally demonstrates that economic wealth depends from the accountability of governmental institutions and the interests of governors can be easily identified. Consequently the perceptions and the appropriate division of roles in the home, in society, and employment fairness create a political culture of social norms and true societal values that contribute to the human development and the modernization of nations. And gender equality link to build social roles for women &men and to understand different behaviors in different societies. In fact the recent studies proved that gender roles are requested to define the right and the resources of both genders. The new culture of gender equality will lead to a global environment of legal rights and the adjustment of the institutional reforms that link to increase awareness, education and fairness in employment and in the equal distribution of assets among sectors population. I realize also that Palestinians have a long way to pursue to attain theirs goals and that internal division in addition of the Israeli occupation decreased the opportunities to see one day a Palestinian state and a Palestinian Population living a prosperous life