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Water purification is the transition of dirty
harmful (Contaminated) water into clean safe
water.
Water purification generally means freeing water
from any kind of impurity it contains, such as
contaminants or micro organisms.
Water is of major importance to all living things.
We purify water to get rid of contaminants that can be
detrimental to our health.
Up to 60 percent of the human body is Water.
Therefore the quality of Water we drink is very important.
The Drinking Water should be totally clean, pure and free
of any disease causing MICROBES, and that’s why it
should be properly Treated and DISINFECTED before
using it for drinking purpose.
 Purification on Large scale
 Purification on Medium Scale
 Purification on Small Scale(Domestic Methods)
When sources of water are
Rivers, Streams, Lakes etc.
then water is Purified by
 Coagulation
 Sedimentation
 Filtration
 Disinfection
 Storage
When sources of water are wells, Springs, Tanks etc.
Then water is purified by the addition of
Bleaching powder/Chlorinated Lime as it is
 Cheep
 Easy to use
 Reliable and safe
BOILING: for 5-10 minutes kills almost all organisms &
removes temporary Hardness.
DISTILLATION: not commonly used due to higher cost, used in
Labs. etc.
ADDITION OF CHEMICALS
Bleaching Powder: 5% solution is used Dose: 3-6 drops/L contact
time of ½ hour. Chlorine Tablets/Halazone Tablets. one
tablet/litre.
Iodine Solution: 02 drops of 2% Soln./litre
KMnO4: an amount that gives just pink coloration to the Water.
Alum: used for turbid water in a dose of 0.1-0.4 grains/5 litres of
Water.
 surface waters (Rivers, Streams, Lakes and
Reservoirs)
 groundwater (wells).
Where does the water come from?
Water Treatment
COAGULATION:
WATER
TOWARDS
SEDIMENTATION
Coagulation removes dirt and other particles suspended in water.
alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky
particles called “floc” which attract the dirt particles. The combined
weight of the dirt and the alums (floc) becomes heavy enough to sink
to the bottom during sedimentation.
Water Treatment
WATER
FROM
COAGULATION
WATER
TOWARDS
FILTRATION
Coagulated particles fall, by gravity, through water in
a settling tank and accumulate at the bottom of the
tank, clearing the water of much of the solid debris
and clear water moves to filtration.
SEDIMENTATION:
Water Treatment
FILTRATION, DISINFECTION & STORAGE:
FILTRATION: The water passes through filters, some
made of layers of sand, and charcoal that help
remove smaller particles.
DISINFECTION: A small amount of chlorine
is added or some other disinfection
method is used to kill microorganisms
that may be in the water.
STORAGE: Water is placed in a
closed tank or reservoir
for disinfection to take
pace. The water then
flows through pipes to
home and business in the
community
WATER
FROM
SEDIMENTATION
Water Disinfection
Purpose of disinfection:
To make Drinking water free of any disease causing
bacteria and microbes.
Methods of disinfection:
There are 3 mainly used disinfection methods at
large scale.
CHLORINATION
OZONATION
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
CHLORINATION
Chlorine is the most common cost-effective means of
disinfecting water in the U.S.
The addition of a small amount of chlorine is highly
effective against most bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.
But cysts (durable seed-like stages) formed by parasitic
protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia can survive
chlorine.
Chlorine is applied to water in one of three forms:
elemental chlorine (chlorine gas), hypochlorite solution
(bleach), or dry calcium hypochlorite. All three forms
produce free chlorine in water
OZONATION
OZONE is Strongest oxidant/disinfectant available.
More effective against microbes than chlorination.
But, costly and difficult to monitor and control under different
condition.
Ozonation process:
Ozone (o3) is generated on-site
at water treatment facilities by
passing dry oxygen or air
through a system of high voltage
electrodes.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
When UV radiation penetrates the cell
wall of an organism, it damages genetic
material, and prevents the cell from
reproducing.
Now a days emerging technology made
UV radiation to find a place in both
household and large scale drinking water
disinfection.
How is UV light generated?
Ultraviolet light is most typically generated from a
low pressure or a medium pressure lamp generating
UV light.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
COAGULATION
SEDIMENTATION
FILTRATION
DISINFECTION
STORAGE
COMPLETE CYCLE
OF WATER TREATMENT:
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Water purification methods

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. Water purification is the transition of dirty harmful (Contaminated) water into clean safe water. Water purification generally means freeing water from any kind of impurity it contains, such as contaminants or micro organisms.
  • 4. Water is of major importance to all living things. We purify water to get rid of contaminants that can be detrimental to our health. Up to 60 percent of the human body is Water. Therefore the quality of Water we drink is very important. The Drinking Water should be totally clean, pure and free of any disease causing MICROBES, and that’s why it should be properly Treated and DISINFECTED before using it for drinking purpose.
  • 5.  Purification on Large scale  Purification on Medium Scale  Purification on Small Scale(Domestic Methods)
  • 6. When sources of water are Rivers, Streams, Lakes etc. then water is Purified by  Coagulation  Sedimentation  Filtration  Disinfection  Storage
  • 7. When sources of water are wells, Springs, Tanks etc. Then water is purified by the addition of Bleaching powder/Chlorinated Lime as it is  Cheep  Easy to use  Reliable and safe
  • 8. BOILING: for 5-10 minutes kills almost all organisms & removes temporary Hardness. DISTILLATION: not commonly used due to higher cost, used in Labs. etc. ADDITION OF CHEMICALS Bleaching Powder: 5% solution is used Dose: 3-6 drops/L contact time of ½ hour. Chlorine Tablets/Halazone Tablets. one tablet/litre. Iodine Solution: 02 drops of 2% Soln./litre KMnO4: an amount that gives just pink coloration to the Water. Alum: used for turbid water in a dose of 0.1-0.4 grains/5 litres of Water.
  • 9.  surface waters (Rivers, Streams, Lakes and Reservoirs)  groundwater (wells). Where does the water come from?
  • 10. Water Treatment COAGULATION: WATER TOWARDS SEDIMENTATION Coagulation removes dirt and other particles suspended in water. alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky particles called “floc” which attract the dirt particles. The combined weight of the dirt and the alums (floc) becomes heavy enough to sink to the bottom during sedimentation.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Water Treatment WATER FROM COAGULATION WATER TOWARDS FILTRATION Coagulated particles fall, by gravity, through water in a settling tank and accumulate at the bottom of the tank, clearing the water of much of the solid debris and clear water moves to filtration. SEDIMENTATION:
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Water Treatment FILTRATION, DISINFECTION & STORAGE: FILTRATION: The water passes through filters, some made of layers of sand, and charcoal that help remove smaller particles. DISINFECTION: A small amount of chlorine is added or some other disinfection method is used to kill microorganisms that may be in the water. STORAGE: Water is placed in a closed tank or reservoir for disinfection to take pace. The water then flows through pipes to home and business in the community WATER FROM SEDIMENTATION
  • 17.
  • 18. Water Disinfection Purpose of disinfection: To make Drinking water free of any disease causing bacteria and microbes. Methods of disinfection: There are 3 mainly used disinfection methods at large scale. CHLORINATION OZONATION ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
  • 19. CHLORINATION Chlorine is the most common cost-effective means of disinfecting water in the U.S. The addition of a small amount of chlorine is highly effective against most bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. But cysts (durable seed-like stages) formed by parasitic protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia can survive chlorine. Chlorine is applied to water in one of three forms: elemental chlorine (chlorine gas), hypochlorite solution (bleach), or dry calcium hypochlorite. All three forms produce free chlorine in water
  • 20.
  • 21. OZONATION OZONE is Strongest oxidant/disinfectant available. More effective against microbes than chlorination. But, costly and difficult to monitor and control under different condition. Ozonation process: Ozone (o3) is generated on-site at water treatment facilities by passing dry oxygen or air through a system of high voltage electrodes.
  • 22.
  • 23. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION When UV radiation penetrates the cell wall of an organism, it damages genetic material, and prevents the cell from reproducing. Now a days emerging technology made UV radiation to find a place in both household and large scale drinking water disinfection. How is UV light generated? Ultraviolet light is most typically generated from a low pressure or a medium pressure lamp generating UV light.