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Waves
•
•
•
•

What makes waves?

Ship wakes
Animal movements
Tsunami
Most commonly: Wind
Wave Diagram (yes, you need to draw this)
Wave vocabulary

• Crest: Highest point of a wave
• Trough: Lowest point of a wave
• Wavelength: horizontal distance between either
two crests or two troughs
• Wave height: vertical distance between one crest
and the next trough (or vice versa)
Wave Vocabulary cont.
• Wave period: the time it takes two crests (or
two troughs) to pass a particular point
• Wave frequency: how often a number of
waves pass a given point in a particular
amount of time
What determines the size of a wave?
• The strength of the wind
• The duration the wind has been blowing
• The distance over which the wind travels (Fetch)
Deep Water Waves
• Do not “Feel” bottom
• Individual water molecules travel in an orbital
motion
• These waves are in water greater than ½ their
wavelength
Shallow Water Waves
• Feel bottom
• Move toward land
• These waves are in water shallower than
1/20th their wavelength
• As they reach the shore, friction slows them
down, but they do become bigger
Deep Water vs. Shallow Water Waves
Deep Water Waves vs.
Shallow Water Waves

The Wave
Breaks
Three Types of Shallow Water Waves
• Surging breakers are
considered destructive
to beaches
• Plunging breakers
frequently form
tunnels (surfers love
these)
• Spilling breakers are
gentle and break far
from shore
Summer Beach vs. Winter Beach
• Summer
waves more
gentle,
constructive
• Winter
waves more
harsh,
destructive
Longshore Currents and Drift

• Caused by waves hitting the beach at an angle
• Carries sand along the shoreline
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U9EhVa4MmEs
How humans deal with Longshore Drift
Groins or jetties are
sometimes used to
prevent the loss of
sand to beach homes.
Can you see a problem
for the houses
immediately on the
down current side of
the groin?
Rip Currents
–a potentially dangerous
result of Longshore Currents
racing back out to sea

http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/motion/cu
Tsunami

• Shallow water waves that grow tall as they approach
the shore
• Caused by seismic activity: earthquakes, landslides,
volcanoes
• Largest one recorded was in Lituya Bay, AK (1,720’)
Rogue Waves
• Also known as “Freak” Waves
• When two wave crests combine, their height and
power is extremely huge
• Most famous rogue wave occurred to the USS
Ramapo (112’)
Storm Surge
• Rise in the ocean that is caused by strong winds
associated with a storm
• Above and beyond the normal high tide water line
• Typically causes flooding in coastal areas

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Waves notes

  • 2. • • • • What makes waves? Ship wakes Animal movements Tsunami Most commonly: Wind
  • 3. Wave Diagram (yes, you need to draw this)
  • 4. Wave vocabulary • Crest: Highest point of a wave • Trough: Lowest point of a wave • Wavelength: horizontal distance between either two crests or two troughs • Wave height: vertical distance between one crest and the next trough (or vice versa)
  • 5. Wave Vocabulary cont. • Wave period: the time it takes two crests (or two troughs) to pass a particular point • Wave frequency: how often a number of waves pass a given point in a particular amount of time
  • 6. What determines the size of a wave? • The strength of the wind • The duration the wind has been blowing • The distance over which the wind travels (Fetch)
  • 7. Deep Water Waves • Do not “Feel” bottom • Individual water molecules travel in an orbital motion • These waves are in water greater than ½ their wavelength
  • 8. Shallow Water Waves • Feel bottom • Move toward land • These waves are in water shallower than 1/20th their wavelength • As they reach the shore, friction slows them down, but they do become bigger
  • 9. Deep Water vs. Shallow Water Waves
  • 10. Deep Water Waves vs. Shallow Water Waves The Wave Breaks
  • 11. Three Types of Shallow Water Waves • Surging breakers are considered destructive to beaches • Plunging breakers frequently form tunnels (surfers love these) • Spilling breakers are gentle and break far from shore
  • 12. Summer Beach vs. Winter Beach • Summer waves more gentle, constructive • Winter waves more harsh, destructive
  • 13. Longshore Currents and Drift • Caused by waves hitting the beach at an angle • Carries sand along the shoreline • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U9EhVa4MmEs
  • 14. How humans deal with Longshore Drift Groins or jetties are sometimes used to prevent the loss of sand to beach homes. Can you see a problem for the houses immediately on the down current side of the groin?
  • 15. Rip Currents –a potentially dangerous result of Longshore Currents racing back out to sea http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/motion/cu
  • 16. Tsunami • Shallow water waves that grow tall as they approach the shore • Caused by seismic activity: earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes • Largest one recorded was in Lituya Bay, AK (1,720’)
  • 17. Rogue Waves • Also known as “Freak” Waves • When two wave crests combine, their height and power is extremely huge • Most famous rogue wave occurred to the USS Ramapo (112’)
  • 18. Storm Surge • Rise in the ocean that is caused by strong winds associated with a storm • Above and beyond the normal high tide water line • Typically causes flooding in coastal areas