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WATER
PURIFICATION(SMALL
SCALE&LARGSCALE)
By:-
DeveshwarP.D.
SMALLSCALE
Safeandwholesomewaterisabasichealthneed.Much
oftheillhealthinIndiaidotherdevelopingcountriesis
largelyduetolackofsafedrinkingwater.Purificationof
lateristhegreatestimportanceincommunityhealth.
Purificationofwateronsmallscaleincludes:
(A)Householdmethodsofpurification
(B)Disinfectionofwells.
(A)HouseholdMethodsofPurification
1.Boiling,2.Chemicals,3.Domestic filteration,4.
Sedimentation.
1.Boiling:
I.Boilingfor5-10minuteskillsbacteria,spores,cystsand
ovaofintestinalparasites.
II.Boilingalsoremovestemporaryhardnessbydrivingoff
carbondioxideandprecipitatingthecalcium carbonate.
fiewaterisrenderedsoft.
III.Boilingisanexcellentmethodofpurifyingwater,it
offers no "residualproteclion"as chlorine.Forthis
purpose,boiled watershould be stored in a clean
container,otherwise water may get contaminated
becauseofbadstorageanddefeattheverypurpose
andboiling.
IV. Itis a good practice to boilwaterin the same
containerinwhichitistobestored.
V.Boiling isa satisfactorymethod ofpurifying waterfor
householdpurposes.
2.Chemicals:
(i)Bleachingpowder:
Goodqualityofbleachingpowdershouldbeused
fordisinfectingwater.
Thedosageofbleachingpowderis6.9gmper1000
litreofwater.
ThisamountgivesaconcentrationofImg/litre,
whichattheearth/andhasmillionsofminute
invisiblespores.
Thesesporesholdbacktheimpuritiesincluding
bacteria.
The filter candle is likely to getdogged by
impurities.
Therefore,itmustbecleanedfrom timetotimeat
leastonceaweek,byscrubbingwithahardbrush
undernursingwater.
Actionoffilter:Theactionoffilterispurelymechanical.
Contraindication:
(a)Turbidwatershouldnotbeusedforfiltrationbythis
method.
(b)Harmfulvirusescannotberemovedbythismethod
endofhalfhourofcontactmayreducetomg/litre.
II.Alum:Itisnotagermicidebutremovesturbidityofwater.
III.Chlorinesolutionsandchlorinetablets:"Illeseare
used forchlorinating waterin smallquantities.These are
availablefrom thechemistshopandareexpensive,butarevery
convenienttousee.g.,halazonetablets.
IV.Otherdisinfectants:
a.Iodine:Itisusedonlyinemergencysituations.
Twodropsof2% ethanolsolutionoriodineis
usedforonelitreofwater.Itisexpensiveand
takes20-30minutestodisinfectants.
b.Potassium permanganate :Itis notused
anymorebecauseitisnotveryeffective.Itcan
destroy only cholera vibrio and no other
organisms.Italsochangesthecolour,smell
andtasteofwater.
3.Domesticfilteration:
i. Filterationatthehouseholdlevelisverypopularthese
days.Itisknownasbarkefeldfilter.
ii. Thewaterisstoredinthefilterwhichhasoneto
threefiltercandles.
iii. Thefiltercandleismadeofporcelainorkieselgurh
akindofclay,whichhastinypores.
iv. Thewaterfiltersthroughthesecandles.Anykindof
impuritiesincludingbacteriaIndeggsofparasites
getremovedbythesecandlesandclearwatergets
collectedinthechamberunderneath.
v. Thecandlefiltergetblockedafterrepeatedusage
andalgaemayalsogrow,thereforethesemustbe
gentlyscrubbedwithsoftbrushandsoapand
vi. washed thoroughly under running water daily.
Theseshouldbeboiledanddriedonceinamonth.
4.Sedimentation:
i. Ifthe wateris turbid having lotofsuspended
impurities,itshouldbe storedinsomevessels.
ii. Thesuspendedimpuritiessettledownwithin24
hours.
iii. Sometimesveryfineparticlesdonotsettledown,in
thatcaseaweaksolutionOfalumisaddedtowater.
iv. The alum collects allimpurities togetherwhich
settledownquickly.
v. Theclearwatercanbetakenintotheothervessel.
Thiswatercanalsobefilteredanddisinfectedto
makeitmoresafe.
(B)DisinfectionofWells:-
Wellsarebestdisinfectedbybleachingpowder.During
epidemicsofcholeraandgastroenteritis,theendarisesfor
massdisinfectionofwells.
Stepsofwelldisinfection:
Step1:Measurementofwells:Thedepthof
wateranddiameterofthewellmeasuredwiththehelpofa
ropeandtape.
Step2:Amountofwater:Thisiscalculatedby
applyingfollowingformula
Step3:Amountofbleachingpowder:
i. Todisinfect1000litresofwater,gm ofbleaching
powderisrequired,
ii. Inthiswaterthechlorineconcentrationismgper
litre.
iii. Thismethodisknownasdirectchlorination.
iv. "Horocke•s apparatus"method also used to
calculatetheamountofbleachingpowder.
Step4:Mixingofbleachingpowder:
i. Takeabucketputthebleachingpowdcrfirstandmixit
withlittlequantityofwater.Nowyouwillgetthinpart.
ii. Thenaddmoreandstirringitcontinuouslytillthebucketis
nearly3/4fullofwater.
iii. Thecontentsarestirredwellandallowedtosedimentfor5
-10minutes.
iv. Duringtheperiodthelimesettlesdown,thesupernatantclear
fluid,whichcontainschlorine,istransferredtoanotherbucket
andthelimeisthrownaway.thelimeshouldn'tbepouredinto
thewell.asitincreasesthehardnessofwellwater.
Step S :Addition ofbleaching powder
solution:nebucketcontainingchlorinesolutionislowered
intothewellandthewellwateragitatedbyloweringand
drawingupthebucketforseveraltimesandatthesametime
goingroundthewell.Duringtheprocessthechlorinesolution
isdevelopintothewellandgetsmixedwiththewellwater.
Step6:Contactpcriod:60minutesshouldbe
allowedafterchlorinationtoensuredestructionofpathogens.
Step7:Orthotoludienetest:
i. Thistestisdonetodetectthepresenceoffree
residualchlorine.
ii. Thistesttobedoneattheendofthehour.
iii. Ifthechlorineconcentrationlessthanmgper
litreadditionalquantitiesofbleaching powder
solutionwillhavetobeadded.
iv. Wellsarebestdisinfectedatnightaftertheday's
drawoff.
v. During epidemics ofcholera,wells mustbe
disinfectedeveryday.
vi. Doublepotmethodisalsousedtodisinfectthe
wellwater.
LARGESCALE:-
Thepurposeofwatertreatmentistoproducesafeand
wholesomewater.Groundwatermayneednotreatmentother
thandisinfection,butsurfacewatertendstobeturbidand
polluted,requiresextensivetreatment.Thecomponentsofa
typicalwaterpurificationsys•compriseoneormoreofthe
followingmeasures:
(l)Storage,
(2)Filtration,
(3)Disinfection.
(1)Storage:Waterisdrawnoutfrom thesourceand
impounded in naturalorartificialreservoirS.As a result
ofstorage,averyconsiderableamountofpurificationtakes
place.Thisisnaturalpurificationwhichcomprisesoffollowing:
a.Physical:About9()% ofsuspendedimpuritiessettle
downin24hoursbygravityThewaterbecomesclearer,
allowspenetrationoflightandreducestheworkoffilter.
b.Chemical:Theaerobicbacteriaoxidizetheorganic
matterpresentin thewaterwith theaid ofdissolved
oxygen.Asaresultfreeammoniacontentisreducedanda
riseinnitratesoccur.
c.Biological:Atremendousdroptakesplaceinbacterial
countduringstorageto infirst5-7days.Theoptimum
periodofstorageisaboutIO-14days.
Ifwaterisstoredforlongperiods,thereislikeyhoodof
developmentofvegetablegrowths(e.galgae)whichimpartbad
smellandcolourtowater.
(2)Filtration:Filtrationissecondstageinpurification
ofwater.98-99% bacteriaremovedbyfiltration.typesof
filtersareinuse:
(a)Biologicalorslowsandfilters
(b)Rapidsandormechanicalfilters.
a.Biologicalorslow sandfilters:Slow sand
filters were firstused in 1804 in Scotland and
subsequently in London. Even today they are
generallyacceptedasthestandardmethodofwater
purification.
Elementsofaslowsandfilter:
(i)Supernatant(raw)water
(ii)Sandbed
(iii)Underdrainagesystem(iv)Filtercontrol.
i. Supernatantwater:fiedepthofsupernatantwatervaries
from l-I•5m.Itservestwoimportantpurpose;itprovides
constantheadofwaterandpromotethedownwardflow
ofwaterandsecondlyprovideswaitingperiodof3-12hours.
Waterundergopurificationbysedimentation,oxidationand
partialagglomeration
ii. Sandbed:ThethicknessofsandbedisIm.Thesand
grainsareroundedandhaveeffectivediameterbetween
0-2-3mm.Sandshouldbecleanandfreefrom clayand
organicmatter.Thesandbedissupportedbylayerof
gradedgravel30-40cm deep.Waterpercolatesthrough
sand bed very slowly and undergo a number of
purificationprocessmechanicalstraining,sedimentation,
adsorption,oxidationandbacterialaction.
iii. Underdrainagesystem :Atthebottom ofthefilter
bedisunderdrainagesystem•Itconsistsofporousor
perforatedpipeswhichprovidesanoutletforfiltered
waterandSupportforfiltermediumabove.
iv. Filtercontrol:Thefilterisequippedwithcertain
valvesanddeviceswhichareincorporatedinoutletpipe
system."Venturimeter"measuresthebedresistanceor
"lossOfhead.
(b)Rapidsandormechanicalfilters:
In1985.thefirstrapidsandfilterswereinstalledinUSA.
Rapidsandfiltersareoftwotypes:
(i)TheGravitytype(e.g..Paterson'sfilter)
(ii)ThePressuretype(e.g..Candy'sfilter)
The following steps are involved in the
purificationofwaterbyrapidsandfilters:
i. Coagulation:nieraw waterisfirsttreatedwitha
chemicalcoagulantsuchasalum.fortheremovalof
tutbidityandcolour.usualdoseofalum variesfrom 5-
40mg/line.depcndingupontutbidity,colourofwater.
temperatureandpilofwater.
ii. Rapidmixing:fietreatedwateristhensubjectedto
violentagitationina"mix•ing chamber"forafew
minutes.'Illisallowpropermixingofalumintothewater
thoroughly.whichisnecessary.
iii. Flocculation:-Inthisthirdstagethewateristhen
passedintothe"flocculationchamber".Ifinvolvedslow
andgentlestirringoftreatedwaterinchamberwhich
results in the formation ofa thick,copious.white
flocculentprecipitationofaluminiumhydroxide.
iv. Sedimentation:fiecoagulatedwaterisnowled
intosedimentationtank,whereitiskeptforperiods
varyingfrom 2-6hours.fieprecipitatedmaterialand
bacteriaaresettlcdowninthebottom ofthetank.At
least95%offlocculentprecipitateneedstoberemoved.
beforewaterisadmittedintonextphase.
v. Filtration:Theclassifiedwaterissubjectedtorapid
sandfiltration,whichpurifieswatertoanextentofover
99%.
vi. Filterbeds:Eachunitoffilterbedhassurface
ofabout80-9()m2.Sandisthefilteringmedium.The
effectivesizeofthesandparticlesisbetweenmm,
depthofsandbedisusuallyaboutImeter.Theentire
processofwashingtakesabout15minutesandthe
filtersarereadyforuseagain.
Advantages:
I.Rapid sand filtercan dealwith raw waterdirectly.No
preliminarystorageisneeded.
II.Thefilterbedsoccupylessspace.
III.Filtrationisrapid40-50timesthatofslowsandfilter.
IV.Washingoffilteriseasy.
V.Moreflexibleinoperation.
(3)Disinfection:Disinfectionsatisfythefollowingcriteria
:
(i)Destroyallpathogenicorganism
(ii)Shouldn'tleaveproductsofreaction
(iii)Convenient,safeandaccurateapplicationtowater
(iv)Insmallconcentrationpermitsefficiency.
(a)Chlorination:Chlorineisoneofthemostwidely
useddisinfectantorkillingpathogenicbacteriaandrenders
watersafe.Itmaybeusedintheform ofgas,stablehydro
chloridesolutionorbleachingpowderorchlorinetablet.
(b)Supcrchlorination:Superchlorinationfollowedby
dechlorinationcompriseslargedosesofchlorinetowaterand
removalofexcessofchlorineafterdisinfection,thismethod
isapplicableforheavilypollutedwater.
(c)Orthotoludienetest:Thetestiscarriedoutby
addingmloforthotoludienetoImlOfwater.Theyellow
colourproducedismatchedagainstsuitablestandardsor
cojourdisc.Itisessentialtotakewithin10secondsafter
additionofreagenttoestimatefreechlorineinwater.
(d)Otheragents:Ozonization,ultravioletirradiation.

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